WBUT Solved Question Papers Comprehension Test B Tech Ist Sem
WBUT Solved Question Papers
Comprehension Test B Tech Ist Sem
. Which one should be used while writing a Precis? [WBUT 2008]
a) Redundancy b) Wordiness c) Passive voice d) Conciseness
1- Read the fotfowing text and do the exercises given below: [WBUT 2001]
Bamboos have been used by human beings since time immemorial. But it is only in the last four to five decades that industries have come to recognize their value. Owing to the installation of paper mills in India, in particular, bamboo became a valuable resource. Today it is heavily exploited with the result that large bamboo forests have already disappeared.
The development of paper mills in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu is playing havoc with the bamboo resources of other states as local bamboo forests get depleted. Bamboo today forms about 67 per cent of the raw material used by paper mills, which continue to expand. Since demand is far outstripping supply, the pressure on extracting bamboo is becoming intense.
The disappearance of bamboo stocks is having major environmental consequences. Bamboo is a very good soil binder. The reduction in bamboo stocks inevitably brings about increased soil erosion. Ecologically, bamboo is a sun-loving species which can grow profusely, wherever the canopy of moist or dry deciduous forest is opened up. With the disappearance of bamboo this ecological niche is being taken over rapidly by a weed called ‘Eupatorium gtandulosum’, particularly in the moisture tracts. Once this weed takes over, it smothers and totally suppresses all other regeneration. It dries up in the dry season and promotes intense forest fires. Eupatorium is neither a good soil binder nor a soil builder like the bamboo. No animal touches it and its spread leads to a serious loss of even grazing lands. ■ .
The exploitation of bamboo stocks by the paper mills has had its adverse impact on the life of human beings too. Thousands of poor villagers have suffered greatly because of this. They depend on bamboo for food, house construction, manufacture of agricultural implements such as seed drills, and for making mats and baskets, an important source of livelihood. For them bamboo is a means of survival.
|a) Many paper mills are installed in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.||a)|
|b) The demand for bamboo is increasing more than the supply.|
c) Bamboo stocks are disappearing fast.
|c) • ‘. ■ ■|
|d) Eupatorium rapidly covers areas where bamboo stocks are cleared.||d)|
a) As a result it is playing havoc with the bamboo resources of other state as local bamboo forests get depleted,
b) Bamboo today forms about 67 percent of the raw materials used by paper mills, which continue to expand, demand is outstripping supply and pressure on bamboo extraction is becoming intense.
c) Disappearance of bamboo stocks is having major environmental consequences, which is a good soil binder and inevitably brings about increased soil erosion. Ecologically, bamboo is a sun-loving species, grown profusely, wherever the canopy of moist or dry deciduous forest is opened up.
d) With the disappearance of bamboo, a weed called ‘Bupatorium gJandulosum’ takes over the growth, smothers and totally suppresses all other regeneration, particularly in moist tracts. It is neither a good soil binder nor a soil builder and promotes intense forest fire in dry seasons. No animal touches it and its spread results in serious loss of even grazing land. .
ii) Complete the following sentences with information from the passage;
a) Bamboo grows in areas where ……………………………………….
b) Bamboo is good for the soil because……………………………………..
c) Bamboo is important in the life of human beings because……………….. . ,………………………………………………………………………………………………….
d) Paper mills have had a negative effect on the life of human beings because
a) the canopy of moist or dry deciduous forest is opened up.
b) it is a good soil binder.
c) it is a means of survival for the poor villagers as they depend on it for food, house construction, manufacture of agricultural implements such as seed drills and for making mats and baskets — an important source of their livelihood.
d) they are playing havoc with the bamboo resources of other statev as local bamboo forests get depleted on this heavy exploitation with the result that large bamboo forests have already disappeared which used to be the main source of livelihood for the poor villagers.
Hi) Write (T) for true and (F) for false in the boxes provided against each of the following statements:
a) Paper industry is a boon to bamboo plantation. [ j
b) Eupatorium is disastrous for the soil. [ ]
c) Poor villagers suffer greatly when bamboo plants are cleared. [ ]
d) Eupatorium is a weed that all animals like to eat. [ ]
(a)F (b) T (c) T (d) F
iv) Suggest a suitable title for the above passage.
Bamboo – a boon to human beings
- Read the following text and do the tasks given below: [WBUT 20021
Astronomers are trying to find places in the solar system and beyond where conditions are right for life. Researchers have found extrasolar planets by using a technique that measures the very, very slight wobble motion that an orbiting planet causes in its central stars. Thus far more than 80 planets have been discovered orbiting distant stars. But all of them are large, most many times the size of Jupiter, and unfriendly to life.
NASA hopes to start launching specialized spacecraft to conduct a systematic search for Earth like planets, and then to prove these planets for the chemical evidence of life.
The first step is the launch of a spacecraft called Kepler in 2007. It will spend two to three years observing tight from stars, and will be looking for a slight dimming, evidence of a shadow cast by an orbiting planet.
Kepler’s instruments will be keen enough to detect Earth sized objects orbiting stars up to 40 light years away.
In 2009, the Space Interferometer Mission will be launched to analyse stars up to about 50 light years away. It should be able to detect planets the size of Earth orbiting within a distance of 0.5 to 10 astronomical units. (One astronomical unit – about 93 million miles, the distance between Earth and Sun.)
The third spacecraft, the Terrestrial Path Finder is scheduled for a 2015 launch. It will analyse the atmosphere of the candidate planets searching for water, oxygen or methane- the telltale chemicals of living systems.
If successful, these mission will provide a statistical clue about how many common habitable planets there are in the whole universe.
Scientists are still speculating about the conditions required for the formation of life but there is a consensus on some general factors.
For life to form, there has to be a planet or another body orbiting near enough to a star, to be in the “habitable zone’* – an orbit warm enough to hold liquid water, but not too hot.
The planet’s central star must be at least 10 billion years old — providing time for the planet to cool from its formation and to establish a stable surface. This could take a billion years. (347 words) ) Complete the following chart with information from the text about the three spacecraft.
|c) detect orbiting stars 40 Jight years away|
|lit.||.a). . . ……..|
|I. Keplar||2007||(a) launching of a spacecraft|
|(b) observe light from stars spending 2 to 3 yrs in orbit and will be looking for a slight dimming evidence of a shadow cast by an orbiting planet.|
|(c) detect orbiting stars 40 light years away|
|H.||2009||(a) Space Interferometers Mission will be launched to analyse stars upto about 50 light years away.|
|(b) It should be able to detect planets the size of Earth orbiting within a distance of 0.5 to 10 astronomical units (Distance between Sun 8l Earth — 93 million miles)|
ii) List the three factors essential for the formation of a “friendly” planet.
A), B), C)
(A) Spacecraft Kepler in 2007
(B) Space Interferometers Mission 2009
(C) Terrestrial Path Finder for 2015
iii) Complete these sentences meaningfully with information from the text,
a) An orbiting planet…………………………………………. to slightly wobble.
b) The success of the NASA mission will show whether…………………………….
c) Kepler’s instruments will be so precise…………………………………………….
d) A planet’s central star must last 10 billion years so that……………………….
a) causes its Central Star
b) Systematic Search for Earth like planets with Chemical evidence of life are available or not.
c) that it will be keen enough to detect Earth sized objects orbiting stars up to 40 light years away.
d) so that it provides time for the planet to cool from its formation and to establish a stable surface, which could take a billion years.
iv) Suggest a suitable title for the text.
- Read the passage given below, and then answer the questions that follow:
On the first ciear September day, towards the end of the rains, I visited the pine- knoll, my place of peace and power.
It was months since I’d last been there. Trips to plains, a crisis in my affairs, involvement with other people and their troubles, and an entire monsoon had come between me and the grassy, pine-topped slope facing the Hill of Fairies (Pari Tibba to the JcoaSs). .Mow S tramped through late monsoon foliage and climbed the steep hill to the pine slope.
When the trees saw tvies they made as if to turn in my direction. A puff of wind came across the vaMey from the distant snows. A long-tailed blue magpie took alarm and flew noisily out of an oak tree. The cicadas were suddenly silent. But the trees remembered me. They bowed gently in the breeze and beckoned me nearer, welcoming me home. Three pines, a straggling oak, and a wild cherry, i went among them, acknowCadged their welcome with a touch of my hand against their trunks-the cherry’s smooth and polished; the pine’s patterned and whorled; the oak’s rough, gnarJed, lu^J of experience. He’d been there longest, and the wind had bent his upper branches and twisted a few, so that he looked shaggy and undistinguished. But tike the philosopher who is careless in his dress and appearance, the oak has secrets, a hidden wisdom; he has learnt the art of survival!
While the oak and pines are older than me and have been here many years, the cherry tree is exactly seven years old. I know, because I planted it. One day I had this cherry seed in my hand, and on an impulse I thrust it into the soft earth, and then went away and forgot all about it. A few months later I found a tiny cherry tree in the long grass. 1 did not expert it to survive. But the following year it was two feet tall. And then some goats ate its leaves, and a grass cutter’s scythe injured the stem, and I was sure it would wither away. But it renewed itself, sprang up even faster; and within three years it was a healthy, growing tree, about five feet tall.
I left the hills for two years forced by circumstances to make a living in Delhi, but this time I did not forget the cherry tree. I thought about it fairly often, sent telepathic messages of encouragement in its direction. And when, a couple of years ago, I returned in the autumn, my heart did a somersault when i found my tree sprinkled with pale pink blossom. (The Himalayan cherry flowers in November.) And later, when the fruit was ripe, the tree was visited by finches, tits, bulbuls and other small birds, all come to feast on the sour, red cherries. Last summer I spent a night on the pine~knoll, sleeping on the grass beneath the cherry tree. I lay awake for hours, listening to the chatter of the stream and the occasional tonk-tonk of a nightjar, and watching, through the branches overhead, the stars turning in the sky, and I felt the power of the sky and earth, and the power of a small cherry seed…
And so, when the rains are over, this is where I come, that I might feel the peace and power of the place, it’s a big world and momentous events are taking place all the time. But this is where I have seen it happen. — Ruskin Bond
a) Complete the following sentences with information given in the text:
i) Towards the end of rains, the writer visited the pine-knoll because…………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………
ii) The writer ts most impressed by a tree and the following words tell us so
iii) The seven-years old tree faced some difficulties in its early years when
iv) The cherry tree tells us a story about human life that……………………………
i) that was a place of peace and power with grassy pine-topped slope facing the Hill of Faries (Pari Tibba to the locals). He climbed the steep hill to the pine slope through late monsoon foliage to take a break from the involvement with other people and their troubles in the planes – a crisis in his affairs.
ii) When the writer visited the pine-knoll, he could feel that the trees remembered him. They bowed gently in the breeze and beconed him nearer, welcoming him home – Three patterned whorled pines, a straggling rough and gnarled oak and a small wild cherry. 1 had thrusted this small cherry seed into the soft earth on an impulse. After a few months, to the utter surprise of the author, he found a tiny cherry tree in the long grass. The author was delighted at this sight.
iii) During the author’s visit in the following year he found the tree two feet tall, which he initially thought would not survive. Some goats ate its leaves and a grass cutter’s scythe injured the stem and he was sure it would whither away. But it renewed itself, sprang up even faster and within three years it was a healthy, growing tree, about five feer talL
iv) sends telepathic messages of encouragement in its direction although I was forced to leave the hills for two years, by circumstances, to make a living in Delhi. A couple of years ago when the author returned in the autumn he found the tree sprinkled with pale pink blossom, visited by finches, tits, bulbuls and other small birds, who come to feast on the sour, red cherries when the fruit was ripe.
Last summer, which spending a night on the pine-knoll, sleeping on the grass beneath ihe cherry tree, the author lay awake for hours listening to the chatter of the stream, watching through the branches overhead, the stars turning in the sky – feeling the power of sky and earth and the power of the cherry seed. The cherry tree telling the story about human life.
b) Suggest a suitable title for the text.
The little Cherry tree
c) Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.
rough, thick, untidy
twisted and rough turn head over heels insects like a grasshopper
insects like a grasshopper ringed
twisted and rough turn head over heels dry up
rough, thick, untidy talk continuously
d) Which trees do the following phrases describe?
i) Patterned and whorled –
ii) Smooth and polished —
iii) Rough, gnarled?
i) Patterned and whorled — pine it) Smooth and polished — cherry Iii) Rough, gnarled – oak
The pine-knoll, the place of peace and power in the Himalayas, grassy pine-topped slope facing the Hill of Fades (Pari Tibba to the locals).
- Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
One of the major deterrents to women in America who would iike^consider Engineering as a career is the all-male image. This barrier is disappearing as the Engineering image changes from that of a tough man in a hard-hat at a construction site to that of a thoughtful logical individual who is genuinely interested in solving the Engineering and social problems, which face us today It is true that a female engineer may still visit a construction site in her hard-hat, but it is more likely that she will be found at a desk working on new solutions.
Although women only constitute 1% of the U.S. Engineering population, their members have been growing. A society of Women Engineers survey of colleges accredited by the Engineering Council for Professional Development showed that female Engineering enrolment increased from 1035 during 1959^60 to 3905 during 1972-73 school year. This increase may not be as large as it appears on the surface, only 128 colleges replied to the 1959-60 survey. But with the introduction of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and, more recently, the implementation of the U.S. government affirmative action programme, 201 colleges responded in 1973. However, since the member of female engineering students per college has certainly increased, while the number of males enrolled at these colleges has decreased, there is little doubt that the percentage of women enrolled in Engineering Undergraduate programmes is growing.
a) What was the image of an engineer in America in earlier times?
b) What is the image of an engineer now?
c) Why did more engineering colleges respond to the survey in 1973 than in 1959- BO? Give two reasons.
d) What is meant by (i) deterrent (ii) accredited (iii) implementation (iv) affirmative action? ;
e) Rewrite using another term for “little doubt”. There is little doubt that hard work produces good results.
f) Distinguish between ‘career’ and ‘carrier’ by using them in two separate sentences.
g) How many organizations are mentioned in the passage? Give their names. Answer:
a) Alt-male image – a tough man in a hard hat,
b) A thoughtful logical individual who is genuinely, interested in solving the Engineering and social problems faced by us today.
c) Introduction of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and more recently the implementation of the U.S. govt* affirmative action program.
d) (i) deterrent – negative *
(ii) accredited – approved
(iii) implementation – introduction
(iv) affirmative action – positive
e) Little doubt – lesser or smaller doubt
0 Career — one s career — I would like to build up my own career.
Carrier – a person who carry’s – He is a carrier of all my documents, g) Two organizations –
i) A Society of Women Engineers (ii) Engineering Council for Professional Development
- Write a precis of the following passage. Give a suitable title.
The last three generations have witnessed a vast increase in the size and number of large cities, life is more exciting and more money can be earned in the cities than in villages and small towns. Hence the migration from country to city. In these migrating populations have marched the ambitious, the talented, the adventurous. For more than a century there has been a tendency for the most gifted members of
small rural communities to leave home and seek fortunes in the towns. Consequently, what remains in the villages and country towns is in the nature of a residual popuiation, weak in spirit and intellectual gifts. Why is it so hard to induce peasants and small farmers to adopt new scientific methods? Among other reasons, almost every exceptionally intelligent child born into a rural family for a century past has taken the earliest opportunity of deserting the land for the city.
Reason for Attraction in Large City
Life is more exciting and money earning in the large cities, with their vast increase in size and number* compared to viHages and towns – this is what last three generations have witnessed.
Hence i’or more than a century the tendency is to migrate from country to city of the ambitious, the talented, the adventurous of the gifted members and the exceptionally intelligent child born of small rural communities, who desert their home to seek fortunes in towns. They leave behind those who are weak in spirit and intellectual gifts as because it is quite hard to induce peasants and small farmers to adopt new scientific methods,
- Read the passage caref uliy and answer the questions that follow: [WBUT 2005] It is thus time for the Endian industry to enter into other areas of advanced ceramics as well. Ceramics are now entering into automobile and aircraft engines; with the newer requirements for fuel efficiency, not only for economic reasons but for environmental reasons. As internal combustion engines and other energy conversion systems are likely to operate at higher and higher temperatures, ceramics have a unique advantage of heat resistance at these kinds of temperatures. Ceramics have also started competing with traditional machine tools. The cutting capability of ceramics is good for a number of applications. Ceramics can also be engineered to be biocompatible and are being used as replacements for broken bones. Some of the readers may already be having ceramic caps on their teeth. Many may not be aware of the crucial role of ceramics in the electronics industry. They form the base, called substrate, for a number of miniature electronic devices which are coated or etched on such substrates, keeping up the trends of micro-miniaturization. Many ceramic materials are crucial for advanced sensors. The tiny microphones in your tape recorders or in a collar ■ mike have elements of ceramic in the form of piezoelectric crystals.
— India 2020 – A vision for the New Millennium
APJ Abdul Kalam with YS Rajan.
a) What are the reasons for the use of ceramics in automobile and aircraft engines?
b) Give two examples of the use of ceramics in the human body. What does the word “biocompatible” mean?
c) Which quality of ceramics is useful in manufacturing collar mikes or microphones in tape recorders?
d) Match the items under Column A with that in Column B to indicate connections between words or phrases.
m icro-msn ia turizati on machine tools environmental concerns
a) Ceramics are being used in automobile and aircraft engines for fuel efficiency and environmental reasons* Ceramics have a unique advantage of heat resistance and can withstand high temperature. It has also started competing with traditional machine tools. The cutting capability of ceramics is good for a number of applications.
b) The two examples of the use of ceramics in the human body are:
i) lor broken bones, ii) As ceramic caps on the teeth.
Biocompatible means its compatibility to bacteria and other living organisms and does not get decomposed.
c) Elements of ceramics in the form of piezoelectric crystals are used in the manufacturing of collar mikes and microphones in tape recorders.
d) Fuel efficiency – environmental concerns
Substrate – micro-miniaturization t
Cutting capability – machine tools
- Read the following passage and answer the questions given below:[WBUT 2006] After inventing dynamite, Swedish-born Alfred Nobel became a rich man. However he foresaw its universal destructive power too late. Nobel preferred not to be remembered as the inventor of dynamite, so in 1985, two weeks before his death, he created a fund to be used for awarding prizes to people who had made worthwhile contribution to humanity. Originally there were five awards: literature, physics, chemistry, medicine and peace. Economics was added in 1968, just sixty- seven years after the first award ceremony.
Nobel’s original legacy of nine billion dollar was invested, and the interest on this sum is used for the awards, which may vary from $ 30,000 to $ 1,25,000.
Every year on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel’s death, the awards are presented to the winners. Sometimes politics plays an important role in judge’s decisions. Americans have won numerous science awards, but relatively few literature prizes.
No awards were presented from 1940 to 1942 at the beginning of World War fl. Some people have won two prizes, but this is rare; others have shared their prizes.
i) Answer the following questions:
A) The word “foresaw” in the sentence 2 is nearest in meaning to
a) prevailed b) postponed c) prevented d) predicted
B) The Nobel Prize was established in order to
a) recognize worthwhile contributions to humanity
b) resolve political differences
c) honour the inventor of dynamite
d) spend money Answer: (a)
C) In which area have the Americans received the most awards?
a) literature b) peace c) economics d) science
D) All the following statements are true except
a) awards vary in momentary value
b) ceremonies are held on December 10 to commemorate Nobel’s invention
c) politics play an important role in selecting the winners
d) a few individuals have won two awards
E) In how many fields are prizes bestowed?
a) 2 b) 5 c) 6 d) 10
ii) Make a precis of the above passage and add a suitable title to it. [WBUT 2006]
Nobel A wards
Guilt stricken by the destructive power of his invention, the dynamite, Swedish – born Alfred Nobel created a fund in 1885, to honour those who had made prominent contribution to humanity. Originally, there were awards for literature, physics, chemistry, medicine and peace. Economics was added in 1968. The interest on Nobel’s original investment of $9 billion is awarded. The sum varies from $30000 to $125000. The awards are presented on December 10, each year, Nobel’s death anniversary. Sometimes politics influences the jury. USA have won many awards in science, but few in literature. Nobel Prize was not present in the war years from 1940-1942. Some win twice and some are shared.
- Read the following passage; then answer the questions in your own words:
i) Peak hour traffic scenario is India Is a cartoonist’s delight-hassled motorists, rivers of sweat streaming down their forehead, accusing each other for lack of traffic sense in loud voices ~ toned by the honking of a thousand horns. This is not so in Singapore. It is almost, legendary now that one of Asia’s wealthiest cities has one of the calmest traffic, too. For ten years they have been able to maintain air pollution levels as per World Health Organization (WHO) and United States Environmental Protection Agency air quality standards.
ii) In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a number of major land use and transportation studies were carried out to prepare long term plans for
Singapore’s development. It was evident to the planners that traffic congestion had to be addressed first as building more and more roads was not a useful option for Singapore due to the lesser land availability.
iii) Singapore has followed simple, but firm, rules. One, it introduced severe economic restrictions on car-ownershtp and use: two, it improved transit systems dramatically; and, lastly, it promoted pedestrian traffic and non – motorized transport.
iv) Planners aimed to minimize the need to travel putting in order the location of residential and commercial areas. Besides they developed a vast road network system; and used technology to maximize the use of roads. Transportation routes consisting of an expressway and mass rapid transit (WIRT) lines were developed.
v) But the key to the success of these measures was public acceptability, which means the whole exercise had to be done in a phased manner.
- a) The traffic scene in India is amusing because……………………..
b) Singapore maintained good air quality by promoting……………………..
c) Planners aimed to minimize travel by promoting.
x> ……….. y)………….
(a) of incorrect transport planning and lack of stricture of the traffic rules.
(b) United States Environmental Protection Agency air quality standards.
x) Recording the location of residential and commercial areas.
y) Developing a vast network of roads and maximizing uses with the help of technology. Expressways and mass rapid transits (MRT) line where also developed.
- Which words in the passage mean –
c) most peaceful
e) alternative Answer:
a) Hassle, b) Legendary, c) Calmest, d) restrictions, e) option
- Write a precis based on the reading of the passage in eighty words.
Transportation Planning of Singapore
In contrast to India’s disorganized traffic scenario, Singapore has one of the calmest traffics, as per World Health Organization and United States Environmental Protection Agency air quality standards. In the 1960s and 1970s. Singapore prepare long term plans to reduce traffic congestion, since land availability was limited. They put restrictions on car ownerships improved transit systems and promoted pedestrian and non-motorized traffic. They reordered the residential and commercial areas, developed a vast network of roads and built expressways and mass rapid transit (MRT) lines. However, these were done in phases, to gain public acceptability.
- Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
~ [WBUT 2008]
Petroleum products such as gasoline, kerosene, home heating oil, residual fuel oil and lubricating oils come from one source — crude oil found below the earth’s surface, as well as under large bodies of water, from a few hundred feet below the surface to as deep as 25,000 feet into the earth’s interior. Sometimes crude oil is secured by drilling a hole into the earth, but more dry holes are drilled than those producing oil. Either pressure at the source or pumping forces crude oil to the surface.
Crude oil weils flow at varying rates, from about ten to thousands of barrels per hour. Petroleum products are always measured in forty-two-gal Ion barrels. Petroleum products vary greatly in physical appearance: thin, thick, transparent, or opaque, but regardless, their chemical composition is made up of only two elements: carbon and hydrogen, which form compounds called hydrocarbons. Other chemical elements found in union with the hydrocarbons are few and are classified as impurities, Trace elements are also found, but in such minute quantities that they are disregarded. The combination of carbon and hydrogen forms many thousands compounds which are possible because of the various positions and unions of these two atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule.
The various petroleum products are refined by heating crude oil and then condensing the vapours. These products are the so-called light oils, such as gasoline, kerosene, and distillate oil. The residue remaining after the light oils are distilled, is known as heavy or residual fuel oil and is used mostly for burning under boilers. Additional complicated refining processes rearrange the chemical structure of the hydrocarbons to produce other products, some of which are used to upgrade and increase the octane rating of various types of gasoline.
a) Write a precis of the above passage, with a suitable title.
The Journey of the Oil
Petroleum and its products come from crude oil, found under the earth’s surface, and also under deep water-bodies, from the depth of a few hundred to 25000 feet. Sometimes a hole is drilled on the surface, and crude oil is obtained by either pressure at source, or pumping forces. The flow of the wells vary from ten to thousands of barrels per hour, and is measured in forty-two gallon travels. Although the petroleum products vary in physical appearance, they are all composed of carbon and hydrogen, because of the various positions and union of these atoms. Petroleum products are refined by heating crude oil, and condensing the vapours. Products include light oils like Kerosene, gasoline and distillate oils, and heavy oils, use for boiling under boilers. Additional complex refining process produce products used to upgrade and increase octane rating of various types of gasoline.
b) How is crude oil brought to the surface?
Crude oil is brought to the surface by either pressure at the source, or pumping forces.
c) What are the principal components of all petroleum products?
All petroleum products are hydrocarbon that is they are made of hydrogen and carbon.
d) What is heavy oil?
The residue, after the distillation of Hght oils (Kerosene, gasoline etc*), is called the heavy oil. It is used for burning under boilers.
e) Alt of the following are listed as light oils except
i) Distillate oil ii) Gasoline iii) Lubricating oil iv) Kerosene
Answer: (iii) Lubricating Oil
f) The word “upgrade’ in the last line is closest in meaning to
i) Improve ii) Counteract iii) Charge iv) Unite
Answer: (i) Improve
- Read the following passage and then answer the questions in your own words: The real crisis of our time is the crisis in management. I believe that the solutions to our problems He in the development of the art and practice of management at all levels and in all facets of our national activities — from a small “Bhatt’s” tea-shop to the multi-faceted international organisation or huge national government administration. 1 also believe that applications of better and sound management skills and methods is of vital importance in resolving many huge and baffling economic and social problems that are beyond the reach of either government or business acting alone.
I strongly believe that the private sector can contribute something far more important than even money, that is, management — management raised to a whole new order of magnitude – in the attainment of the new social and economic objectives put forward by our government. “But how do we do it?”
The Answer lies in developing a deeper sense of social responsibility on the part of our men in management. Management must act in concert with a broad socio interest and serve the objectives of the society. The various social-economic measures now being taken in the field of licensing, price regulation and distribution of essential commodities etc, will not lead us towards attainment of new social objectives unless we ensure that the benefits of these measures go to ultimate consumer — the common man. This is possible only through right management, proper understanding and of course above all, through cooperation among all concerned.
Indian management has the skills, know-how and capacity to cope with new challenges.
We must make a start now. The opportunities are there if we wilt but see them and see quickly. , [WBUT 2009]
I) In what sense is the crisis of our time a crisis in management?
ii) What contribution can the private sector make towards the attainment of economic objectives?
iii) What does Indian management lack?
iv) How can we ensure that the common man gets the benefit of various social- economic measures?
v) What is the central idea of the passage?
vi) Give a suitable title to the passage and write a precis.
i) The crisis of our time ties in our inability to manage it. We should learn and apply the art of management in facts of our national activities, big or small.
ii) Private sector should build and promote a value based management system in the attainment of new social and economic objectives.
iii) A deeper sense of social responsibility is lacking in the Indian management.
iv) The common man will benefit from the socio-economic measures only though proper management understanding and co-operation among all.
v) Management is the key to bear fruit out of the socio-economics development.
vi) Importance of Management
Management is highly required in all spheres of our natural activities. It helps to resolve various complex socio-economic problems. The private sector can play significant role by building up and promoting a value based management system in the attainment of new social and economic objectives. The benefits of socio-economic measures being taken up in various fields will reach the ultimate customer the common man only by proper management understanding and co-operation.
- Read the following passage and answer the questions in your own words;
Bangalore: India said on Saturday the ‘protectionist tendency’ in the United States would deepen the global recession and delay global economic recovery. “I feel the protectionism tendency is healthy and negative and lessons from the past make it abundantly clear they end up deepening the recession, they do not help in recovery of economies*” Union Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma told reporters here. Sharma was referring to the State of Ohio’s ban on outsourcing to overseas companies and before that, the US Government’s decision to raise fees for H1B visas that would impact operations of the $50 billion Indian IT industry.
US President Barack Obama also said this week he would end tax breaks for companies which ‘creates jobs and profits in other countries”. Admitting that India does not have legal options against such US measures, he said the larger issue was of “approach and philosophy”. “Any mindset which is isolatory and inward looking ends up hurting the economies and societies”, Sharma said.
Sharma termed the ‘protectionist’ measures in the US as “regressive and counterproductive”. “As a leading economy of the world, the US has to have more confidence to engage the rest of the world. In my view, in testing times, it’s
important to step out and engage, to dismantle the existing barriers and not erect new ones,’’ Sharma said. ‘
Stating that the US was strategic partner of India, he said New Delhi wants to deepen and diversify bi-lateral engagement. “We have to positively contribute for the growth of our relationship and not undermine or weaken it in any manner.”
(The Times of India, September 12, 2010) i) What is India’s stand on the “protectionist tendency” of the US? ti) What step of the State of Ohio has displeased India? ijt) What is Mr. Obama’s important announcement this week?
iv) How has Mr. Sharma termed the “protectionist” measure of the US?
v) What is Mr. Sharma’s expectation from the US as a leading economy of the World?
vi) Make a precis of the given passage.
i) India’s stand on the “protectionist tendency” of the US is that it would deepen the global recession and delay global economic recovery. It is healthy and negative and lessons from the past make it abundantly clear that it ends up deepening the recession not helping in recovery of economics.
ii) The step of the State of Ohio’s ban on outsourcing to overseas companies has displeased India.
Hi) Mr. Obama’s important announcement this week was that he would end tax breaks for companies which “‘creates jobs and profits in other countries”.
iv) Mr. Sharma termed the “protectionist” measure of the US, “that any mind set, which is isolatory and inward looking ends up hurting the economics and societies. It is regressive and counter-productive “None has any legal options against such US measures.
v) Mr. Sharma’s expectations from the US as a leading economy of the world is its “approach and philosophy”. US has to have more confidence to step out and engage the rest of the world, to dismantle the existing barrier, avoid erecting new ones.
The union Commerce and Industry Minister of India, Mr. Anand Sharma said to the reporter that the protectionist measure of the US would deepen global recession and delay global economic recovery. The ban on outsourcing to overseas companies by the state of Ohio and the US Govt, decision to raise fees for H1B visas would have an impact on operations of the $50 billion Indian IT Industry.
US President Barack Obamas announced ending tax breaks for companies which creates jobs and profits in other countries. Sharma said, it hurts the economies and societies as it is isolatory and inward looking. India does not have legal options against such US measures as because the issue was of “approach and philosophy”.
Sharma termed the protectionist measures in the US as “regressive and counterproductive”. Being a leading economy of the world, the US has to have more confidence in engaging the rest of the world, dismantle existing barriers not erect new ones.
India being a strategic partner to US, New Delhi wants to deepen and diversify bi-lateral engagement and positively contribute for the growth of relationship and not undermine or weaken it in any manner.
12, Read the following passage and then answer the questions in your words.
As Nnaemeka walked home that evening he turned over in his mind different ways of overcoming his father’s opposition, especially now that his father had gone and found a girl for him. He had thought of showing his letter to Nene but decided on second thoughts not to, at least for the moment. He read it again when he got home and couldn’t help smiling to himself. He remembered Ugoye quite well; an Amazon of a girl who used to beat all the boys, himself included, on the way to the stream, a complete dunce at school.
‘I have found a girl who will suit you admirably – Ugoye Nweke, the eldest daughter of our neighbor, Jacob Nweke. She has a proper Christian upbringing. When she stopped schooling some years ago, her father (a man of sound judgement) sent her to live in the house of a pastor where she has received all the training a good wife could need. Her Sunday school teacher has told me that she reads her Bible very fluently. I hope we shall begin negotiations when you come home in December/
On the second evening of his return from Lagos Nnaemeka sat with his father under a cassia tree. This was the old man’s retreat when he went to read his Bible when the parching December sun had set and a fresh, reviving wind blew on the leaves.
‘Father,’ began Nnaemeka suddenly, 1 have come to ask for forgiveness’. ‘Forgiveness? For what, my son?’ he asked in amazement.
It’s about this marriage question?’
‘Which marriage question?1
1 can’t…. We must -1 mean it is impossible for me to marry Nweke’s daughter/ Impossible? Why?’ asked his father,
i don’t love her/
‘Nobody said you did. Why should you?1 he asked.
‘Marriage today is different……………. ’
a) What is the passage all about?
b) Can you bring out the tension between the father and the son?
c) Why does Nnaemeka not want to marry Ugoye Nweke? Explain this with reference to the statement ‘Marriage today is different../
d) How is Nnaemeka’s father’s description of Ugoye’s character different from Nnaemeka?
e) Can you guess the title and author of the story?
f) Write a precis from the given passage giving it a suitable title.
a) The passage is about the contrasting views on the institution of marriage,, that people from two different generations – a father and a son, posses. It also deals with the rigid norms, the members of the tribe had to follow.
b) From the very beginning of the passage, the tension between Nnaemeka and his father is made evident The story begins with Nnaemeka trying hard to find ways of overcoming
his lather’s opposition. Also, one can easily make out the fear in his tone, while he tells his father that he cannot marry Ugoye Nweke.
c) Nnaemeka never loved Ugoye, and love to him is the most important aspect of a marriage. Ugoye used to be an Amazon of a girl, who used to bully the boys, but a complete dunce at school. Moreover, Nnaemeka loved Nenc and intended to marry her.
d) Nnaemeka ?s memories of Ugoye Nweke was not quite a pleasant one. She used to beat all the boys on the way to the stream. His father however, thought differently of her. -According to him, Ugoye would make a good wife as she had been trained to be so by the pastor. Also, that she is a regular with her bible.
e) The story is Marriage is a Private Affair by Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe.
Love and Marriage
Nmaemeka loved Nene, but he was sure of the fact that his father would never accept her. He had found a girl for Nnaemeka to marry, the eldest daughter of their neighbour Jacobe Nweke, Ugoye. He remembered how Ugoye used to bully the boys, including him, on the way to the stream. Nnaemeka’s father believed that she would make a good wife, as she had been trained by a pastor to do so. Also, she had a proper Christian upbringing. Nnaemeka did not love Ugoye and finally on the second evening of his return from Lagos, he told him so. He asked for forgiveness from his father and told him that marriage in today’s times is based on love.