# VNIT Nagpur Chemical Engineering Syllabus III SEM

**Third Sem B.Tech**

** 3CHO1 Mathematics – III **

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Solution of Ordinary differential equation of higher order, Frobenius method, Legendre’s equation, Bessel equation, Legendre Polynomials, Bessel function of first and second kind.

Definition of Laplace Transform and its properties, transform of derivatives and integrals, evaluation of integrals by Laplace Transform. Inverse Laplace Transform, convolution theorem, Laplace transform of periodic function and unit step function and dirac delta function. Applications of Lalplace transform to solve ordinary differential equation and partial differential equation-One-dimenstioal wave and heat equation.

Partial differential equation of first order. Linear homogenous partial differential equation of nth order with constant coefficient, method of separation of variables, application to simple problem of vibration of strings and beam, vibration of rectangular membrane and one dimensional heat equation.

Introduction, the Fourier theorem, Evaluation of Fourier coefficients, Half Range series, considerations of symmetry, Exponential form of Fourier series, Fourier integral theorem, Fourier transform, Elementary concept of double Fourier Series.

Analytical function, Cauchy-Riemann conditions, conjugate functions, singularities, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’s theorem, Residue theorem, Evaluation of integral by residue theorem, Conformal mapping, mapping by Linear and Inverse transformation.

**Texts / References: **

1. Grewal B.S.; Higher Engineering Mathematics; (38th Edition) Khanna Publishers; 2004.

2. Jain, R.K. and Iyengar, S.R.K.; Advanced Engineering Mathematics; Narosa Publishers; 2003.

3. Kreyszig, E.; Advanced Engineering Mathematics (8th Edition); John Wiley & Sons; 2000.

4. Spiegel M.R.; Advanced Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists; 3rd Edition McGraw- Hill Book Company; 2000.

**3CHO2 Physical Chemistry and General Metallurgy **

Equation of state for ideal and real gases, principle of corresponding states, compressibility factor, critical constants, estimation of molecur diameters, collision number, viscosity, heat conduction, diffusion, Knadex diffusivity and surface diffusion, Maxwell’s law of distribution of velocities, average, root mean square and most probable velocities, the principle of equipartition of energy.

The first law of thermodynamics, enthalpy, heat capacity, isothermal, adiabatic process, thermochemistry, thermochemical laws, flame and explosion temperatures, reversible and irreversible process, entropy, free energy, work function, the criteria of chemical equilibrium. Second law of thermodynamics, chemical potentials, fugacity, activity, determination of fugacity, reaction isotherm, van’t Hoff equation, Clausius–Clapeyron equation, phase rule, application to one, two and three component system, distribution of solute between two immiscible solvents, solvent extraction, partial miscibility, Raoult’s law, ideal and nonideal solutions, vapour pressure of solutions of two volatile components, fractional distillation, steam distillation, colligative properties, entropy of mixing, Gibbs – Duhem equation.

Conductance determination, transport number determination, concentration cells, Standard cells, standard electrode potentials, application of EMF measurements, heat of reaction, dissociation constants of acids and bases and solubility product, storage batteries, hydrogen ion concentration, electrometric titration, hydrolysis of salts, theory of indicators acid-base.

Radiation chemistry, laws of photochemistry, photo chemical reactions, combination of hydrogen and chlorine, flash photolysis and radiolysis.

General principles and Processing of Metallurgy, Occurrence and Mineral wealth of India. Ore Dressing roasting, calcinations, smelting, fluxes and slag. Types of Furnaces, refining of metals, Metallurgical industries of Iron, Steel, Aluminium, Copper, Lead, Zinc, etc. Manufacturing processes for these metals.

**Text / References: **

1. Barrow G.M.; Physical Chemistry, Benjaman Publishers, New York.

2. Dryden C.E.; Outlines of Chemical Technology, East West Press.

3. Gilreath E.S.; Fundamental Concepts of Inorganic Chemistry, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York.

4. Glasstone S.G.; Physical Chemistry, D.Van Nostrand, New York (1946) 1198.

5. Glasstone S.G.; Thermodynamics for Chemist, D. Van Nostrand, New York.

6. Glasstone S.G.; Introduction of Electrochemistry, D. Van Nostrand, New York.

7. Puri B.H. and Sharma L.R.; Principles of Physical Chemistry, S. Chand & Co., New Delhi.

8. Richards R.H. and Lock C.E.; Textbook of Ore Dressing, 3rd Edition McGraw Hill Co. New York.

9. Sheenhan W.F.; Physical Chemistry: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

10. Soni P.L.; Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry, S. Chand & Co. New Delhi.

11. Streve R.N. and Brink J.M.; Chemical Process Industries, McGraw Hill Book Co.

12. Venkatswarulu D.; Manual of Chemical Technology, Vol. I & II, Educational Department Centre, I.I.T. Madras.

**3CHO3 Inorganic Chemical Technology **

Industrial gases: CO, CO2, H2, O2, N2, SO2, C2H2, Helium and Nitrogen oxide. Industrial acids: 25% & 65% oleums, Liq. Sulphur Trioxide, Liq. Sulphur dioxide manufacture. Sulphuric acid, Nitric acid, Hydrochloric acid and Phosphoric acid. Miscealleanous Chemicals industries: Alum [ferric & Non-ferric], sugar, carbon-disulphide.

Industrial carbon: Activated carbon, lamp carbon, carbon black, graphite, industrial diamond, and Inorganic pigments: Study of pigments and dyes.

Waste Energy Recovery. Co-generation of power and Application to Chemical Industry for reducing cost of production.

Marine Chemicals: Salt from seawater. By-products of salt industry e.g. Bromine and Iodine.

Nuclear Industries: Nuclear Reactors, Feed materials, Uranium and Nuclear Reactors. Reprocessing of Nuclear materials, protection from radioactivity – measures.

Chlor – alkali industries: Soda Ash, Bicarbonates, Miscellaneous alkalis, Chlorine, Caustic Soda, Bleaching powder, Hypochlorites and chlorites, Eletrolytic MnO2, Aluminium metal.

Electrolytic and Electrochemical Industries: Chlorates, Per-chlorates, Primary and Scecondary cells. Artificial abrasives, Calcium carbides, Silicides and Nitrides.

Fertilisers: Ammonia, Nitrogenous fertilizers, Phosphatic fertilizers, Potassic fertilizers, Compound and Complex fertilizers, miscellaneous fertilizers.

Glass – Chemistry of glass making and manufacturing process, Composition of different types of glass special glass lining to vessels, Protective Refractory Linings for Chemical Plants.

**Text / References: **

1) Dryden C.E.; Outlines of Chemical Technology: East West Press, 1973.

2) Kirk – Othmer; Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Edition, John Willey & Sons.

3) Shreve R.N and Brink J.M; Chemical Process Industries: McGraw Hill Co., New York, 1977.

4) Soni P.L. and Kalyal; Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry, 20th Edition, S. Chand & Co., New Delhi.

5) Venkateshwarulu D.; Manual of Chemical Technology: Vols I and II, IIT, Madras, 1977.

** 3CHO4 Chemical Process Calculations **

Fundamental concepts, gas relationship, molarity, molality, normality, partial pressure, pure component volume and the related calculations.

Humidity and saturation and their applications fundamental concepts of material balance and energy balance. Material balance in various unit processes and unit operations.

Energy balance related to various process equipments.

Calculation of standard heat of reaction from heat of formation and heat of combustion, thermo chemistry, energy balance in various unit operations, heat of solutions, heat of neutralization etc.

Fuels and combustion calculation, proximate and ultimate analysis, adiabatic reaction temperature, air to fuel ratio, complex processes calculation.

** Text / References: **

1) Durgaprasad C.H. and Murthy D.V.S.; Process Calculations for Chemical Engineers, I.I.T., Madras Publication.

2) Himmelblau D.M.; Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering, 6th Edition, Prentice Hall of India Ltd.

3) Hougen O.A. and Watson K.M.; Chemical Process Principles, Port-I Material and Energy Balance, John Willey, New York 1947.

4) Vora S.M. and Bhut B.I., Industrial Stoichiometry; Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.

5) Williams E.T. and Johnson R.G.; Stoichiometry for Chemical Engineers, McGraw – Hill, New York 1958.

**3CHO5 Organic Chemistry and Synthesis **

Amination by reduction – Introduction and definition, methods of reduction, iron and metal reduction, other metals and acid reduction. Metals and alkali reduction, sulphide reduction. Amination by Amminolysis – General discussion, Aminating agents, survey of aminating reactions, physical and chemical factors affecting amminolysis. Catalysis used in the amination reactions, corrosion and pH of the autoclave charge, Kinetics and Thermodynamics of ammonolysis, design of reactors and auxiliaries, technical manufacture of amino compounds, control of amino recovery systems.

Alkylation – Introduction and types of alkylation, alkylating agents, factors controlling alkylation, equipments for alkylation, effect of alkylation and technical alkylation methods.

Oxidation – Liquid and vapour phase oxidation, kinetics and thermo chemistry, Apparatus for oxidation, technical oxidation.

Esterification and Hydrolysis – Esterification of organic acids, Esterification of carboxylic acid derivatives, Esters by addition of unsauturated systems. Inter-esterification. Technical preparation of ethyl acetate, cellulose acetate, nitroglycerine, polyethyl ether, phthalates, Kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism of hydrolysis. Technical preparations involving hydrolysis e.g. Hydrolysis of fats, preparation of furfural, glycols, phenols from chlorobenzene etc.

Hydrogenation – Catalytic hydrogenation, Kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrogenation reactions, apparatus and material of construction Industrial processes. Hydrogenation of fatty oils.

Polymerisation – General Introduction, Resin manufacturing process. Condensation polymerization. Addition polymerization, Intermediates for resins : Phenol, Formaldehyde, HMT, Vinyl acetate, Phthalic anhydride, etc.

**Text / References : **

1) Doraiswamy L.K.; Organic Synthesis Engineering, Academic Press, New York.

2) Groggins P. H.; Unit Processes in Organic Synthesis, 5th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill.

3) Shreve R.N. and Brink H.A., Chemical Process Industries, McGraw Hill Book Co. 4th Edition, 1967.

4) Venkateswarulu D.; Manual of Chemical Technology, Vol. I and II, Educational Development Centre, I.I.T. Madras, 1977.

**3CH13 Physical and Inorganic Chemistry Lab. **

1) To study the reaction kinetics of hydrolysis of ethylacetate by HCl.

2) To study the reaction kinetics of hydrolysis of ethylacetate by NaOH.

3) To study the adsorption of Oxalic acid / acetic acid on Charcoal and verify Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

4) Potentiometric titrationof i) Strong acid and weak base and ii) Strong acid.

5) Potentiometric titration of KI and KMnO4.

6) Conductometric titration of i)Strong acid and Weak base and ii)Weak acid and Weak base.

7) Determination of partition Coefficient of iodine between organic solvent and water.

8) Verification of Beer’s law for KMnO4 and K2Cr2O7 using Colorimeter.

9) Determination of heat of ionization of acetic acid.

10) Determination of heat of Crystallization of CuSO4.5H2O.

11) Preparation of salt Potassium dioxalate cuprerate- (II).

12) Estimation of ferrous and ferric content in iron ore.

13) To find the constant of conductivity cell, determination of dissociations constant of weak acid.

14) Determination of dissociation constant of a weak acid by EMF method.

15) Thermometric titration of acid against base.

16) Thermometric titration of FeSO4 and K2Cr2O7.

17) Determination of transport number by EMF method.

18) Determination of Molecular weight of a compound by Rast’s Camphor method.

19) Kinetics of the reaction between persulphate and potassium iodide.

20) To determine heat of solution of organic acid by the solubility method.

21)Molecular condition of benzoic acid in Toluene by determining its partition

coefficient.

**3CH15 Organic Chemistry Lab.**

1) Quantitative determination of the following groups:

(1) Acid, (2) Phenol, (3) Nitro, (4) Amino, (5) Ester, (6) Hydroxy,

(7) Aldehyde.

2) For Simple Organic Preparations of the following;

(1) Acetanilide, (2) Nitro-Acetanilide, (3) Bromo-Acetanilide,

(4) Aspirin, (5) m-Nitrobenzene, (6) Oxalic Acid.

3) Esterification reaction.

4) Sulfonation reactions.

**3CH16 Engineering Drawing and Graphics **

(Introductory Lecture followed by Practicals:)

ISI Conventions. (ISI No. 696 – 1960) Covering the standard practice in Machine Drawing and also use of I.S.I. specifications for limits & fits (ISI No. 919 – 1960).

Preparation of free hand proportionate dimensioned sketches & conventions of various elements such as screw threads, fastener (nuts, bolts, studs, locking arrangement, foundation bolts etc.) Rivets and riveted joins, welded joints.

Exercises in converting pictorial & isometric views into orthographic projection, sectioned views. Preparation of details & assembly drawings of simple machine parts such as keys, cotters, pin, pulleys, cottered joints & knuckle joints Bearing, shaft couplings. Various flanges & pipe connections. A valve, cocks, traps. Fixed and flexible joints, Expansion joints.

Minimum 10-12 Imperial size sheets (A-1) covering the above syllabus should be drawn out of which 1/3rd should be drawn using computer software likes AutoCAD.

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**Text / Reference: **

1) Bhatt N.D.; Elementary Engineering Drawing, 20th Edition, Charotar Publishing House.

2) Mathur M.L. and Vaishwanar R.S.; Engineering Drawing and Graphics, Jain Brothers, New Delhi – 1993.

3) Narayana K.L. and Kannaiah P.; Engineering Graphics, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Co. Ltd., 2000.

4) Neumann W. M. and Sproul R.F.; Principles of Computer Graphics, McGraw Hill 1989.

5) Parkinson A.C.; Engineering Drawing, 2nd Edition, Wheeler Publishing Company.

3CH17 Social Skills (Audit)

**CML263 Fluid Mechanics **

Fundamental concepts of fluid flow, mechanism of compressible and non compressible fluid flow, equation of continuity, Reynolds number, significance, Bernoulli’s theorem, distribution of velocities and fluid flow profiles, friction factor and friction losses in pipes, roughness factor and its significance, pipe fittings, equivalent length of fittings etc. Energy losses due to sudden contraction and expansion.

Measurement of fluid flow: orificemeter, venturimeter, pitot tube, rotameters, notches and weirs, gas flow meters, coefficient of discharge and calculations.

Transportation of fluids, reciprocating and centrifugal pumps, pump characteristics, Diaphragm pumps, rotary pumps, screw pumps, gear pumps, pump power calculations, pump selection and trouble shooting of pumps, priming, cavitation , NPSH of pumps.

Packed Bed, pressure drop in packed beds, packing materials and their selection criteria, Loading and flooding in packed beds, Ergun correlation, Kazenger karma equation.

Fluidization, aggregate and particulate fluidization, incipient fluidization, minimum fluidization velocity, entrainment in fluidization, operating characteristics of gas – solid, liquid – solid and liquid – gas and gas – solid – liquid (three phase) fluidized beds.

Pneumatic conveying of solids, two phase flow, spouted beds, slurry transportation, pressure drop in two phase flow systems.

**Text / References: **

1. Badger W.L. and Banchero J.T.; Introduction of Chemical Engineering, McGraw Hill 1995.

2. Bansal R.K.; Fluid Mechanics, Khanna Publication.

3. Coulson J.M. and Richardson J.F.; Backhurst J.R. and Harker J.H.; Chemical Engineering, Vol. I & II, Publishers: Butterworth – Heinmann, 2001-2002.

4. Ghosal S.K., Sanyal S.K. and Dutta S.; Introduction to Chemical Engineering, Tata McGraw Hill Book Co.

5. Kapoor B.; Fluid Mechanics, New Age International, New Delhi.

6. McCabe W.L. Smith J.C. and Harriot P.; Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, McGraw Hill, 6th Edition 2001.

**CML264 Mechanical Operations. **

Properties and characterization of particulate solids, surface area distribution of powders, size reduction and separation, crushing, grinding equipments and their characteristics, open and close circuit grinding.

Screen analysis, mechanical classifiers classification. Principles of filtration and theory, filtration equipments and their characteristics, pressure and vacuum filters, compressible and non compressible cake and their effect on filtration rate, centrifugal separation equipments and their principles of operation as well as the characteristics, optimum filtration cycle, membrane filtration.

Motion of particles through fluid, drag coefficient, free settling and hindered settling, gravity settlers, sedimentation theory and principle of operation. Batch and continuous thickeners as well as the design procedures, sedimenting centrifuges.

Agitation and mixing of solids and liquids fundamentals, mixing and agitation equipments and their operational characteristics, power consumption in mixing and agitation, different types of agitators and their selection criteria.

Storage and conveying of solids, bins, hoppers, silos and their operational characteristics, Loading and unloading of solids, different types of conveyors and elevators for solid materials.

Dust collectors, cyclone separators, electrostatic precipitators, bag filters, operational characteristics of these and other similar dust separators.

**Text / References : **

1) Bird R.B., Stewart W.E. and Lightfoot E.N.; Transport Phenomena (2nd Edition) John Willey & Sons, New York 1958.

2) Brown G.G. ; Unit Operations, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

3) Chattopadhyay O.P., Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 1 & 2, Khanna Publications, New Delhi, 1996.

4) Coulson J. M. and Richardson J.F; Chemical Engineering Vol. 1, 2, 4, 5, Publishers: Butter worth – Heinemann Ltd. 2001-2002.

5) Ghosal S.K., Sanyal S.K. and S. Dutta; Introduction to Chemical Engineering, Tata McGraw Hill Book Co.

6) Hiremath R.S & Kulkarni A.P., Mechanical Operations Vol I.

7) Lowrison G.C.; Crushing and Grinding, Butterworth & Co. Ltd. 1974, London.

8) McCabe W.L., Smith J.C. and Harriot P.; Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering 6th Edition, McGraw Hill, New York 2001.

**CHL214 Organic Chemical Technology ( Unit Process for Organic Synthesis) **

Fundamentals of organic chemical synthesis, oxidation and reduction reactions, liquid and vapour phase oxidation, kinetics and thermochemistry of such reactions, methods of reduction.

Amination and Amminolysis general principles, physical and chemical factors affecting these processes, various amination and amminolysis reactions and the kinetics and thermodynamic study of these reactions.

Alkylation reactions, alkylating agents, parameters involved in control of these reactions, sulfation and sulfonation reactions, parameters affecting these processes.

Hydrogenation reactions, kinetics and thermodynamics of such reactions, industrial hydrogenation processes, hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty oils, synthesis of methanol etc., halogenation reactions.

Manufacturing processes for industrially important organic chemicals.

Introduction to Polymerization, polymerization processes, polymerization techniques, copolymerization, manufacturing processes for various industrially important polymers.

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**Text / References : **

1) Doraiswamy L.K.; Organic Synthesis Engineering, Academic Press, New York.

2) Dryden C.E., Rao M.G. and Sltting .M.; Outlines of Chemical Technology, East – West Press, 2nd Edition, New Delhi.

3) Groggins P. H.; Units Processes In Organic Synthesis, Tata McGraw Hills Book Co.

4) Shreve R.N. and Brink H.A.; Chemical Process Industries, 4th Edition, McGraw Hills Book Co., New York 1967.

**CML265 Numerical and Statistical Methods **

Approximations and errors in computation and their evaluation, rounding – off and truncation; absolute, relative and percentage errors. Solution of non-linear algebraic and transcendental equations, Bisection, false position, Newton–Raphson, Iterative methods and generalized Newton’s method for multiple roots.

Newton – Raphson, Iterative, false-position and bisection methods; generalized Newton’s for multiple roots. Solutions of linear simultaneous equations by Gauss elimination, Gauss-Jordan, Crout’s triangularization, Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods, Cubic spline and Gaussian quadrature formula.

Numerical solutions of ODE by Taylor series, Euler’s modified method, Runge-Kutta method, Milne’s method and their applications. Approximation of derivative (Ordinary & Partial), Boundary value problems by finite difference methods.

Random variable, distribution function of continuous and discrete random variables, mathematical expectation, generating function, Moments, Skewness and Krtosis.

Special probability distributions – Binomial, Poisson’s, Normal, Chi-square, t distribution, and F- distributions, confidence intervals for mean and variance.

Tests of hypothesis and significance, tests involving normal distribution, t- distribution chi-square distribution and F distribution.

Correlation and regression: simple and multiple correlation and applications related to Engg. Problems.

**Text / References: **

1) Grewal B.S.; Higher Engineering Mathematics, 38th Edition, Khanna Publication – 2004.

2) Gupta S.C. and Kapoor V.K.; Fundamentals of Mathematical Statistics, 11th Edition, Sultan Chand and Sons, Educational Publisher, New Delhi.

3) Sastry S.S, Introductory Methods of Numerical Analysis, 3rd Edition, Prentics – Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi – 1995.

4) Spiegel M.R.; Probability and Statistics, Tata McGraw Hill Book Co. – 2004.

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**CML265 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics **

Laws of thermodynamics for closed and open system, concepts of entropy, entropy changes, reversible and irreversible processes, equilibrium concept, Maxwell’s relations, P-V-T behaviour of pure substances, Heat of reaction and effect of temperature on heat of reaction.

Thermodynamic properties of fluids, their calculations using equations of state, partial molar quantities, fugacity, chemical potential, activity coefficients, free energy estimation, Gibb’s Duhem Theorem.

Vapour-liquid, vapour–solid and liquid–liquid phase equilibrium for ideal and non ideal systems, Criteria for chemical reaction equilibrium flow of compressible fluids in pipes and nozzles.

Refrigeration cycle, carnot refrigerator, gas and vapour compression refrigeration, choice of refrigerants, absorption refrigeration, heat pumps, compressors, single stage and multistage, expansion engines, liquification processes.

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**Text / References: **

1. Bett K.E., Rowlinson J.S. and Saville G.; Thermodynamics for Chemical Engineers, 1st Edition. Pub.: MIT Press America

2. Dadge B.F.; Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, McGraw Hill Co. 1944, New York.

3. Smith J.M.; Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 7th Edition, McGraw Hill, 2005.

4. Narayan K.V., a text book of chemical engineering thermodynamics, PHI, 2001

5. Rastogi R.P. and Mishra R.R., An introduction to Chemical Engineering, Vikas Publishing House Pvt.Ltd, New Delhi.

6. Rao Y.V.C., Chemical Engineering Thermo dynamics, University press (INDIA) Ltd.

**CMP264 Fluid Mechanics and mechanical Operations Lab-I **

1) Study of varation of Orifice coefficient with Reynold number (Cd Vs NRe).

2) Determination of sedimentation rate and design of thickener.

3) Evaluation of agitation performance.

4) Determination of Coefficient of discharge of Venturimeter.

5) Determination of Coefficient of discharge of Rotameter.

6) Determination of Coefficient of discharge of Orfice meter.

7) Determination of Coefficient of discharge of Notched Weir.

8) Performance evaluation of Centrifugal pump and Reciprocating pump.

9) Hydrodynamic studies in a packed bed.

**CHP214 Organic Chemical Technology Lab. **

1) Study of Oxidation Reaction.

2) Study of Reduction Reaction.

3) Study of Esterificaton Reaction.

4) Study of Hydrolysis Reaction.

5) Study of Neutralization.

6) Study of Alkylation Reaction.

7) Study of Resin Preparation ( Phenol–Formaldehyde, Polystyrene, Acrylic resin etc.).

8) Study of Halogenation Reaction.

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