The imperative for responsible innovation in the nanotechnology domain has inspired and provoked assorted views on its trajectory, potential implications as well as appropriate pathways for its development across a spectrum of stakeholders. These debates assume greater significance in the context of developing nations since harnessing the inherent potential of this transformational technology presumes the establishment of simultaneous capabilities to cutting-edge technological innovation as well as risk governance, regulation and public engagement in an environment challenged by limited resources, weak innovation systems and inadequate abilities for risk management. This book seeks to examine developments, opportunities, concerns and challenges in nanotechnology from a developing country perspective raising complex questions and issues in the course of the responsible development of nanotechnology. It covers a range of issues such as potential R & D prospects, S&T capacities and innovation systems, issues of environment, health and safety, risk and regulatory preparedness, and prospective socio-economic and ethical repercussions, with a focus on Indian developments. Based on half a decade of interdisciplinary research and informed by multi-stakeholder insights on the aforementioned aspects, it proposes options for effective and inclusive governance for nanotechnology in India.