Ecology and Biology of Soil Organism
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Ecology, the science that deals with the interrelationships of living organisms and their environment, has become recently an area of active research and of prominence among the scientists concerned with agriculture and environm ent because of the concern voiced by the environmental scientists about the effects of man's interference in the natural eco-system and stagnation in the yields due to poor soil health. Biotic population has played an active role since centuries and has contributed to agriculture either directly or indirectly through their participation in soil genesis, recycling of nutrients, biological equi librium etc. The interactions like plant-microorganisms, microorganisms-fauna, microorganisms-amendments etc. are important facets of rhizosphere activities to decide the growth and yield of crops, forest trees and plantation crops. Survival, establishment and proliferation of organisms are the result of interactions of physical, chemical and biological conditions and study of biological activity in isolation under laboratory conditions has got very limited applications to field. The book aims to em phasise the role of soil organisms and their interaction with plants. It intends to give students of ecology an understanding of interaction of various organisms in the soil plant system. Hopefully, it may also bring to students of biology a wider understanding of the biological contribution to ecological processes. This volume is not intended as a text book of soil bio-ecology but rather an attempt to put together the research findings in concise manner on certain aspects of soil ecology with special reference to agriculture like enumeration techniques, plant-microorganisms inter actions, rhizosphere, microbe-fauna interactions, environmentmicrobes interactions etc. This comprehensive treatment will prove useful to students, teachers and researchers in better understanding and management of soil for realising higher yields. It has been possible to bring out the book in good time, thanks to the publisher and contributors for their cooperation. W e also record our gratitudes for the encouragem ent received in this endeavour from Prof K.K. Vyas, Prof B.L. Baser and Dr. R.K. Sharma, Dean, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner. S.C. Bhandari L.L. Somani
CONTENTS Page Preface