GATE Study Material Surveying (Civil Engineering)

GATE Study Material Surveying (Civil Engineering) GATE Study Material Surveying (Civil Engineering) Sample PDF Download
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Publisher: Faculty Notes
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Number of Pages: 520
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Contents 1 Basic concepts of surveying 1 Definition Basic measurements Control networks Locating position Locating topographic detail Computer systems DGM CAD GIS Vector raster Topology Laser scanner Summary Units of measurement Significant figures Rounding off numbers Errors in measurement Indices of precision Weight Rejection of outliers Combination of errors 2 Vertical control 43 Introduction Levelling Definitions Curvature and refraction Equipment Instrument adjustment Principle of levelling Sources of error Closure tolerances Error distribution Levelling applications Reciprocal levelling Precise levelling Digital levelling Trigonometrical levelling Stadia tacheometry 3 Distance 117 Tapes Field work Distance adjustment Errors in taping Accuracies Electromagnetic distance measurement EDM Measuring principles Meteorological corrections Geometrical reductions Errors and calibration Other error sources Instrument specifications Developments in EDM Optical distance measurement ODM 4 Angles 178 The theodolite Instrumental errors Instrument adjustment Field procedure Measuring angles Sources of error 5 Position 208 Introduction Reference ellipsoid Coordinate systems Local systems Computation on the ellipsoid Datum transformations Orthomorphic projection Ordnance Survey National Grid Practical applications The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection UTM Plane rectangular coordinates 6 Control surveys 252 Traversing Triangulation Trilateration Triangulateration Inertial surveying 7 Satellite positioning 307 Introduction GPS segments GPS receivers Satellite orbits Basic principle of position fixing Differencing data GPS field procedures Error sources GPS survey planning Transformation between reference systems Datums Other satellite systems Applications
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Contents
8 Curves 347 Circular curves Setting out curves Compound and reverse curves Short and or smallradius curves Transition curves Setting-out data Cubic spiral and cubic parabola Curve transitional throughout The osculating circle Vertical curves 9 Earthworks 420 Areas Partition of land Cross-sections Dip and strike Volumes Mass-haul diagrams 10 Setting out dimensional control 464 Protection and referencing Basic setting-out procedures using coordinates Technique for setting out a direction Use of grids Setting out buildings Controlling verticality Controlling grading excavation Rotating lasers Laser hazards Route location Underground surveying Gyro-theodolite Line and level Responsibility on site Responsibility of the setting-out engineer Index