Human vulnerability can stem from both natural and human-induced environmental threats. The latter, manifested through pollution of water resources, unsustainable agricultural policies and practices, industrial pollution, land-use change and degradation, and the former, manifested through floods, droughts, and cyclones, bring to the fore issues related to human vulnerability and coping capacities. Insights from engaging with these issues can be used as lessons for strengthening adaptation responses to climate change. This book is a compilation of working papers focusing on vulnerability and adaptation responses, authored by researchers of The Energy and Resources Institute. It presents an overview of the key environmental challenges that face the developing countries, discusses it through case studies from India, and outlines existing adaptation approaches.