Constitutional Development And National Movement Of India
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PREFACE TO THE THIRTEENTH REVISED EDITION The present edition of the book has been extensively revised with the addition of new chapters and incorporation of up-to-date changes and developments that have taken place in the constitutional development. Multiple choice questions have been added at the end of each chapter in order to make the book more useful for those who are appearing in different competitive examinations. We hope that the book in its new format with all the improvements will enhance its utility. Suggestions for improvements are welcome. Dr. MAHESH BHATNAGAR
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION This book consists of three parts clearly. While the Charter Acts have been again included by many universities, the author had little option but to include them. Therefore these Charter Acts have been given in Part I, which had been excluded by the author formerly. Part II includes Constitutional Development and National Movement . In this part, I have tried to show the march of British imperialism and the resistance by the Indians. Before Warren Hastings arrived, there was a severe famine in Bengal in 1970. Therefore, Swami Shivanand made a heroic struggle against the British rule. It has been mentioned in Ushakal by Hari Narain Apte and Shri Bankim Chandra Chatterji s very famous book Anand Matha . It goes to the credit of Tipu Sultan that he resisted the attempts of the British imperialists tooth and nail. Had the Marathas or Nizam of Hyderabad sided with him, he would have won. While the Nizam of Hyderabad Deccan was a friend of the British, the Marathas led by Nana Hananis waited for the outcome, so Tipu Sultan was alone in resisting the British imperialists. The British imperialists defeated Tipu Sultan. The Marathas resisted the British imperialists tooth and nail very heroically but they were defeated ultimately by the British. Last resistance was offered by the Sikhs after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1845. Though the command was divided, yet the Sikhs offered gallant resistance. By 1849 the British had conquered the whole of India. While the Marathas had fought four wars to resist the British imperialists, the Sikhs fought two wars to resist the British imperialists. Then there was the Ist War of Independence in 1857. The war was fought violently under the leadership of Bahadurshah Zafar. Though he was already 85, yet he assumed the command when the soldiers from Meerut insisted. But after sometime the Ist War of Independence met its doom. The birth of the Indian National Congress in 1885 at first was welcomed by the Viceroy but with the passage of Russian menace, did not welcome it. The third President of the Indian National Congress was Badruddin Tayybji. He invited Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan to join the Indian National Congress but he declined the invitation. Then Shri Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak clamoured for Swadeshi. He began the festival of Shivaji, the harbinger of Swaraj and the Ganesh festival. He used both the festivals to bring political conciousness or awakening among the masses. He often use to say, If Swaraj was possible in the time of Shivaji, why not now Therefore he gave the famous slogan of Swaraj to the people. He often said, Swaraj is our birth-right and we will have it.
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iv It must be noted that Lokmanya Tilak was pro-Hindu but not anti-Muslim because he brought about Lucknow pact between the Muslim League and the Congress in 1916. Jinnah served him in one case against the British as early as in 1908. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Mohd. Ali and Shaukat Ali, the leading Muslim leaders of their time were convinced about the bonafide of Lokmanya Tilak. It goes to the credit of Gandhiji that he combined the methods of Tilak and Gokhale both. Alas Tilak died a pre-mature death on Ist August, 1920. Had he lived, he would have supported the Nonco-operation Movement of Gandhiji but Mohd. Ali and Shaukat Ali supported Gandhiji in his objective and toured the whole country in order to arouse the masses from their political slumber as hinted by Tilak to Gandhiji during his illness before his death. Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930 and Quit India Movement in 1942. He won the Swaraj in 1947. I have given in the 1st Appendix that Gandhiji had to agree to the partition of the country because