Particle paths and flow patterns. Progressive strain history. Introduction to deformation mechanisms. Role of fluids in deformation processes. Geometry and analyses of brittle-ductile and ductile shear zones. Sheath folds. Geometry and mechanics of development of folds, boudins, foliations and lineations. Interference patterns of superposed fold. Fault-related folding. Gravity induced structures. Tectonic features of extensional-, compressional-, and strike-slip-terrains and relevance to plate boundaries. mantle plumes. Himalayan Orogeny concept of super continent, their assembly and breakup.
3 PALEONTOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Theories on origin of life. Organic evolution Punctuated Equilibrium and Phyletic Gradualism models. Mass extinctions and their causes. Application of fossils in age determination and correlation. Paleoecology, Life habitats and various ecosystems, Paleobiogeography. Modes of preservation of fossils and taphonomic considerations. Types of microfossils. Environmental significance of fossils and trace fossils. Use of microfossils in interpretation of sea floor tectonism. Application of micropaleontology in hydrocarbon exploration. Oxygen and Carbon isotope studies of microfossils and their use in paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic interpretation. Important invertebrate fossils, vertebrate fossils, plant fossils and microfossils in Indian stratigraphy. 4 SEDIMENTOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY Classification of sediments and sedimentary rocks elastic, volcanoclastic and chemical. Classification of elastic rocks. Flow regimes and processes of sediment transport. Sedimentary textures and structures. Sedimentary facies and environments, reconstruction of paleoenvironments. Formation and evolution of sedimentary basins. Diagenesis of siliciclastic and carbonate rocks. Recent developments in stratigraphic classification. Code of stratigraphic nomenclature Stratotypes, Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points GSSP . Lithostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic and biostratigraphic subdivisions. Methods of startigraphic correlation including Shaw s Graphic correlation. Concept of sequence stratigraphy. Rates of sediment accumulation, unconformities. Facies concept in Stratigraphy Walther s law. Methods for paleogeographic reconstruction. Earth s Climatic History. Phanerozoic stratigraphy of India with reference to the type areas their correlation with equivalent formations in other regions. Boundary problems in Indian Phanerozoic stratigraphy. 5 MARINE GEOLOGY AND PALEOCEANOGRAPHY Morphologic and tectonic domains of the ocean floor. Structure, composition and mechanism of the formation of oceanic crust. hydrothermal vents-. Ocean margins and their significance. Ocean Circulation, Coriolis effect and Ekman spiral, convergence, divergence and upwelling, El Nino. Indian Ocean Dipole Thermohaline circulation and oceanic conveyor belt. Formation of Bottom waters major water masses of the world s oceans. Oceanic sediments Factors controlling the deposition and distribution of oceanic sediments geochronology of oceanic sediments, diagenetic changes in oxic and anoxic environments. Tectonic evolution of the ocean basins. Mineral resources. Paleoceanography Approaches to paleoceanographic reconstructions various proxy indicators for paleoceanographic interpretation. Reconstruction of monsoon variability by using marine proxy records Opening and closing of ocean gateways and their effect on circulation and climate during the Cenozoic. Sea level processes and Sea level changes. Methods of paleo Sea Surface temperature. Quantifications. 6 GEOCHEMISTRY Atomic Structure and properties of elements, the Periodic Table ionic substitution in minerals Phase rule and its applications in petrology, thermodynamics of reactions involving pure phases, ideal and non-ideal solutions, and fluids equilibrium and distribution coefficients. Nucleation and
diffusion processes in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary environments, redox reactions and EhpH diagrams and their applications. Mineral mineral assemblages as sensors of ambient environments. Geochemical studies of aerosols, surface-, marine-, and ground waters. Radioactive decay schemes and their application to geochronology and petrogenesis. Stable isotopes and their