The tangent length of a simple curve of radius R and deflection angle D is

The length of long chord of a circular curve of radius R and deflection angle D is

Mid-ordinate of a simple curve of radius R and deflection angle D is

If point of curve is 521.4 m in setting circular curve with 20 m chain, the first point where peg is to be fixed on the curve is

In linear method of setting out simple circular curves the method to be used is

The radial offset at a distance x from the point of curve in a simple circular curve is

The perpendicular offset at a distance x from the point of curve in a simple curve is

If obstacles are coming in the alignment of a simple circular curve use

As far as possible reverse curves should be avoided. Reason for it is-

In a reverse curve, the super elevation provided at the point of reverse curvature is