# VTU Syllabus Electrical And Electronics Engineering 3rd Semester

**ELECTRIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS (Core Subject)**

Module-1

Basic Concepts: Active and passive elements, Concept of ideal and practical sources. Source transformation and Source shifting, Concept of Super Mesh and Super node analysis. Analysis of networks by (i) Network reduction method including star – delta transformation (ii) Mesh and Node voltage methods for ac and dc circuits with independent and dependent sources. Equilibrium equations using KCL and KVL, Duality.

Resonant Circuits: Analysis of simple series RLC and parallel RLC circuits under resonances. Resonant frequency, Bandwidth and Quality factor at resonance. Practical RL-RC circuits.

Module-2

Network Theorems : Analysis of networks with and without dependent ac and dc sources by Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. Analysis of ac and dc circuits for maximum power transfer to resistive and complex loads. Application of Millman’s theorem and Super Position theorem to multisource networks. Reciprocity theorem and its application.

Module-3

Transient Analysis: Review of ordinary linear nonhomogeneous first and second order differential equations with constant coefficients. Transient analysis of dc circuits by classical method for unit step input only. Behaviour of circuit elements under switching action (t = 0 and t = ∞). Evaluation of initial conditions.

Module-4

Laplace Transformation: Laplace transformation (LT), LT of Impulse, Step, Ramp, Sinusoidal signals and shifted functions. Waveform synthesis. Initial and Final value theorems. Laplace Transform of network and time domain solution for RL, RC and RLC networks for ac and dc excitations.

Module-5

Unbalanced Three phase systems: Analysis of three phase systems, calculation of real and reactive powers.

Two Port networks : Definition, Open circuit impedance, Short circuit admittance and Transmission parameters and their evaluation for simple circuits. Network functions of one port and two port networks, Properties of poles and zeros of network functions.

Complex Wave analysis : Analysis of simple circuits with non-sinusoidal excitation.

Course outcomes :

- Apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering to the analysis and design of electrical circuits.
- Identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems in the area circuits and systems. Analyze the solution and infer the authenticity of it.

Reference Books :

- Engineering Circuit Analysis William H Hayt et al, McGraw Hill 8th Edition,2014
- Engineering Circuit Analysis J David Irwin et al, Wiley India 10th Edition,2014
- Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Charles K Alexander Matthew N O Sadiku, Mc Graw Hill 5th Edition,2013
- Network Analysis M.E. Vanvalkenburg Pearson 3rd Edition,2014
- Electric Circuits Mahmood Nahvi Mc Graw Hill 5th Edition,2009
- Introduction to Electric CircuitsRichard C Dorf and James A Svoboda Wiley 9th Edition,2015

**TRANSFORMERS AND GENERATORS (Core Subject)**

Module-1

Single phase Transformers: Review of Magnetically coupled circuit, Principle of operation, Constructional details of shell type and core type single-phase transformers, EMF equation, Losses and commercial efficiency, Conditions for maximum efficiency (No question shall be set from the review portion). Salient features of ideal transformer, Operation of practical transformer under no – load and on – load with phasor diagrams. Equivalent circuit, Open circuit and Short circuit tests, Calculation of equivalent circuit parameters and predetermination of efficiency- commercial and all-day. Voltage regulation and its significance.

Three-phase Transformers: Introduction, Constructional features of three-phase transformers. Choice between single unit three-phase transformer and a bank of three single-phase transformers. Transformer connection for three phase operation – Star/Star, Delta/Delta, Star/Delta, Zigzag/star and V/V, Choice of connection. Phase conversion – Scott connection for three-phase to two-phase conversion. Labelling of three-phase transformer terminals, Vector groups. Equivalent circuit of three phase transformers.

Module-2

Parallel Operation of Transformers: Necessity of Parallel operation, Conditions for parallel operation – Single phase and three phase, Load sharing in case of similar and dissimilar transformers.

Auto transformers and Tap changing transformers: Introduction to auto transformer – copper economy, Equivalent circuit, Three phase auto transformer connection and voltage regulation. Voltage regulation by tap changing – off circuit and on load.

Tertiary winding Transformers: Necessity of tertiary winding, Equivalent circuit and voltage regulation, Tertiary winding in star/star transformers, Rating of tertiary winding.

Module-3

Transformers (continuation): Cause and effects of harmonics, Current inrush in transformers, Noise in transformers. Objects of testing transformers, Polarity test, Sumpner’s test.

Direct current Generator – Review of construction, Types, Armature windings, Relation between no load and terminal voltage (No question shall be set from the review portion). Armature reaction, Commutation and associated problems, No load and full load characteristics.

Synchronous generators- Review of construction and operation of salient & non-salient pole synchronous generators (No question shall be set from the review portion). Armature windings, Winding factors, Emf equation. Harmonics – causes, Reduction and elimination. Armature reaction, Synchronous reactance, Equivalent circuit.

Module-4

Synchronous generators (continuation): Generator load characteristic. Voltage regulation, Excitation control for constant terminal voltage. Generator input and output. Parallel operation of generators and load sharing. Synchronous generator on infinite bus- bars – General load diagram, O – curves and V – curves. Power angle characteristic and synchronizing power.

Synchronous generators (continuation): Effects of saliency, Two-reaction theory, Direct and Quadrature reactance, Power angle diagram, Reluctance power, Slip test.

Module-5

Synchronous generators (continuation): Open circuit and short circuit characteristics, Assessment of reactance- Short Circuit Ratio, Synchronous reactance, Adjusted synchronous reactance and Potier reactance. Voltage regulation by EMF, MMF, ZPF and ASA methods.

Performance of synchronous generators: Capability curve for large turbo generators and salient pole generators. Starting, Synchronizing and control. Hunting and dampers.

Course outcomes :

- Explain the construction and operation and performance of transformers.
- Explain different connections for the three phase operations, their advantages and applications.
- Explain the construction and operation of Synchronous machines and evaluate the regulation of synchronous machines by different methods.
- Analyze the operation of the synchronous machine connected to infinite machine.

Reference Books :

- Electric Machines D. P. Kothari,I J Nagrath And Mc Graw Hill 4th Edition, 2011
- Performance and Design of A.C. Machines M. G. Say CBS Publishers 3rd Edition, 2002
- Principles of Electric Machines and power Electronics P.C.Sen Wiley 2nd Edition, 2013
- Electric Machines Mulukuntla S.Sarma, at el Cengage Learning 1st Edition, 2009
- Electrical Machines, Drives and Power systems Theodore Wildi Pearson 6th Edition, 2014
- Electrical Machines M.V. Deshpande PHI Learning 1st Edition, 2013
- A Textbook of Electrical Machines K.R.Siddapura D.B.Raval Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd 1st Edition, 2014

**ANALOG ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS (Core Subject)**

Module-1

Diode Circuits: Review of diodes as rectifiers (No question shall be set from review portion). Diode clipping and clamping circuits.

Transistor biasing and stabilization: Operating point, Analysis and design of fixed bias circuit, Self-bias circuit, Emitter stabilized bias circuit, Voltage divider bias circuit, Stability factor of different biasing circuits. Problems.

Transistor switching circuits: Transistor switching circuits, PNP transistors, Thermal compensation techniques.

Module-2

Transistor at low frequencies: BJT transistor modelling, CE fixed bias configuration, voltage divider bias, Emitter follower, CB configuration, Collector feedback configuration, analysis using h – parameter model, Relation between h – parameters model of CE, CC and CB modes, Millers theorem and its dual.

Transistor frequency response : General frequency considerations, Low frequency response, Miller effect capacitance, High frequency response, Multistage frequency effects.

Module-3

Multistage amplifiers: Cascade and cascode connections, Darlington circuits, Analysis and design.

Feedback amplifiers: Feedback concept, Different types, Practical feedback circuits, Analysis and design of feedback circuits.

Module-4

Power amplifiers: Amplifier types, Analysis and design of different power amplifiers, Distortion in power amplifiers.

Oscillators: Principle of operation, Analysis and derivation of frequency of oscillation of phase shift oscillator, Wien bridge oscillator, RF and crystal oscillator and frequency stability.

Module-5

FETs: Construction, Working and characteristics of JFET and MOSFET. Biasing of JFET and MOSFET, Analysis and design JFET (Only common source configuration with fixed bias) and MOSFET amplifiers.

Course outcomes :

- Utilize the characteristics of transistor for different applications.
- Design and analyze biasing circuits for transistor.
- Design, analyze and test transistor circuitry as amplifiers and oscillators.

Reference Books :

- Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Robert L Boylestad Louis Nashelsky Pearson 11th Edition, 2015
- Integrated Electronics, Analysis and Digital Circuits and SystemsJacob Millman et al, McGraw Hill 2nd Edition, 2009
- Electronic Devices and Circuits David A Bell Oxford University Press 5th Edition, 2008
- Microelectronics Circuits Analysis and Design Muhammad Rashid Cengage Learning 2nd Edition, 2014
- A Text Book of Electrical Technology, Electronic Devices and Circuits B.L. Theraja, A.K. Theraja, S. Chand Reprint, 2013
- Electronic Devices and Circuits Anil K. Maini Vasha Agarval Wiley 1st Edition, 2009
- Electronic Devices and Circuits S.Salivahanan N.Suresh Mc Graw Hill 3rd Edition, 2013
- Fundamentals of Analog Circuits Thomas L Floyd Pearson 2nd Edition, 2012

**DIGITAL SYSTEM DESIGN (Core Subject)**

Module-1

Principles of combinational logic: Review of Boolean Algebra. Definition of combinational, Canonical forms, Generation of switching equations from truth tables, Karnaugh maps-3, 4 and 5 variables. Incompletely specified functions (Don’t care terms). Simplifying max – term equations. Quine -McClusky minimization technique, Quine – McClusky using don’t care terms, Reduced Prime Implicant tables, Map entered variables.

Module-2

Analysis and design of Combinational Logic: General approach, Decoders-BCD decoders, Encoders. Digital multiplexers-using multiplexers as Boolean function generators. Adders and Subtractors-Cascading full adders, Look ahead carry, Binary comparators. Design methods of building blocks of combinational logics.

Module-3

Sequential Circuits: Basic Bistable element, Latches, SR latch, Application of SR latch, A Switch debouncer. The SR latch, The gated SR latch. The gated D Latch, The Master-Slave Flip-Flops (Pulse-Triggered Flip-Flops): The master-slave SR Flip-Flops, The master-slave JK Flip-Flop, Edge Triggered Flip-flop: The Positive Edge-Triggered D Flip-Flop, Negative-Edge Triggered D Flip-Flop. Characteristic equations, Registers, Counters-Binary Ripple Counter, Synchronous Binary counters, Counters based on Shift Registers, Design of a Synchronous counters, Design of a Synchronous Mod-N counters using clocked JK Flip- Flops Design of a Synchronous Mod-N counter using clocked D, T, or SR Flip-Flops.

Module-4

Sequential Design: Introduction, Mealy and Moore models, State machine notation, synchronous sequential circuit analysis and design. Construction of state Diagrams, Counters Design.

Module-5

HDL: Introduction, A brief history of HDL, Structure of HDL Module, Operators, Data types, Types of Descriptions, Simulation and synthesis, Brief comparison of VHDL and Verilog.

Data-Flow Descriptions: Highlights of Data flow descriptions, Structure of data-flow description, Data type-vectors.

Course outcomes :

- Design and analyze combinational & sequential circuits.
- Design circuits like adder, sub tractor, code converter etc.
- Understand counters and sequence generators.

Reference Books :

- Digital Logic Applications and Design John M Yarbrough Cengage Learning 2011
- Digital Principles and Design Donald D Givone McGraw Hill Education 1st Edition
- Logic and computer design Fundamentals M. Morries Mano and Charles Kime Pearson Learning 4th Edition, 2014
- Fundamentals of logic design Charles H Roth, JR and Larry L. Kinney Cengage Learning 6th Edition
- Fundamentals of Digital Circuits A. Anand Kumar PHI 3rd Edition
- Digital Logic Design and VHDL A.A.Phadke S.M.Deokar Wiley India 1st Edition
- Digital Circuits and Design D.P.Kothari J.S.Dhillon Pearson First Print
- Circuit Design and Simulation with VHDL Volnei A Pedroni PHI 2nd Edition

**ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS (Foundation Course)**

Module-1

Units and Dimensions: Review of fundamental and derived units. SI units (No question shall be set from the review portion). Dimensional equations, problems.

Measurement of Resistance: Wheatstone’s bridge, Sensitivity, Limitations. Kelvin’s double bridge. Earth resistance measurement by fall of potential method and by using Megger.

Measurement of Inductance and Capacitance: Sources and detectors, Maxwell’s inductance bridge, Maxwell’s inductance and capacitance bridge, Hay’s bridge, Anderson’s bridge, Desauty’s bridge, Schering bridge. Shielding of bridges. Problems.

Module-2

Measurement of Power, Energy, Power factor and Frequency: Review of Dynamometer wattmeter construction and operation (No question shall be set from the review portions), Torque expression, Errors and minimization, UPF and LPF wattmeters. Measurements of real and reactive power in 3 phase circuits. Review of Induction type energy meter construction and operation (No question shall be set from the review portions)]. Errors, adjustments and calibration of single and three phase energy meters, Problems. Construction and operation of single-phase and three phase dynamometer type power factor meter. Weston frequency meter and phase sequence indicator.

Module-3

Extension of Instrument Ranges: Desirable features of ammeters and voltmeters. Shunts and multipliers. Construction and theory of instrument transformers, Desirable characterises, Errors of CT and PT. Turns compensation, Illustrative examples, Silsbee’s method of testing CT. Magnetic measurements: Introduction, Measurement of flux/ flux density, Magnetising force and leakage factor. Hopkinson permeameter. Measurement of iron loss by wattmeter method. A brief discussion on measurement of air gap flux and field strength.

Module-4

Electronic and digital Instruments: Introduction. Essentials of electronic instruments, Advantages of electronic instruments. True rms reading voltmeter. Electronic multimeters. Digital voltmeters (DVM) – Ramp type DVM, Integrating type DVM, Continuous – balance DVM and Successive – approximation DVM. Q meter. Principle of working of electronic energy meter (block diagram treatment), Extra features offered by present day meters and their significance in billing.

Module-5

Display Devices: Introduction, Character formats, Segment displays, Dot matrix displays, Bar graph displays. Cathode ray tubes, Light emitting diodes, Liquid crystal displays, Nixes, Incandescent, Fluorescent, Liquid vapour and Visual displays. Display multiplexing and zero suppression.

Recording Devices: Introduction, Strip chart recorders, Galvanometer recorders, Null balance recorders, Potentiometer type recorders, Bridge type recorders, LVDT type recorders, Circular chart and X – Y recorders. Magnetic tape recorders, Direct recording, Frequency modulation recording, Pulse duration modulation recording, Digital tape recording, Ultraviolet recorders. Biomedical recorders, Electro Cardio Graph (ECG), Electroencephalograph, Electromyograph9. Noise in reproduction.

Course outcomes :

- Explain the importance of units and dimensions.
- Measure resistance, inductance and capacitance by different methods.
- Explain the working of various meters used for measurement of power and energy.

Reference Books :

- Electrical and electronic Measurements and Instrumentation A.K. Sawhney Dhanpat Rai and Co 10th Edition
- A Course in Electronics and Electrical Measurements and Instrumentation J. B. Gupta Katson Books 2013 Edition
- Electrical and electronic Measurements and Instrumentation Er.R.K. Rajput S Chand 5th Edition 2012
- Electrical Measuring Instruments and Measurements S.C. Bhargava BS Publications 2013
- Modern Electronic Instrumentation and Measuring Techniques Cooper D and A.D. Heifrick Pearson First Edition 2015
- Electronic Instrumentation and Measurements David A Bell Oxford University 3rd Edition 2013

**ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY-1**

**Experiments :**

1. Open Circuit and Short circuit tests on single phase step up or step down transformer and predetermination of (i) Efficiency and regulation (ii) Calculation of parameters of equivalent circuit.

2. Sumpner’s test on similar transformers and determination of combined and individual transformer efficiency.

3. Parallel operation of two dissimilar single-phase transformers of different kVA and determination of load sharing and analytical verification given the Short circuit test data.

4. Polarity test and connection of 3 single-phase transformers in star – delta, delta – delta and V – V (open delta) and determination of efficiency and regulation under balanced resistive load.

5. Scott connection with balanced and unbalanced loads

6. Separation of hysteresis and eddy current losses in single phase transformer.

7. No load and load characteristics of DC shunt generator.

8. Voltage regulation of an alternator by EMF and MMF methods.

9. Voltage regulation of an alternator by ZPF method.

10. Slip test – Measurement of direct and quadrature axis reactance and predetermination of regulation of salient pole synchronous machines.

11. Performance of synchronous generator connected to infinite bus, under constant power and variable excitation & vice – versa.

12. Power angle curve of synchronous generator.

Course outcomes :

- Conduct different tests on transformers and synchronous generators and evaluate their performance.
- Connect and operate two single phase transformers of different KVA rating in parallel.
- Connect single phase transformers for three phase operation and phase conversion.

**ELECTRONICS LABORATORY**

**Experiments :**

1. Design and Testing of Full wave – centre tapped transformer type and Bridge type rectifier circuits with and without Capacitor filter. Determination of ripple factor, regulation and efficiency.

2. Testing of diode clipping and Clamping circuits

3. Frequency response of single stage BJT and FET RC coupled amplifier and determination of half power points, bandwidth, input and output impedances.

4. Design and testing of BJT – RC phase shift oscillator for given frequency of oscillation.

5. Testing for the performance of BJT – crystal RC phase shift oscillator

6. Testing of a transformer less Class – B push pull power Amplifier and determination of its conversion efficiency.

7. Simplification, realization of Boolean expressions using logic gates/Universal gates.

8. Realization of half/Full adder and Half/Full Subtractors using logic gates.

9. Realization of parallel adder/Subtractors using 7483 chip- BCD to Excess-3 code conversion & Vice –Versa, Binary to Gray code conversion and vice versa.

10. Design and testing Ring counter/Johnson counter.

11. Design and testing of Sequence generator.

12. Realization of 3 bit counters as a sequential circuit and MOD – N counter design using 7490,74192, 74193.

Course outcomes :

- Design and test different diode circuits.
- Design and test amplifier and oscillator circuits and analyse their performance.
- Use universal gates and ICs for code conversion and arithmetic operations.

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