Harappan crafts display an amazing degree of
standardization. According to Kenoyer, what was
the possible reason for such an achievement?
The gradual development and spread of important technologies is undoubtedly linked to more
fundamental social processes that were going on during the initial phase of urban development
(Helms 1993). The ability to create powerful symbols was something that could only be done
through special technologies or by using specific raw materials that were not easily accessible to the
common people (Kenoyer 2000). Therefore, the crafts that became most important for reinforcing
social and ritual status were ones that could be efficiently controlled by new elites and powerful
merchants of the Indus cities. While the knowledge of specific craft technologies were probably
passed on from one generation to the next through kin networks and various forms of ritual practice
(Kenoyer 1989), the access to specific materials could have been carefully regulated by controlling
trade. At both Harappa and Nausharo, the building of massive mud brick walls around the
settlements would have been the most effective way to control the access to raw materials. The
walls and gateways would also have allowed for control of the export trade in finished commodities.
Consider the following statements about Ashokan rock edicts
1. Major Rock Edict XIII records Ashoka's remorse at the sufferings caused by his Kalinga campaign
2. Major Rock Edict X records Ashoka's visit to Lumbini
3. Major Rock Edict XII refers to Dhamma Mahamattas as a new category of officers instituted by Ashoka
4. Major Rock Edict XII speaks about showing tolerance towards all sects Which of the statements given above are correct?
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls made by the EmperorAshoka of the Mauryan Empire during his reign from 269 BCE to 232 BCE. These inscriptions were dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Afghanistan and Pakistan and represent the first tangible evidence of Buddhism. The edicts describe in detail the Ashoka's view about dhamma, an earnest attempt to solve some of problems that a complex society faced. According to the edicts, the extent of Buddhist proselytism during this period reached as far as the Mediterranean, and many Buddhist monuments were created. The Edicts are divided into:
Which one among the following sects was
associated with Gosala Maskariputra?
1st Buddhist council (5th century BC)
The first Buddhist council was held soon after the death of the Buddha under
the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by a monk
namedMahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (today's Rajgir). Its objective was to record
the Buddha's sayings (sutra) and codify monastic rules (vinaya).
2nd Buddhist council (383 BC)
The second Buddhist council was convened by king Kalasoka and held at
Vaisali, following conflicts between the conservative and liberal elements of
The conservative schools insisted on strict adherence to monastic rules
(vinaya). The secessionist Mahasangikas argued for more relaxed monastic
rules, which could appeal to a large majority of monastic and lay people
(hence their name "majority" assembly).
The council ended with the rejection of the Mahasanghikas. They left the
council and maintained themselves for several centuries in northwestern India
and Central Asia according to Kharoshti inscriptions found near the Oxus and
dated c. 1st century AD.
In time, up to 18 schools of the traditional Buddhist thought arose, the only
remaining one today being the Eastern Theravada school. Other schools
included the Sarvastivadin and the Dharmaguptaka in Northwestern India.
3rd Buddhist council (c. 250 BC)
The third Buddhist council was convened by the Mauryan king Ashoka (260
Which one among the following sects was
associated with Gosala Maskariputra?
Ajivika (IAST: Ajivika) is one of the nastika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy. Purportedly founded in the
5th century BCE byMakkhali Gosala, it was a srama*a movement and a major rival of early
Buddhism and Jainism. Ajivikas were organised renunciates who formed discrete communities.
Consider the following statements about the early modern technology in India
1. The Portugese brought European movable metal types to Goa in 1550
2. The first Indian script of which types were prepared was Tamil
3. The English Company's first experiment with printing press was at Calcutta
4. The English Company imported printing press to India in 1674-75 at the request of Bhimji Parak Which of the statements given above are correct?
Printing Press European movable metal types were brought to Goa around AD 1550 by the Portuguese. The latter started printing books on Christian saints, Sermons, grammars and vocabularies in the Marathi and Konkani languages and dialects, but in Roman script rather than in the Devanagari script. Another Spaniard to play a major role in the history of printing in India was Joao Gonsalves, who is credited with preparing the first printing types of an Indian script- Tamil. However, since they were not satisfactory, new casts were made in Quilon(Kollam) by Father Joao da Faria. On 20 October 1578, these types were used to print the first book in an Indian language in India (the first Tamil book was printed in Lisbon in 1554 in Romanized Tamil script.)- Henrique Henriques
Which of the following statement(s) is/are true for Olympe de Gouges?
1. She was one of the most important politically active woman in revolutionary France
2. She was one of the members of the Committee that drafted the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
3. She wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Citizen Select the correct answer using the code given below
Arrange the following inventions in the field of cotton industry in chronological order (starting with the earliest)
1. James Hargreave's Spinning Jenny
2. John Kay's Flying Shuttle
3. Samuel Crompton's Mule
4. Richard Arkwright's Water Frame Select the correct answer using the code given below
The spinning jenny is a multi-spindle spinning frame, and was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution. It was invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, Oswaldtwistle. John Kay, (born July 16, 1704, near Bury, Lancashire, England
While opposing the Public Safety Bill, 1928 who
among the following said that it was 'a direct
attack on Indian nationalism, on the Indian
National Congress' and as 'the Slavery of India, Bill
Once again the Swarajists passed a series of adjournment motions and defeated the Government on a number of bills.
Noteworthy was the defeat of the Government on the Public Safety Bill in 1928. Frightened by the spread of socialist and
communist ideas and influence and believing that the crucial role in this respect was being played by British and other foreign
agitators sent to India by the Communist International, the Government proposed to acquire the power to deport
Soon after the formation of Indian National
Congress, the British became suspicious of
nationalists. Who among the following called
Congress representing only the elite- 'a
What is common element among Ram Prasad
Bismil, Roshan Singh and Rajendra Lahiri?
The Kakori Revolution (also called, the Kakori Conspiracy or Kakori train robbery or Kakori Case) was a train
robbery that took place between Kakori and Alamnagar, near Lucknow, on 9 August 1925 during the Indian
Independence Movement against the British Indian Government. The robbery was organised by the Hindustan
The robbery was conceived by Ram Prasad Bismil and Ashfaqullah Khan who belonged to the Hindustan Republican
Association (HRA), which later became the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. This organisation was
established to carry out revolutionary activities against the British Empire in India with the objective of achieving
independence. Since the organisation needed money for purchase of weaponry, Bismil and his party decided to
plunder a train on one of the Northern Railway lines. The robbery plan was executed by Ram Prasad Bismil,
Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri, Chandrashekhar Azad, Sachindra Bakshi, Keshab Chakravarty, Manmathnath
Gupta, Murari Lal Khanna (fake name of Murari Lal Gupta),Mukundi Lal (Mukundi Lal Gupta) and Banwari Lal. One
passenger was killed by an accidental shot.
Following the arrest of Ashfaqullah Khan, the police tried to make him provide evidence against his accomplices, but
he refused. Another supplementary case was filed against Ashfaqulla Khan and Sachindra Bakshi in the court of
Special Sessions Judge J.R.W. Bennett. An appeal was filed in the then Chief Court of Oudh (now in U.P.) on 18 July
Despite protests by the defence committee, which was chaired by Gobind Ballabh Pant, four of the accused, namely
Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, Rajendra Nath Lahiri andRoshan Singh, were sentenced to death by the
Court of Justice. 16 others were either given life sentences or long prison terms varying from 3 years to 14 years.
Banwari Lal, who became approver, was also sentenced for 2 years.
As per court documents, the final punishments given by the trial court were as follows -