Advanced Computer Architectures Notes eBook

Advanced Computer Architectures Notes eBook Advanced Computer Architectures Notes eBook Sample PDF Download
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content of Register Condition code bits JAL CALLF in a R Stack in M
Fixed Length ISA MIPS 32 Bit long Simplifies decoding
Variable Length ISA 80x86 1-18 bytes Takes less space
Number of Registers and number of Addressing modes have significant impact on the length of instruction as the register field and addressing mode field can appear many times in a single instruction. Trends in Technology The designer must be aware of the following rapid changes in implementation technology. Integrated Circuit IC Logic technology Memory technology semiconductor DRAM technology Storage or magnetic disk technology Network technology IC Logic technology Transistor density increases by about 35 per year. Increase in die size corresponds to about 10 to 20 per year. The combined effect is a growth rate in transistor count on a chip of about 40 to 55 per year. Semiconductor DRAM technology capacity increases by about 40 per year. Storage Technology Before 1990 the storage density increased by about 30 per year. After 1990 the storage density increased by about 60 per year. Disks are still 50 to 100 times cheaper per bit than DRAM. Network Technology Network performance depends both on the performance of the switches and on the performance of the transmission system. Although the technology improves continuously, the impact of these improvements can be in discrete leaps. Performance trends Bandwidth or throughput is the total amount of work done in given time. Latency or response time is the time between the start and the completion of an event. for eg. Millisecond for disk access
10000 Processor
CPU high, Memory low Memory Wall