Farm Sectors Development : Emerging Issues
About this eBook
The vision statement, according to the Planning Commission of India is that statement which we do believe is possible for our nation to attain by mobilizing and using all available resources human, organizational, technological and financial. India is actually having the challenges like a a targeted approach to bring millions of families above the poverty line b generation of nearly ten millions of new employment opportunities per annum, especially for those in the lower income groups c eradication of illiteracy d a concerted effort to raise primary and secondary enrolment rates and minimize drop-outs e improve public health to reduce infant mortality and children malnutrition f massive investment in power generation, telecommunication and other physical and social infrastructures g accelerate acquisition of technology capability to raise productivity in agriculture, industry and services and h becoming a more important player in the world economy in terms of both trade and investments. Different sectors to be addressed in the India Vision 2020 are a food security, b employment, c literacy and education, d health, e transport and communication, and f water resources. Socio-economic development and agricultural development are almost synonymous in nature. Our present demands are food security, nutrition security, poverty alleviation and access to food. Agriculture has never been on political agenda except in Punjab, Haryana, Western UP, Gujarat and Maharashtra. Lastly, the question of social justice and equity due to growth in farm sector demands objective appraisal. This is really the cardinal issue, demanding immediate attention. The farm sector in developing countries in general and India in particular has undergone remarkable changes with concurrent several structural and other adjustments in recent decade s . As a result of such phenomena several pressing Issues Concerns have concomitantly emerged out. Serious appraisal of all such emerging Areas Concerns needs to be undertaken by the academicians, policymakers, planners and activists. This type of introspection and retrospection have become immensely essential for keeping pace with enlarged demands from land based enterprises such as crop production, horticultural development, livestock development, pisciculture, sericulture etc, etc. In this context this book on FARM SECTOR DEVELOPMENT EMERGING ISSUES concentrates. This volume contains the issues like climate and global warming, integrated farming systems, concepts and pragmatism in organic farming, IPNM, water management, biodiversity phenomena, multi-tier cropping system, agro-processing and preservation, commercial floriculture, ICT, management factors, assessment, documentation and validation of IKS, socialization of agro-technology, extension strategy for IPM practices, market led extension system, privatization in extension service, contract farming and societal perspectives in farm sector development. Agro-meteorology is the science which deals with meteorological intervention in agriculture. Application of all factors of weather in macro and micro forms is the subject of agro-meteorology. Crop weather relationship and weather modification is based on the weather forecast. In short characterization of physical environment and its control for development of crop and dependent
biological activities is the scope of agro-meteorology. Knowledge of phenology as the study of organisms as affected by climate is of great importance for optimal crop yield in an environment, performance of any newly introduced crop variety and also for specifying the most appropriate rate and time of specific developmental processes to maximize yield. All such aspects have been dealt at considerable depth by Professor Sarat Chandra Panda in chapter on Agro-meteorology for Potential Crop Productivity . In chapter on Integrated Farming Systems in Indian Agriculture Dr. R.M. Solanki and Professor V.D. Khanpara have emphasized that Integrated Farming System IFS truly represent the integration of several farm land-based enterprises for optimal utilization of farm resources bringing prosperity to the farming community. This IFS, as a concept, takes into account the components of climate, soil, water, crops, farm wastes, livestock, land, labour, capital, energy and other resources with the farm family at the centre managing agriculture and related activities. Different IFS models for rainfed, irrigated, dryland, hill regions, aquaculture and island ecosystems have also been narrated.