Test Preparation on IAS Mock Test 9


Harappan crafts display an amazing degree of standardization. According to Kenoyer, what was the possible reason for such an achievement?

The gradual development and spread of important technologies is undoubtedly linked to more fundamental social processes that were going on during the initial phase of urban development (Helms 1993). The ability to create powerful symbols was something that could only be done through special technologies or by using specific raw materials that were not easily accessible to the common people (Kenoyer 2000). Therefore, the crafts that became most important for reinforcing social and ritual status were ones that could be efficiently controlled by new elites and powerful merchants of the Indus cities. While the knowledge of specific craft technologies were probably passed on from one generation to the next through kin networks and various forms of ritual practice (Kenoyer 1989), the access to specific materials could have been carefully regulated by controlling trade. At both Harappa and Nausharo, the building of massive mud brick walls around the settlements would have been the most effective way to control the access to raw materials. The walls and gateways would also have allowed for control of the export trade in finished commodities.
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