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Business Statistics & Elementary Mathematics

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Publisher Sbpd Publications
ISBN 9789381865637
Author: Dr. B. N. Gupta
Available Available in all digital devices
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world. A few years later in 1787, E. A. W. Zimmermann in the preface to his book A Political Survey of the Present State of Europe wrote this science, distinguished by the new coined name of Statistics, has become a favourite study in Germany. Sir John Sinclair wrote to the clergy of the Church of Scotland in May 1790, saying that Statistical inquiries have been carried to a very great extent. He explained that these statistical inquiries were inquiries respecting the population, the political circumstances, the productions of a country and other matters of state. Statistics has a long and venerable history. In all the countries of ancient culture, where history has been written, proofs are available that they had a system of collection of statistics. In olden Egypt, police kept records of heads of all the families. In old JIDDA, a census was taken in 2030 B.C. and the population was estimated to be 38,00,000. Perhaps the earliest use of statistics was when an ancient chief counted the number of effective warriors that he had or the number he would need to defeat his enemy. Greek historian, Herodotus has described a unique method of counting military power used in 408 B.C. by Xerxes while attacking Greece. He assembled 10,000 soldiers in a close huddle, drew a line and on that line constructed a wall. Henery VIII started in 1532 recording deaths and during plague issued Weekly Bills of Mortality . It contained records of deaths during the week, and was distributed free on every Thursday. For this special work, a printing press was set up in London. Captain John Graunt 1620-74 made first analysis of the records publicly. In 1662, he published Observations on the London Bills of Mortality which was the first work on social statistics. In this book, emphasis was laid on collection and study of statistics. Graunt s works became popular and created interest about statistics in France also. Graunt s French friend, William Petty 1623-87 wrote a book Essays on Political Arithmetic in which discovering truth with the help of statistics was laid strers on. In Germany, systematic collection of statistics by the State started during the end of the 18th century. In England it was started during Napolenic wars because to raise revenue to meet the war expenses it was thought proper to bring precision in the statistics of public revenue and expenditure. In India, too, the collection of statistics is an age-old tradition. In ancient works like Manusmriti, Shukraniti, etc., there is description of methods and organisation for collection of statistics for running the state. During Mughal period, statistics used to be collected and the system of collection was described in Tuzuk-i-Babari and Ain-i-Akbari. During Akbar s time, Raja Todar Mal collected land statistics for determining land-revenue. Such statistics were purely of descriptive nature. The development of modern statistics started after Industrial Revolution. A. J. Wickens, while delivering Presidential address of the American Statistical Association in 1952 said, Statistics of a sort can, of course, be traced back to ancient times, but they have flowered since the industrial revolution. Increasingly in the 20th century, and especially since World War I, statistics have been used to settle problems, and to determine course of action. There were two main reasons which are responsible for the growth and development of statistics. They were i Government of different nations used to collect statistics for evaluating their military strength and taxable capacity of their subjects. This was the reason for describing statistics as the science of kings , or science of statecraft or political arithmetic . 1
When I consider a single state, I discern a vast number of things actually to be found therein. Among them are some which concern obviously its prosperity either in obstructing it or contributing to it. Such things we might call Statesmerkwurdigkeiten the remarkable things of the state . The totality of these statesmerkwurdigkeiten a kingdom or a republic, makes up its constitution in the broadest sense, and the account of such constitutions of one or more states is statistik . G. Achenwall