# VNIT Nagpur Chemical Engineering Syllabus IV SEM

**CML263 Fluid Mechanics**** **

Fundamental concepts of fluid flow, mechanism of compressible and non compressible fluid flow, equation of continuity, Reynolds number, significance, Bernoulli’s theorem, distribution of velocities and fluid flow profiles, friction factor and friction losses in pipes, roughness factor and its significance, pipe fittings, equivalent length of fittings etc. Energy losses due to sudden contraction and expansion.

Measurement of fluid flow: orificemeter, venturimeter, pitot tube, rotameters, notches and weirs, gas flow meters, coefficient of discharge and calculations.

Transportation of fluids, reciprocating and centrifugal pumps, pump characteristics, Diaphragm pumps, rotary pumps, screw pumps, gear pumps, pump power calculations, pump selection and trouble shooting of pumps, priming, cavitation , NPSH of pumps.

Packed Bed, pressure drop in packed beds, packing materials and their selection criteria, Loading and flooding in packed beds, Ergun correlation, Kazenger karma equation.

Fluidization, aggregate and particulate fluidization, incipient fluidization, minimum fluidization velocity, entrainment in fluidization, operating characteristics of gas – solid, liquid – solid and liquid – gas and gas – solid – liquid (three phase) fluidized beds.

Pneumatic conveying of solids, two phase flow, spouted beds, slurry transportation, pressure drop in two phase flow systems.

**Text / References: **

1. Badger W.L. and Banchero J.T.; Introduction of Chemical Engineering, McGraw Hill 1995.

2. Bansal R.K.; Fluid Mechanics, Khanna Publication.

3. Coulson J.M. and Richardson J.F.; Backhurst J.R. and Harker J.H.; Chemical Engineering, Vol. I & II, Publishers: Butterworth – Heinmann, 2001-2002.

4. Ghosal S.K., Sanyal S.K. and Dutta S.; Introduction to Chemical Engineering, Tata McGraw Hill Book Co.

5. Kapoor B.; Fluid Mechanics, New Age International, New Delhi.

6. McCabe W.L. Smith J.C. and Harriot P.; Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, McGraw Hill, 6^{th} Edition 2001.

**CML264**** Mechanical Operations**.

Properties and characterization of particulate solids, surface area distribution of powders, size reduction and separation, crushing, grinding equipments and their characteristics, open and close circuit grinding.

Screen analysis, mechanical classifiers classification. Principles of filtration and theory, filtration equipments and their characteristics, pressure and vacuum filters, compressible and non compressible cake and their effect on filtration rate, centrifugal separation equipments and their principles of operation as well as the characteristics, optimum filtration cycle, membrane filtration.

Motion of particles through fluid, drag coefficient, free settling and hindered settling, gravity settlers, sedimentation theory and principle of operation. Batch and continuous thickeners as well as the design procedures, sedimenting centrifuges.

Agitation and mixing of solids and liquids fundamentals, mixing and agitation equipments and their operational characteristics, power consumption in mixing and agitation, different types of agitators and their selection criteria.

Storage and conveying of solids, bins, hoppers, silos and their operational characteristics, Loading and unloading of solids, different types of conveyors and elevators for solid materials.

Dust collectors, cyclone separators, electrostatic precipitators, bag filters, operational characteristics of these and other similar dust separators.

**Text / References : **

1) Bird R.B., Stewart W.E. and Lightfoot E.N.; Transport Phenomena (2^{nd} Edition) John Willey & Sons, New York 1958.

2) Brown G.G. ; Unit Operations, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

3) Chattopadhyay O.P., Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 1 & 2, Khanna Publications, New Delhi, 1996.

4) Coulson J. M. and Richardson J.F; Chemical Engineering Vol. 1, 2, 4, 5, Publishers: Butter worth – Heinemann Ltd. 2001-2002.

5) Ghosal S.K., Sanyal S.K. and S. Dutta; Introduction to Chemical Engineering, Tata McGraw Hill Book Co.

6) Hiremath R.S & Kulkarni A.P., Mechanical Operations Vol I.

7) Lowrison G.C.; Crushing and Grinding, Butterworth & Co. Ltd. 1974, London.

8) McCabe W.L., Smith J.C. and Harriot P.; Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering 6^{th} Edition, McGraw Hill, New York 2001.

**CHL214**** Organic Chemical Technology ( Unit Process for Organic Synthesis)**

Fundamentals of organic chemical synthesis, oxidation and reduction reactions, liquid and vapour phase oxidation, kinetics and thermochemistry of such reactions, methods of reduction.

Amination and Amminolysis general principles, physical and chemical factors affecting these processes, various amination and amminolysis reactions and the kinetics and thermodynamic study of these reactions.

Alkylation reactions, alkylating agents, parameters involved in control of these reactions, sulfation and sulfonation reactions, parameters affecting these processes.

Hydrogenation reactions, kinetics and thermodynamics of such reactions, industrial hydrogenation processes, hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty oils, synthesis of methanol etc., halogenation reactions.

Manufacturing processes for industrially important organic chemicals.

Introduction to Polymerization, polymerization processes, polymerization techniques, copolymerization, manufacturing processes for various industrially important polymers.

**Text / References : **

1) Doraiswamy L.K.; Organic Synthesis Engineering, Academic Press, New York.

2) Dryden C.E., Rao M.G. and Sltting .M.; Outlines of Chemical Technology, East – West Press, 2^{nd} Edition, New Delhi.

3) Groggins P. H.; Units Processes In Organic Synthesis, Tata McGraw Hills Book Co.

4) Shreve R.N. and Brink H.A.; Chemical Process Industries, 4^{th} Edition, McGraw Hills Book Co., New York 1967.

**CML265 Numerical and Statistical Methods**** **

Approximations and errors in computation and their evaluation, rounding – off and truncation; absolute, relative and percentage errors. Solution of non-linear algebraic and transcendental equations, Bisection, false position, Newton–Raphson, Iterative methods and generalized Newton’s method for multiple roots.

Newton – Raphson, Iterative, false-position and bisection methods; generalized Newton’s for multiple roots. Solutions of linear simultaneous equations by Gauss elimination, Gauss-Jordan, Crout’s triangularization, Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods, Cubic spline and Gaussian quadrature formula.

Numerical solutions of ODE by Taylor series, Euler’s modified method, Runge-Kutta method, Milne’s method and their applications. Approximation of derivative (Ordinary & Partial), Boundary value problems by finite difference methods.

Random variable, distribution function of continuous and discrete random variables, mathematical expectation, generating function, Moments, Skewness and Krtosis.

Special probability distributions – Binomial, Poisson’s, Normal, Chi-square, t distribution, and F- distributions, confidence intervals for mean and variance.

Tests of hypothesis and significance, tests involving normal distribution, t- distribution chi-square distribution and F distribution.

Correlation and regression: simple and multiple correlation and applications related to Engg. Problems.

**Text / References:**** **

1) Grewal B.S.; Higher Engineering Mathematics, 38^{th} Edition, Khanna Publication – 2004.

2) Gupta S.C. and Kapoor V.K.; Fundamentals of Mathematical Statistics, 11^{th} Edition, Sultan Chand and Sons, Educational Publisher, New Delhi.

3) Sastry S.S, Introductory Methods of Numerical Analysis, 3^{rd} Edition, Prentics – Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi – 1995.

4) Spiegel M.R.; Probability and Statistics, Tata McGraw Hill Book Co. – 2004.

**CML265**** Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics**

Laws of thermodynamics for closed and open system, concepts of entropy, entropy changes, reversible and irreversible processes, equilibrium concept, Maxwell’s relations, P-V-T behaviour of pure substances, Heat of reaction and effect of temperature on heat of reaction.

Thermodynamic properties of fluids, their calculations using equations of state, partial molar quantities, fugacity, chemical potential, activity coefficients, free energy estimation, Gibb’s Duhem Theorem.

Vapour-liquid, vapour–solid and liquid–liquid phase equilibrium for ideal and non ideal systems, Criteria for chemical reaction equilibrium flow of compressible fluids in pipes and nozzles.

Refrigeration cycle, carnot refrigerator, gas and vapour compression refrigeration, choice of refrigerants, absorption refrigeration, heat pumps, compressors, single stage and multistage, expansion engines, liquification processes.

**Text / References:**** **

1. Bett K.E., Rowlinson J.S. and Saville G.; Thermodynamics for Chemical Engineers, 1^{st} Edition. Pub.: MIT Press America

2. Dadge B.F.; Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, McGraw Hill Co. 1944, New York.

3. Smith J.M.; Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 7^{th} Edition, McGraw Hill, 2005.

4. Narayan K.V., a text book of chemical engineering thermodynamics, PHI, 2001

5. Rastogi R.P. and Mishra R.R., An introduction to Chemical Engineering, Vikas Publishing House Pvt.Ltd, New Delhi.

6. Rao Y.V.C., Chemical Engineering Thermo dynamics, University press (INDIA) Ltd.

**CMP264 Fluid Mechanics and mechanical Operations Lab-I **

1) Study of varation of Orifice coefficient with Reynold number (C_{d} Vs N_{Re}).

2) Determination of sedimentation rate and design of thickener.

3) Evaluation of agitation performance.

4) Determination of Coefficient of discharge of Venturimeter.

5) Determination of Coefficient of discharge of Rotameter.

6) Determination of Coefficient of discharge of Orfice meter.

7) Determination of Coefficient of discharge of Notched Weir.

8) Performance evaluation of Centrifugal pump and Reciprocating pump.

9) Hydrodynamic studies in a packed bed.

**CHP214**** ****Organic Chemical Technology Lab.**** **

1) Study of Oxidation Reaction.

2) Study of Reduction Reaction.

3) Study of Esterificaton Reaction.

4) Study of Hydrolysis Reaction.

5) Study of Neutralization.

6) Study of Alkylation Reaction.

7) Study of Resin Preparation ( Phenol–Formaldehyde, Polystyrene, Acrylic resin etc.).

8) Study of Halogenation Reaction.

**4CH14 Computer Programming and Applications**.

(Introductory Lectures followed by Practicals):

Concept of Algorithm: Termination and correctness, Algorithms to programs; Specification, stepwise refinement technique, problem solving using Pascal

Computer Architecture: ALU, CPU, I/O devices, system softwares, operating systems, compilers, multiuser environments.

Computer programming and numerical methods, computer-programming languages, C & C^{++ }programs for matrix operations, programs for estimating roots of polynomials.

Programs for numerical integration, Trapezoidal and simphsons rules, regression analysis, programs for solution of ordinary differential equations, programs for interpolation and extrapolations.

**Text / References:**** **

1. Adams J.M.; Computers Application, Implications, John. Wiley Co. (1975).

2. Saran S., Swami P.K, Singh, K.K. Shah I.M. and Lal D.; Computer Programming and Numerical Methods, Metropolitan Book Corp. Ltd., New Delhi.

3. Syal I.C. and Gupta S.P.; Computer Programming and Engineering Analysis, A.H. Wheeler Co.

**4CH16**** Communication Skill **