Structural Measures For Watershed Management
About this eBook
Preface Agriculture in India employs nearly 62 of the country s total population and occupies 42 of its total geographical area. Despite being self-sufficient in its crop production and having substantial reserve as well, the country is presently hard pressed for several reasons, such as erratic behavior of climate, cost escalation of inputs, degradation and depletion of natural resources, inadequacy in availability of quality seeds and planting materials. As a result, there is a rapid migration of rural population in search of better employment and livelihood options. Land degradation due to depletion of soil fertility, erosion, and water logging has increased and, consequently, agricultural production is adversely affected. Watershed management can cope up such adversities to a great extent. Instructional material provided in this book is related to natural resource management, soil classification, soil and water conservation techniques for sustainable agriculture and food production. It will be useful for all stakeholders in agriculture, such as students, research workers and non-government organizations, including farming community as a whole. The watershed management concept will be useful to mitigate environmental climate changes. Simple technological construction methods and outline of water and land conservation structures have been presented in this book. Chapter 1 introduces the subject and describes the importance of watershed management and the requirement of structural measures. Chapter 2 describes in brief the land capacity classification. Then Chapter 3 describes the methods of delineation of contour maps. A-Frame preparation for demarcation of contour lines has been discussed in Chapter 4. Methods of marking contour lines have been given in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 provides the design layout of contour trenches construction works and Chapter 7 suggests remedial measures for land water conservation in cultivative lands. Chapters 8 and 9 describe the watershed management techniques and gabion structures, respectively.
Foreword India is privileged to have diverse agro-climatic conditions, soil type socioeconomic status, the mitigation of climate change on stochastic basis is essential. Increasing demographic pressures on the limited and shrinkage per capita land resources force people to adopt inappropriate and unscientific land use and management practices for short-term gains with utter disregard to longterm sustainability and environmental security. The watershed approach of management to resolve various problems in agricultural production is most appropriate and scientific method. The problem of improving land utility and water yield is now a prime requirement for combating with changing climatic conditions. Wasteland particularly like ravine are most fragile agro ecological area and proper management may lead to mitigate Green House Gas GHG effect and saving of approximate 120.72 million ha degraded area affected by different form of degradation in India. Authors have incorporated various components of structural measures for watershed management. The book Structural Measures for Watershed Management by Y.M.Kool, P.K.Agarwal and S.K.Mishra, effectively covers efficient soil water management techniques, value addition, land use classification for improving land utility and water yields. This book will be a guide to the field workers, researchers and students in the water resources technology. I wish to congratulate authors for providing good text in the field of watershed management.