PREFACE Human beings are the most intelligent creature among all living beings who has succeded to fight against natural calamities and various diseases. This results in the enormous growth and increase in the human population over the last hundred years. It ultimately results in the increas in demand for food, shelter, cloths, water, electricity, road, industries, automobiles and many other commodities.These demands exerting tremendus pressure on our natural resources and also contributing to pollution of air, water, soil etc. The expansion of industries, urbanization, use of pesticides, use of vehicles and nuclear energy has badly affected our environment by releasing different type of harmful chemical including radioactive wastes. If rapid action is not taken now by the countries of the world, these problems will become progressively more serious, more difficult to reverse, and more costly to address. Keeping this view in mind the AICT has included Environment and Ecology in the curriculum. Therefore it would become very necessary to introduced new book in the field, which would be strictly in accordance with the curriculum framework. The present book entitled Environment and Ecology meant for the B.E.students of all the Technical Universities of India. The subject matter of this book have been written in strictly accordance with the latest syllabi. This book has its own identity because of the following features The subject matter has been written in a simple and luc language, so that students can easily understand it. Suitable diagrams, table and line diagrams, are also given along with the subject matter. Each chapter is provided with extensive exercise. I sincerely hope that the book will help the students to understand the subject matter in better way and it will prepare them for the exams they appear. In conclusion, I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to Dr. K.L.Tiwari Ex.Head, SOS in Biotechnology, Pt. R.S.U., Raipur , Dr. S.K. Jadhav SOS in Biotechnology, Pt. R.S.U., Raipur , Dr. Smt. P. Tiwari, Dr. Smt. R Pimpalgaonkar, Dr. Smt. R. Diwan, Dr. Smt. V. Kohli, Prof. A.K. Sharma, Dr. V.K. Kanungo, Prof. Smt. Sangeeta Bajpai and Dr. Smt. S. Patra Dept. of Botany, Biotechnology and Microbiology, Govt. Nagarjun P. G. College of Science, Raipur C.G. for his continuous encouuragement in this direction. The suggestions and healthy criticisms that could be helpful in mending and refining this book are heartedly welcomed.
Dr. N.B. Singh
SYLLABUS SYLLABUS M.M. 80
Total Periods 40 Total Tutorial Periods 10
UNIT-I Environmental segments, environmental degradation, environmental impact assessment. Concept of ecosystem Fundamentals of ecology and ecosystem, components of ecosystem, food chain, food web, trophic levels, energy flow, cycling of nutrients, major ecosystem types grassland, forest and aquatic ecosystem . UNIT-II Air Pollution - Atmospheric composition, energy balance classification of air pollutants, source and effect of pollutants Primary CO, SOx,NOx, particulates, hydrocarbons Secondary photo chemical smog, acid rain, ozone, PANPeroxyacetyl nitrate green house effect ozone depletion atmospheric stability and temperature inversion Techniques used to control gaseous and particulate pollution ambient air quality standards.