Basic Concepts The first chapter of the book introduces the student to the basic concepts of chemistry, viz Elements, compounds, mixtures, symbol of elements of the periodic Table, the atoms, molecules, ions, valency of elements, writing of chemical formula and balancing of chemical equations. Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding In chapter-2, various models of atoms are discussed i.e., J.J. Thomson model, Rutherford model, Bohr model, wave mechanics model and quantum number and how to make electronic configuration of atoms is also included in this chapter, description of ionic and covalent bonding is also gives. Chemical Bonding In Chapter-2 are described different types of bonding, viz, ionic, covalent and coordinate. Therein is discussed the orbital concept of covalent bond and highlights the differences between covalent and electrovalent compounds. Introduces the concept of bond length, bond angle, sigma and Pi bonds. bond energy and bond order of compounds. Distinguishes between Rationalizes the shapes of molecules in terms of valence Bond theory as well as by molecular orbital methods. A theoretical explanation has been put forth to understand the properties exhibited by metals. Water The sources of water are highlighted in Chapter-3. The water is contaminated with a wide range of impurities. The so called Hard water constitutes a nuisance when used for domestic purposes as well as in industry. There are methods available for its evaluation as well as for removing hardness temporary and permanent . Parameters have been laid down by the World Health Organisation WHO for water to be used for human consumption. Solutions When a solid Solute is dissolved in a liquid solvent , one gets a solution. The solute and solvent may be either gas, liquid or solid, and different types of solutions are possible Chapter-4 . Introduction is made to the term equivalent weight in relation to an acid base or an oxidizing reducing agents. The determination of the above mentioned substances is effected by volumetric analysis. In this context the term indicater standard solution , normality , molarity , molality , mole fraction and mass fraction are discussed. The concept of pH has been introduced, including its application in Engineering and agriculture. Electrolysis The use of electricity to bring about a chemical change falls within the domain of electrolysis Chapter 5 . Thus, for example, the electrolysis of Aq. NaCl produces H2 g at the cathode
and CI2 g as the anode. The mechanism of the reaction has been described. Faraday s 2 laws of electrolysis have been detailed in the chapter. The industrial applications of electrolysis have been discussed. Additionally, the details about electrochemical or galvanic cell have been highlighted. Pollution In this chapter we described about the various types of pollution i.e., air pollutions, soil pollutions, water pollution, their effects and the preventive meansures also included. Practicals The concluding chapter is devoted to the practical work which the students are required to carry out. The experimental details about the use of burette, pipette for carrying titrations example, acid-base titration, or redox titration and including preparation of standard solution are described in detail. Additionally the students have been given instructions for finding the pH of a solution, including preparation of buffer solutions. A number of illustrative examples, plus the viva voce questions are appended towards the end of the chapter. Ravi Saini
Contents Preface 1.