and content of the chapter ii some pointers to how the chapter could be taught and iii sources for additional details relating to different topics. There are several internal exercises in Let s work this out, given after each section in the chapters. This contains a few questions to review the section and open-ended questions and activities that can be taken up within and outside the classroom. Some of the internal exercises should be done in the discussion mode. Students can discuss these in groups and present their conclusions and the answers may be put up for debate with the entire class. This will require more time but it is essential as this allows students to explore and learn from each other. The intention is to allow for more interaction than is usually observed but there is no fixed formula for doing this. Each teacher would find his or her own ways and we would like to express our faith in their abilities to do so. We have used many reference materials while preparing this book. Besides these, many news clippings, reports from government and non-government organisations were also used. Some of them are mentioned in the Note for the teacher and some in Suggested Readings given at the end of this book. It is important that additional information and readings be brought into classroom discussion. This could be in the form of short surveys, interviews with people around, reference books, or newspaper clippings etc. These should then be used for reflection and creative expression by students themselves in the form of making charts, wallpaper displays, skits, debates etc.
THIS IS GOOD DEVELOPMENT
income groups, men and women and so on or are being confined to only some privileged sections. Our final chapter presents a relevant study of how, and to what extent, we can protect the rights of citizens as consumers. During the process of rapid development and emergence of new brands and advertisement campaigns by unscrupulous producers, consumers are often at the receiving end of business malpractices. After tracing the historical root of the consumer movement and through various real-life instances, this chapter tells of different inexpensive consumer protection mechanisms evolved over the years. It also offers details of how people can now assert some of their rights at very little expense at the special consumer courts that operate outside the existing cumbersome, expensive and time-consuming legal procedures.
While addressing the need for reforms in education, the National Curriculum Framework 2005 and the Position Paper of the National Focus Group on vii
Examination Reforms call for a change in the way questions are asked in examinations. The questions asked in this book make a departure from an evaluation pattern that encourages rote-memorisation to one that inculcates