Enzyme Technology

Enzyme Technology
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Enzyme Technology

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Publisher: Asia Tech Publications
ISBN: 9788177543889
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Preface
E nzy m es are now a material well established in the field o f biotechnology. This book covers different aspects related w ith the en z y m e s such as the pro ducin g m ic roorga nism s, their m o d e o f cultivation, dow nstream processing, industrial production, properties and applications, with a special em phasis on industrial enzym es. T he book c o m p rise s 36 cha pte rs w ritten by internationally reputed au th ors in the field, w hich are classified and presen ted in four parts. Part I deals with general and fundam ental aspects o f enz ym e technology and has nine chapters in it. C h a p te r one gives an overview o f subject matter, beginning with the historical d evelo pm ents on the applications o f enz ym e s since ancient tim es even before w hen their functions and properties w ere understood. T he chapter provides brief details on the d em an d and business o f enzym es, giving the n am es o f the com panies involved in the business, classification and nom enclature system o f en zym es, and enz y m e action, safety and therapy. C hapter tw o describes in details the general properties o f en z y m e s such as chem ical nature, structure, cofactors, enz ym e specificity, m easurem ent and expression o f e n z y m e activity, stability and denaturation and factors affecting e n z y m e activity such as reaction time, a m ount o f en z ym e , substrate concentration, temperature, pH, ionic strength, pressure, inducers and inhibitors. T hird chapter in this part is on enz ym e kinetics and m odeling o f enzym atic systems. It provides theories o f enzym e kinetics- free and immobilized. It describes alternative formulations o f e n z y m e kinetics such as fractal and virial approaches, reversible e n z y m e inhibitors and substrate inhibition, and also deals with the m athem atical m odels in enz ym e kinetics, citing exa m ple s o f m odeling o f enz ym e reactions such as dipeptide synthesis, com putation analysis o f substrate binding, diagnostic tests, etc. T he next chapter, i.e. fourth one is also on fundamental aspects dealing with the th e rm o dynam ic s o f enzym e catalyzed reactions. It first provides inform ation on general principles such as therm od ynam ics o f reactions involving specific chem ical species and sum o f chem ical species- biochem ical reactions. T h en it gives details on w hat inform ation that th e rm o dynam ic s provides could be useful for industrial applications. T he cha pte r also discusses e xpe rim ental m ethods, physiological tables and cycles and estim ation m e thods and qu an tu m chem ical calculations. C hapters fifth and sixth o f the book are on biocatalysis form er one is on regeneration o f cofactors for enz y m e biocatalysis in w hich authors have discussed the im portance and regeneration o f various cofactors such as N A D , N A D H . N A D P . N A D P H , ATP. sugar nucleotides. C oA . PAPS, etc for effective biocatalysis. T he sixth chapter deals on biocatalysis in organic media. A lthough en z y m e s w hen added in organic solvents may lose their intrinsic activity because o f denaturation, dehydration, inhibition, or chem ical modification, they have been successfully used in biphasic m edia containing water and organic solvents. It discusses several related issues with the subject m atter and also the potential application o f using en z ym e s in organic solvents such as for kinetic resolution o f en a ntiom ers. asy m m e tric synthesis, peptide synthesis, g ly coside synthesis and esterification, etc. C ha pte r seventh o f the book describes the application o f kn o w led g e generated as described in the chapters as above for the biotransform ation biocatalysis using cniil ' Kyru
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Preface
w hole cells. It discusses inform ation about existing biocatalysts, their genetic modification and screening for novel biocatalysts. It also provides inform ation on general procedures for isolation and selection o f microorganisms, biocatalysts.treatment and operation, and biotransformation such as asym m etric synthesis and steroids and terpenes biotransformation. T he chapter finally discusses specific case studies dealing with biotransfo rm ation for flav our co m p o u n d s such as methyl ketones, alkylpyrazines, etc. C h a p te r eighth o f the book is again on application describing en z y m e s as tools for the stereospecific carboncarbon bonds formation in m onosaccharid es and analog synthesis. It deals with D H A P and pyruvate aldolases, thiam ine pyrophosphate dependent enzym es, transketolase, etc. In this chapter a glim pse has also been put on exploring the biodiversity to find new catalysts. T he ninth and last ch a p te r o f this part describes e nzym es engineered for new reactions, aim ing at novel catalysis for organic synthesis. E nzym ec a ta ly z e d sy n th e sis in a n o n - a q u e o u s r ea ctio n m e d iu m is a s ta n d a r d sy n th e tic tool in ch e m is try .