# RTU Syllabus for Electronics and Instrumentation

# RTU Syllabus for Electronics and Instrumentation

**MATHEMATICS**

** **

UNIT 1: LAPLACE TRANSFORM – Laplace transform with its simple properties, applications to the solution of ordinary and partial differential equations having constant co-efficients with special reference to the wave and diffusion equations.

UNIT 2: FOURIER SERIES & Z TRANSFORM – Expansion of simple functions in fourier series. Half range series, Change of intervals, Harmonic analysis. Z TRANSFORM – Introduction, Properties, Inverse Z Transform.

UNIT 3: FOURIER TRANSFORM – Complex form of Fourier Transform and its inverse, Fourier sine and cosine transform and their inversion. Applications of Fourier Transform to solution of partial differential equations having constant co-efficient with special reference to heat equation and wave equation.

UNIT 4: COMPLEX VARIABLES – Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Elementary conformal mapping with simple applications, Line integral in complex domain, Cauchy;s theorem. Cauchy’s integral formula.

UNIT 5: COMPLEX VARIABLES -Taylor’s series Laurent’s series poles, Residues, Evaluation of simple definite real integrals using the theorem of residues. Simple contour integration.

BOOKS

- Engineering Mathematics, T Veerarajan, TMH
- Mathematical Techniques, Jordan, Oxford
- Advance Engineering Mathematics, Potter, Oxford
- Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Irvin Kreyszig, Wiley
- Mathematical Methods, Dutta, D., New Age
- Text BOOK Of Engineering Mathematics, Dutta, New Age

UNIT 1: SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS: Mobility and conductivity, charge densities in a semiconductor, Fermi Dirac distribution, carrier concentrations and fermi levels in emiconductor, Generation and recombination of charges, diffusion and continuity equation, Mass action Law, Hall effect.

UNIT 2: Junction diodes, Diode as a ckt. element, load line concept, clipping and clamping circuits, Voltage multipliers. Construction, characteristics and working principles of UJT

UNIT 3: Transistor characteristics, Current components, Current gains: alpha and beta. Operating point. Hybrid model, h-parameter equivalent circuits. CE, CB and CC configuration. DC and AC analysis of CE, CC and CB amplifiers. Ebers-Moll model.

Biasing & stabilization techniques. Thermal runaway, Thermal stability.

UNIT 4: JFET, MOSFET, Equivalent circuits and biasing of JFET’s & MOSFET’s. Low requency CS and CD JFET amplifiers. FET as a voltage variable resistor.

UNIT 5: SMALL SIGNAL AMPLIFIERS AT LOW FREQUENCY: Analysis of BJT and

FET, DC and RC coupled amplifiers. Frequency response, midband gain, gains at low and high requency. Analysis of DC and differential amplifiers, Miller’s Theorem.

Cascading Transistor amplifiers, Darlington pair. Emitter follower, source follower.

BOOKS

- Millman’s Integrated Electronics, Millman &Parekh, TMH
- Electronic Devices And Circuits, Salivahanan, TMH
- Millnman’s Electronic Devices And Circuits (Special Indian Edition), Millman & Halkias, TMH
- Electronic Devices And Circuits, Bogart, Pearson
- Electronic Devices And Circuit Theory, Boylestad, Pearson
- Electronic Devices And Circuits, Cheruku, Pearson
- Electronic Devices, Floyd, Pearson
- Basic Electronics, Ghatak, Pearson
- Electronic Devices And Circuits (For Jntu), Rao, Pearson
- Electronic Devices And Circuits, Bell, Oxford
- Semiconductor Devices: Modelling And Technology, Nandita Dasgupta, PHI
- Electronic Devices And Circuits: An Introduction, Allen Mottershead, PHI
- Electronic Devices And Circuits, I.J. Nagrath, PHI
- Electronic Devices And Applications, B. Somanathan Nair, PHI
- Electronic Devices And Circuits, Balbir Kumar, PHI
- Electron Devices And Circuits, Chattopadhayay.D, Rakshit, P.C, New Age
- A Text
- BOOK Of Electronics, Kakani, S.L.Bhandari, K.C, New Age
- Electronic Devices And Circuits, S.K.Sahdev, Na, Dhanpatrai

UNIT 1: NETWORK THEOREMS AND ELEMENTS:Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Reciprocity, Superposition, Compensation, Miller’s, Tellegen’s and maximum power transfer theorems. Networks with dependent sources. Inductively coupled circuits – mutual inductance, coefficient of coupling and mutual inductance between portions of same circuits and between parallel branches. Transformer equivalent, inductively and conductively coupled circuits.

UNIT 2:TRANSIENTS ANALYSIS: Impulse, step, ramp and sinusoidal response Analysis of first order and second order circuits. Time domain & transform domain (frequency, Laplace) analysis. Initial and final value theorems. Complex periodic waves and their analysis by Fourier analysis. Different kind of symmetry. Power in a circuit.

UNIT 3: NETWORK FUNCTIONS: Terminals and terminal pairs, driving point impedance transfer functions, poles and zeros. Procedure of finding network functions for general two terminal pair networks. Stability & causality. Hurwitz polynomial, positive real function.

UNIT 4: TWO PORT NETWORKS: Two port parameters and their interrelations – z- parameters, yparameters, h-parameters, ABCD parameters. Equivalence of two ports, transformer equivalent, interconnection of two port networks. Image parameters. Attenuation & phase shift in symmetrical T and n networks.

UNIT 5: NETWORK SYNTHESIS: RL & RC networks synthesis, Foster First & Second form, Cauer forms.

BOOKS

- Circuits And Networks: Analysis And Synthesis, Sudhakar, TMH
- Network Analysis And Synthesis, Ghosh & Chakrabarti, TMH
- Electrical Networks, Singh, TMH
- Schaum’s Outlines Of Electric Circuits (Sie), Nahvi, TMH
- Eelectronic Circuits: Analysis And Design(Sie), Donald Neamen, TMH
- Electric Circuits & Networks, Suresh Kumar, Pearson
- Electric Circuits, Nilsson, Pearson
- Linear Circuits Analysis, Decarlo, Oxford
- Linear Circuits (Includes Cd), Ramakalyan, Oxford
- Circuits And Network: Analysis, Design, And Synthesis, Sukhija, Oxford
- Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, Irwin, Wiley
- Network Analysis & Synthesis, Kuo, Wiley
- Network Theory: Analysis And Synthesis, Smarjit Ghosh, PHI
- Basic Circuit Theory, Lawrence P. Huelsman, PHI
- Electric Circuit Analysis, Xavier, S.P. Eugene, New Age

UNIT 1: THEORY OF ERRORS: Accuracy & precision, Repeatability, Limits of errors, Systematic & random errors Modeling of errors, Probable error & standard deviation, Gaussian error analysis, Combination of errors.

UNIT 2: ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING BASIC PARAMETERS:

Electronic Voltmeter, Electronic Multimeters, Digital Voltmeter, Component Measuring Instruments, Q meter, Vector Impedance meter, RF Power & Voltage Measurements. Measurement of frequency. Introduction to shielding & grounding.

UNIT 3: OSCILLOSCOPES: CRT Construction, Basic CRO circuits, CRO Probes, Oscilloscope Techniques of Measurement of frequency, Phase Angle and Time Delay, Multibeam, multi trace, storage & sampling Oscilloscopes. Curve tracers.

UNIT 4: SIGNAL GENERATION: – Sine wave generators, Frequency synthesized signal generators, Sweep frequency generators. Signal Analysis – Measurement Technique, Wave Analyzers, Frequency – selective wave analyser, Heterodyne wave analyser, Harmonic distortion analyser, Spectrum analyser.

UNIT 5: TRANSDUCERS – Classification, Selection Criteria, Characteristics, Construction, Working Principles, Application of following Transducers- RTD, Thermocouples, Thermistors, LVDT, RVDT, Strain Gauges, Bourdon Tubes, Bellows. Diaphragms, Seismic Accelerometers, Tachogenerators, Load Cell, Piezoelectric Transducers, Ultrasonic Flow Meters.

BOOKS

- Electronic Instrumentation, H S Kalsi, TMH
- Electronic Measurements & Instrumentation, Bernard Oliver, TMH
- Instrumentation Measurement & Analysis, B.C.Nakra, K.K. Chaudhry, TMH
- Electronic Measurements & Instrumentation, Bernard Oliver, John Cage, TMH
- Electronic Measurements And Instrumentation, Lal Kishore, Pearson
- Elements Of Electronic Instrumentation And Measurement, Carr, Pearson
- Electronic Instrument And Measurment, Bell, Oxford
- Electronic Measurements And Instrumentation, Dally, Wiley
- Theory And Design For Mechanical Measurements, Figliola, Wiley
- Electronic Instrumentation And Measurements, David A. Bell, PHI
- Introduction To Measurements And Instrumetation, Arun K. Ghosh, PHI
- A Course In Electrical & Electronic Measurement & Instrumentation, A.K.Sawhney, Dhanpatrai

UNIT 1: DIELECTRIC MATERIALS: Polarisation phenomenon, spontaneous polarisation, dielectric constant and loss, piezo and ferro electricity.

UNIT 2: MAGNETIC MATERIALS: Dia, para, ferro-ferrimagnetism; soft and hard magnetic materials and their applications.

UNIT 3: SEMI CONDUCTOR MATERIALS: Crystal growth, zone refining, Degenerate and nondegenerate semiconductors, Direct and indirect band gap semiconductors. Electronic properties of silicon, Germanium, Compound Semiconductor, Gallium Arsenide, gallium phosPHIde & Silicon carbide.

UNIT 4: CONDUCTIVE & SUPERCONDUCTIVE MATERIALS: Electrical properties of conductive and resistive materials. Important characteristics and electronic applications of specific conductor & resistance materials. Superconductor phenomenon, Type I and Type II superconductors and their applications.

UNIT 5: PASSIVE COMPONENETS & PCB FABRICATION: Brief study of fabrication methods of fixed and variable type of resistors; capacitors, Inductors, solenoid and toroid, air core, iron core and Ferro core conductors. Printed Circuit Boards – Types, Manufacturing of copper clad laminates, PCB Manufacturing process, Manufacturing of single and double sided PCBs. Surface mount devices – advantages & limitations.

BOOKS

- Principles Of Electronic Materials And Devices, S O Kasap, TMH
- Electronics Engineering Material And Devices, J Allison, TMH
- Electronics Material And Processes Hand
- BOOK, Charles Harpa, Ronald Sampson, TMH
- Introduction To Materials Science For Engineers, Shackelford, Pearson
- Elements Of Materials Science & Engineering, Van Vlack, Pearson
- Material Science For Electrical And Electronic Engineers, Jones, Oxford
- Introduction To Semiconductor Materials And Devices, Tyagi, Wiley
- Electronic Instrumentation And Measurements, David A. Bell, PHI
- Introduction To Measurements And Instrumetation, Arun K. Ghosh, PHI
- Electronic Components And Processes, Maheshwari, Preeti, New Age
- Rudiments Of Materials Science, Pillai, S.O., New Age

UNIT 1: PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT: Space complexity and Time complexity, big oh,

omega and theta notations and their significance. Linear Lists – Array and linked representation, Singly & Doubly linked lists. Concept of circular linked lists.

UNIT 2: ARRAY & MATRICES – Row and Column Major mapping & representation, irregular 2D array, Matrix operations, Special matrices: diagonal, tri-diagonal, triangular, symmetric. Sparse matrices representation and its transpose.

UNIT 3: STACKS – Representation in array & linked lists, basic operation, Applications of stacks in parenthesis matching, towers of Hanoi etc. Queues – Representation in array & linked lists, applications, circular queues.

UNIT 4: TREES – Binary Tree, representation in array & linked lists, basic operation on binary trees, binary tree traversal (preorder, post order, in order).

Search Trees – Binary search tree, indexed-binary search tree, basic operation, AVL tree, B-tree.

UNIT 5: GRAPHS – Representation of un weighted graphs, BFS, DFS, Minimum cost spanning

trees, Single source shortest path.Sorting – Bubble sort, insertion sort, merge sort, selection sort, quick sort, heap sort.

BOOKS

- Data Structures (Special Indian Edition) (Schaums’ Outlines Series), Lipschutz & Pai, TMH
- Data Structures And Algorithms, Pai, TMH
- Data Structure Using C (Sigma Series), Mukherjee, TMH
- Introduction To Data Structures With Applications, Tremblay, TMH
- Data Structure Using C, Krishnamoorthy, TMH
- Data Structures, Keogh, Wiley

3EC7 ELECTRONICS WORKSHOP

- Identification, Study & Testing of various electronic components :

(a) Resistances-Various types, Colour coding (b) Capacitors-Various types, Coding, (c) Inductors

(d) Diodes (e) Transistors (f) SCRs (g) ICs (h) Photo diode (i) Photo transistor (j) LED (k) LDR (l) Potentiometers

- Study of symbols for various Electrical & Electronic Components, Devices, Circuit functions etc.
- To study and perform experiment on CRO demonstration kit.
- Soldering & desoldering practice.
- (a) To Design & fabricate a PCB for a Regulated power supply.

(b) Assemble the Regulated power supply using PCB and test it.

- To study and plot the characteristics of following Opto-Electronic devices –

(a) LED (b) LDR (C) Photovoltatic cell (d) Opto-coupler

(e) Photo diode (f) Photo transistor (g) Solar cell

- To study the specifications and working of a Transistor radio kit and perform measurements on it.
- To study the specifications and working of a Tape Recorder kit.
- To prepare design layout of PCBs using software tools.
- To fabricate PCB and testing of electronics circuit on PCB.
- To design and test regulated power supply using ICs
- To study the specifications and working of a VCD Player.
- To study the specifications and working of color TV.

3EC8 COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LAB-I

Program in C

- Simple array and sorting algorithm implementations.
- Addition, multiplication and transpose of sparse matrices represented in array form.
- Polynomial addition, multiplication (8
^{th}degree polynomials), using array & linked lists. - Implementation of stack and queue using array & linked lists.
- Implementation of circular queue using array.
- Infix to postfix/prefix conversion.
- Binary search tree creation and traversing.
- Generation of spanning trees for a given graph using BFS & DFS algorithms.
- AVL tree implementation (creation, insertion, deletion).
- Symbol table organization (Hash Table).

3EC9 ELECTRONICS LAB I

- Study the following devices:

(a) Analog & digital multimeters

(b) Function/ Signal generators

(c) Regulated d. c. power supplies (constant voltage and constant current operations)

(d) Study of analog CRO, measurement of time period, amplitude, frequency & phase angle using Lissajous figures.

2 Plot V-I characteristic of P-N junction diode & calculate cut-in voltage, reverse Saturation current and static & dynamic resistances.

3 Plot V-I characteristic of zener diode and study of zener diode as voltage regulator.

Observe the effect of load changes and determine load limits of the voltage regulator.

4 Plot frequency response curve for single stage amplifier and to determine gain bandwidth product.

5 Plot drain current – drain voltage and drain current – gate bias characteristics of field effect transistor and measure of I_{dss} & V_{p}

6 Application of Diode as clipper & clamper

7 Plot gain- frequency characteristic of two stage RC coupled amplifier & calculate its bandwidth and

compare it with theoretical value.

8 Plot gain- frequency characteristic of emitter follower & find out its input and output resistances.

9 Plot input and output characteristics of BJT in CB, CC and CE configurations. Find their h- parameters.

10 Study half wave rectifier and effect of filters on wave. Also calculate theoretical & practical ripple factor.

11 Study bridge rectifier and measure the effect of filter network on D.C. voltage output & ripple factor.

3EC10 ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT & INSTRUMENTATION LAB

- Measure earth resistance using fall of potential method.
- Plot V-I characteristics & measure open circuit voltage & short circuit current of a solar panel.
- Measure unknown inductance capacitance resistance using following bridges (a) Anderson Bridge (b) Maxwell Bridge
- To measure unknown frequency & capacitance using Wein’s bridge.
- Measurement of the distance with the help of ultrasonic transmitter & receiver.
- Measurement of displacement with the help of LVDT.
- Draw the characteristics of the following temperature transducers:

(a) RTD (Pt-100) (b) Thermistors (c) Thermocouple

- Draw the characteristics between temperature & voltage of a K type thermocouple.
- Measure the speed of a Table Fan using stroboscope.
- Measurement of strain/ force with the help of strain gauge load cell.
- Study the working of Q-meter and measure Q of coils.
- To study the working of Spectrum analyzer and determine the bandwidth of different signals.

UNIT 1: NUMERICAL ANALYSIS – Finite differences – Forward, Backward and Central differences. Newton’s forward and backward differences, interpolation formulae. Stirling’s formula, Lagrange’s interpolation formula.

UNIT 2: NUMERICAL ANALYSIS- Integration-Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s one third and three-eighth rules. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations of first order – Picard’s mathod, Euler’s and modified Euler’s methods, Miline’s method and Runga- Kutta fourth order method., Differentiation

UNIT 3: SPECIAL FUNCTIONS – Bessel’s functions of first and second kind, simple recurrence relations, orthogonal property of Bessel’s, Transformation, Generating functions, Legendre’s function of first kind. Simple recurrence relations, Orthogonal property, Generating function.

UNIT 4: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY – Elementary theory of probability, Bayes theorem with simple applications, Expected value, theoretical probability distributions- Binomial, Poisson and Normal distributions. Lines of regression, co-relation and rank correlation.

UNIT 5: CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS – Functional, strong and weak variations simple variation problems, the Euler’s equation.

BOOKS

- Advanced Engg. Mathematics-4, S.K.Dadhich, N.K.
- Advanced Engg. Mathematics, Irvin Kreyszig, Wiley
- Applied Statics & Probability, Montgomery, Wiley

UNIT 1: FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS: Classification, Feedback concept, Transfer gain with feedback, General characteristics of negative feedback amplifiers. Analysis of voltage-series, voltage-shunt, current-series and current-shunt feedback amplifier.

Stability criterion.

UNIT 2: OSCILLATORS: Classification. Criterion for oscillation. Tuned collector,

Hartley, Colpitts, RC Phase shift, Wien bridge and crystal oscillators, Astable, monostable and bistable multivibrators. Schmitt trigger. Blocking oscillators.

UNIT 3: HIGH FREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS: Hybrid Pi model, conductances and capacitances of hybrid Pi model, high frequency analysis of CE amplifier, gain- bandwidth product. Emitter follower at high frequencies.

UNIT 4: TUNED AMPLIFIER – Band Pass Amplifier, Parallel resonant Circuits, Band Width of Parallel resonant circuit. Analysis of Single Tuned Amplifier, Primary &

Secondary Tuned Amplifier with BJT & FET. Double Tuned Transformer Coupled Amplifier. Stagger Tuned Amplifier. Pulse Response of such Amplifier. Shunt Peaked Circuits for Increased Bandwidth.

UNIT 5: POWER AMPLIFIERS: Power amplifier circuits, Class A output stage, class B output stage and class AB output stages, class C amplifiers, pushpull amplifiers with and without transformers. Complementary symmetry & quasi complimentary symmetry amplifiers

BOOKS

- Millman’s Integrated Electronics, Millman & Parekh, TMH
- Electronic Devices And Circuits, Salivahanan, TMH
- Millman’s Electronic Devices And Circuits (Special Indian Edition), Millman & Halkias, TMH
- Analysis And Design Of An Analog Integrated Ckt, Gray, Wiley
- Electronic Devices And Circuit Theory, Boylested, Pearson
- Electronic Devices, Floyd, Pearson
- Electronic Devices And Integrated Circuits, Singh, Pearson
- Electronic Devices And Circuits, 5e, Bell, Oxford
- Microelectronic Circuits, 5e (Intl. Version), Sedra, Oxford

UNIT 1: NUMBER SYSTEMS, BASIC LOGIC GATES & BOOLEAN ALGEBRA: Binary Arithmetic & Radix representation of different numbers. Sign & magnitude representation, Fixed point representation, complement notation, various codes & arithmetic in different codes & their inter conversion. Features of logic algebra, postulates of Boolean algebra. Theorems of Boolean algebra. Boolean function. Derived logic gates: Exclusive-OR, NAND, NOR gates, their block diagrams and truth tables. Logic diagrams from Boolean expressions and vica-versa. Converting logic diagrams to universal logic. Positive, negative and mixed logic. Logic gate conversion.

UNIT 2: DIGITAL LOGIC GATE CHARACTERISTICS: TTL logic gate characteristics. Theory & operation of TTL NAND gate circuitry. Open collector TTL. Three state output logic. TTL subfamilies. MOS & CMOS logic families. Realization of logic gates in RTL, DTL, ECL, C-MOS & MOSFET. Interfacing logic families to one another.

UNIT 3: MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUES: Minterm, Maxterm, Karnaugh Map, K map upto 4 variables. Simplification of logic functions with K-map, conversion of truth tables in PoS and SOP form. Incomplete specified functions. Variable mapping. Quinn-Mc Klusky minimization techniques.

UNIT 4: COMBINATIONAL SYSTEMS: Combinational logic circuit design, half and full adder, subtractor. Binary serial and parallel adders. BCD adder. Binary multiplier. Decoder: Binary to Graydecoder, BCD to decimal, BCD to 7-segment decoder. Multiplexer, demultiplexer, encoder. Octal to binary, BCD to excess-3 encoder. Diode switching matrix. Design of logic circuits by multiplexers, encoders, decoders and demultiplexers.

UNIT 5: SEQUENTIAL SYSTEMS: Latches, flip-flops, R-S, D, J-K, Master Slave flip flops. Conversions of flip-flops. Counters: Asynchronous (ripple), synchronous and synchronous decade counter, Modulus counter, skipping state counter, counter design. Ring counter. Counter applications. Registers: buffer register, shift register.

BOOKS

- Digital Circuit & Logic Design, Samuel C.Lee, Eee
- Modern Digital Electronics, R.P. Jain, TMH
- Digital Principles And Applications (Special Indian Edition), Leach & Malvino, TMH
- 2000 Solved Problems In Digital Electronics (Sigma Series), Bali, TMH
- Digital Fundamental, Floyd & Jain, Pearson
- Digital Logic And Computer Design, Mano, Pearson
- Digital Systems: Principles And Applications, Tocci, Pearson
- Digital Design, M.Morris Mano, Pearson
- Digital Electronics Principal & Intigrated Ckt, Maini, Wiley
- Digital Logic Design Principals, Palbanian, Wiley
- Digital Electronics, Kharate, Oxford

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION: Vector Relation in rectangular, cylindrical, spherical and general curvilinear coordinate system. Concept and physical interpretation of gradient, Divergence and curl, Green’s & Stoke’s theorems.

UNIT 2: ELECTROSTATICS: Electric field intensity & flux density. Electric field due to various charge configurations. The potential functions and displacement vector. Gauss’s law. Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation and their solution. Uniqueness theorem. Continuity equation. Capacitance and electrostatics energy. Field determination by method of images. Boundary conditions. Field mapping and concept of field cells.

UNIT 3: MAGNETOSTATICS: Magnetic field intensity, flux density & magnetization, Faraday’s Law, Bio-Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Magnetic scalar and vector potential, self & mutual inductance, Energy stored in magnetic field, Boundary conditions, Analogy between electric and magnetic field, Field maping and concept of field cells.

UNIT 4: TIME VARYING FIELDS: Displacement currents and equation of continuity. Maxwell’s equations, Uniform plane wave in free space, dielectrics and conductors, skin effect sinusoidal time variations, reflection & refraction of Uniform Plane Wave, standing wave ratio. Pointing vector and power considerations.

UNIT 5: RADIATION, EMI AND EMC: Retarded Potentials and concepts of radiation, Radiation from a small current element. Radiation resistance: Introduction to Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic compatibility, EMI coupling modes, Methods of eliminating interference, shielding, grounding, conducted EMI, EMI testing: emission testing, susceptibility testing.

BOOKS

- Engineering Electromagnetics, (With Cd), Hayt, TMH
- Electromagnetics (Sie) (Schaum’s Outlines Series), Edminister, TMH
- Electromagnetics With Applications, Jd Kraus, TMH
- Electromagnetic Field Theory And Transmission Lines, Raju, Pearson
- Field & Wave Electromagnetic, Cheng, Pearson
- Elements Of Engineering Electromagnetics, Rao, Pearson
- Electromagnetic For Engineers, Ulaby, Pearson
- Fundamentals Of Electromagnetics For Engineers, Rao, Pearson

UNIT 1: PROBABILITY:Definitions, sample, space & events, joint & conditional probability, dependent events.

UNIT 2: RANDOM VARIABLES: Introduction, distribution & density functions, discrete & continuous random variables, special distributions: binominal, poisson, uniform, exponential, normal, rayleigh.conditional distribution & density functions.

UNIT 3: MULTIPLE RANDOM VARIABLES Vector random variable, joint distribution functions, joint probability density function, conditional distribution & density functions. Statistical independence, distribution & density function of sum of random variable, one function of one random variable, one function of two random variable, two function of two random variable.

UNIT 4: OPERATION ON SINGLE & MULTIPLE RANDOM VARIABLES: Mean & ariance, moments, chebyshev’s inequality, Central limit theorem, characteristic functions & moment generating function, covariance & correlation coefficient of multiple random variable.

UNIT 5: STOCHASTIC PROCESSES: Introduction, random process concept, stationary & independence, ergodicity, correlation, functions. Gaussion Random Process,

Transmission of Random process through linear systems. Power spectral Density,

Cross Spectral density,

BOOKS

- Cllasical Electrodynamics, Jackson, Wiley
- Probability, Statistics And Random Processes, Veerarajan,
- Probability, Random Variables And Stochastic Processes, Papoulis, TMH
- Probability, Random Variables And Random Signal Principles, Peebles, TMH
- Probability And Random Processes With Application To Signal Processing, Stark, TMH
- Probability And Random Processes For Electrical Engineering, Leongarcia, Pearson

- Probability & Measure, Billingsley, Pearson
- An Introduction To Probability Theory & Its App., Feller, Wiley
- Probability & Statistics In Engg., Hines, Wiley

UNIT 1: OOP FUNDAMENTALS: Concept of class and object, attributes, public, private and protected members, derived classes, single & multiple inheritance,

UNIT 2: PROGRAMMING IN C++: Enhancements in C++ over C, Data types, operators and functions. Inline functions, constructors and destructors. Friend function, function and operator overloading. Working with class and derived classes. Single, multiple and multilevel inheritances and their combinations, virtual functions, pointers to objects.

Input output flags and formatting operations. Working with text files.

UNIT 3: JAVA: Variation from C++ to JAVA. Introduction to Java byte code, virtual machine, application & applets of Java, integer, floating point, characters, Boolean, literals, and array declarations.

UNIT 4: OPERATORS AND CONTROL STATEMENTS: Arithmetic operators, bit wise operators, relational operators, Boolean logic operators, the assignment operators, ?: operators, operator precedence. Switch and loop statements.

UNIT 5: PACKAGE AND INTERFACES: Packages, access protection, importing & defining packages. Defining and implementing interfaces.

BOOKS

- Object Oriented Programming With C++, Sahay,
- Object Oriented Programming With C++, Josuttis, Oxford
- An Inteoduction To Programming & Oo Design Using Java, J.Nino&F.A.Hosch, Wiley
- Object Oriented Programming With C++, Shukla, Wiley
- OOP, Timothy Budd, Wiley
- Object Oriented Programming With C++, Balagurusamy, Pearson
- Programming With C++ (Sie) (Schaum’s Outline Series), Hubbard, TMH
- Mastering C++, Venugopal, TMH
- Programming With C++, Ravichandran, TMH

UNIT 1 introduction Need, purpose and goals of DBMS. DBMS Architecture, Concept of keys, Generalisation and specialization, Introduction to Relational data model, ER Modeling, Relational algebra.

UNIT 2: DATABASE DESIGN : Conceptual Data Base design. Theory of normalization, Primitive and composite data types, concept of physical and logical databases, data abstraction and data independence,. Relational calculus.

UNIT 3 : SQL : DDL and DML. Constraints assertions, views, data base security. Application Development using SQL : Host language interface, embedded SQL programming. GL’s, Forms management and report writers. Stored procedures and triggers.

UNIT 4 INTERNAL OF RDBMS – Physical data organization in sequential, indexed, random and hashed files. Inverted and multilist structures.

UNIT 5 : Transaction processing, concurrency control, Transaction model properties and state serialisability. Lock base protocols, two phase locking, Log based recovery Management.

Books

- Date C J, “An Introduction To Database System”, Addision Wesley
- Korth, Silbertz, Sudarshan, “Database Concepts”, McGraw Hill
- Elmasri, Navathe, “Fundamentals Of Database Systems”, Addision Wesley
- Leon & Leon, “Database Management System”, Vikas Publishing House.
- Bipin C. Desai, “An introduction to Database Systems”, Galgotia Publication
- Majumdar & Bhattacharya, “Database Management System”, TMH
- Ramakrishnan, Gehrke, “Database Management System”, McGraw Hill
- Kroenke, “Database Processing: Fundamentals, Design and Implementation”, Pearson Education.
- Maheshwari Jain, “DBMS: Complete Practical Approach”, Firewall Media, New Delhi.

UNIT 1 : Introduction to interactive computer graphics, picture analysis, overview of programmer’s model of interactive graphics. Fundamental problems in geometry, Hardware for Computer Graphics.

UNIT 2 : BASIC RASTER GRAPHICS – Scan conversion algorithms for line, Circle, Ellipse, Filling algorithms, Line Clipping and Polygon clipping

UNIT 3 : GEOMETRIC MANIPULATION : 2 D and 3 D Transformation, Composite Transformations, Concept of Homogenous Coordinates Viewpoints.

UNIT 4 : ELEMENTRY 3 D GRAPHICS – Types of Projections, Vanishing Points, specification of 3 D View, Matrices for Parallel and Perspective Projections. Visibility; Image and object precision, z-buffer algorithms, area based algorithms, floating horizon.

UNIT 5: RENDERING – Ray tracing, antialiasing, Gourard and Phong Shading. Curves and Surfaces : Parametric Representation, Bezier and B-Spline curves.

Books

- David F Rogers – Procedural Elements for Computer Graphics – McGraw-Hill.
- Foley, Vandam, Feiner & Huges – Computer Graphics Principles and Practice – Addison Wesley.
- Newman & Sproul – Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics.
- David F Rogers and Adams – Mathematical Elements for Computer Graphics.

4EC7 COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LAB-II

Programs in C++

- Write a program to perform the complex arithmetic.
- Write a program to perform the rational number arithmetic.
- Write a program to perform the matrix operations. (Transpose, addition, subtraction, multiplication, test if a matrix is symmetric/ lower triangular/ upper triangular)
- Implement Morse code to text conversion and vice-versa.
- To calculate Greatest Common Divisor of given numbers.
- To implement tower of Hanoi problem.

Program in Java

- To implement spell checker using dictionary.
- To implement a color selector from a given set of colors.
- To implement a shape selector from a given set of shapes.
- By mapping keys to pens of different colors, implement turtle graphics.
- To implement a calculator with its functionality.
- To implement a graph and display BFS/DFS order of nodes.

4EC8 ELECTRONICS LAB II

- Plot gain-frequency characteristics of BJT amplifier with and without negative feedback in the emitter circuit and determine bandwidths, gain bandwidth products and gains at 1kHz with and without negative feedback.
- Study of series and shunt voltage regulators and measurement of line and load regulation and ripple factor.
- Plot and study the characteristics of small signal amplifier using FET.
- Study of push pull amplifier. Measure variation of output power & distortion with load.
- Study Wein bridge oscillator and observe the effect of variation in R & C on oscillator frequency
- Study transistor phase shift oscillator and observe the effect of variation in R & C on oscillator frequency and compare with theoretical value.
- Study the following oscillators and observe the effect of variation of C on oscillator frequency: (a) Hartley (b) Colpitts
- Design Fabrication and Testing of k-derived filters (LP/HP).
- Study of a Digital Storage CRO and store a transient on it.
- To plot the characteristics of UJT and UJT as relaxation.
- To plot the characteristics of MOSFET and CMOS.

4EC9 DIGITAL ELECTORNICS LAB

- To study and perform the following experiments.

(a) Operation of digital multiplexer and demultiplexer.

(b) Binary to decimal encoder.

(c) Characteristics of CMOS integrated circuits.

- To study and perform experiment- Compound logic functions and various combinational circuits based on AND/NAND and OR/NOR Logic blocks.
- To study and perform experiment -Digital to analog and analog to digital converters.
- To study and perform experiment- Various types of counters and shift registers.
- To study and perform experiment – Interfacing of CMOS to TTL and TTL to CMOS ICs.
- To study and perform experiment- BCD to binary conversion on digital IC trainer.
- To study and perform experiment –

(a) Astable (b) Monostable (c) Bistable Multivibrators and the frequency variation with different parameters, observe voltage waveforms at different points of transistor.

- To study and perform experiment -Voltage comparator circuit using IC-710.
- To study and perform experiment- Schmitt transistor binary circuit.
- Design 2 bit binary up/down binary counter on bread board.

4EC10 HUMANITIES

UNIT 1 : INDIA- Brief History of Indian Constitution- framing, features, fundamental rights, duties, directive principles of state. History of Indian national movement, Socio economic growth after independence.

UNIT 2 : SOCIETY – Social Groups- Concepts and types, socialization- concept and theory, social control; concept, social problem in contemporary India, status and role.

UNIT 3 : THE FUNDAMENTALS OF ECONOMICS – Meaning, definition and importance of economics, Logic of choice, Central Economic Problems, Positive and Normative approaches, economic systems- socialism and capitalism.

UNIT 4 : MICROECONOMICS -Law of demand and supply, Utility approach, Indifference curves, Elasticity of demand & supply and applications, Consumer surplus, Law of returns to factors and returns to scale.

UNIT 5: MACRO ECONOMICS -Concept relating to national product-National income and its measurement, Simple Keynesian theory, Simple multiplier, Money and banking,- Meaning, Concept of international trade, Determination of exchange rate, Balance of payments. Characteristics of Indian Economy.

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION: Continuous time and discrete time systems, Properties of systems. Linear time invariant systems – continuous time and discrete time. Properties of LTI systems and their block diagrams. Convolution, Discrete time systems described by difference equations.

UNIT 2: FOURIER SERIES REPRESENTATION OF SIGNALS: Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signal & its properties, Fourier series representation of Discrete periodic signal & its properties, Continuous time filters & Discrete time filters described by Diff. equation.

UNIT 3: FOURIER TRANSFORM: The continuous time Fourier transform for periodic and aperiodic signals, Properties of CTFT. Discrete time Fourier transform for periodic and aperiodic signals. Properties of DTFT. The convolution and modulation property.

UNIT 4: Z-TRANSFORM & LAPLACE TRANSFORM: Introduction. The region of convergence for the Z-transform. The Inverse Z-transform. Two dimensional Z- transform. Properties of Z transform. Laplace transform, Properties of Laplace Transform, Application of Laplace transform to system analysis.

UNIT 5: SAMPLING: Mathematical theory of sampling. Sampling theorem. Ideal & Real sampling. Interpolation technique for the reconstruction of a signal from its samples. Aliasing. Sampling in freq. domain. Sampling of discrete time signals.

BOOKS

- Principles Of Linear Systems And Signals, 2e (Intl. Version), Lathi 2nd, Oxford
- Signal & Systems 3e, Chen 3rd, Oxford
- Fundamentals Of Signals And Systems, Wiley
- Signals And Systems, P Rao, TMH
- Signals And Systems: A Simplified Approach, Ganesh Rao, 4e, Pearson
- Signals And Systems: Continuous And Discrete, Roger E Ziemer, 4e, PHI
- Signals And Systems, Ravi Kumar, PHI

UNIT 1: OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS: Basic differential amplifier analysis, Single ended and double ended configurations, Op-amp configurations with feedback, Op-amp parameters, Inverting and Non-Inverting configuration, Comparators, Adder.

UNIT 2: OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS:

Integrator, Differentiator, Voltage to frequency & Frequency to voltage converters.

Oscillators: Phase shift, Wien bridge, Quadrature, square wave, triangular wave, sawtooth oscillators. Voltage controlled oscillators.

UNIT 3: ACTIVE FILTERS: Low pass, high pass, band pass and band reject filters, All pass filter, Switched capacitor filter, Butterworth filter design, Chebyshev Filter design.

UNIT 4: PHASE-LOCKED LOOPS: Operating Principles of PLL, Linear Model of PLL,

Lock range, Capture range, Applications of PLL as FM detector, FSK demodulator, AM detector, frequency translator, phase shifter, tracking filter, signal synchronizer and frequency synthesizer, Building blocks of PLL, LM 565 PLL.

UNIT 5: LINEAR IC’s: Four quadrant multiplier & its applications, Basic blocks of linear IC voltage regulators, Three terminal voltage regulators, Positive and negative voltage regulators. The 555 timer as astable and monostable multivibrators. Zero crossing detector, Schmitt trigger.

BOOKS

- Linear Circuits (Includes Cd), Ramakalyan-, Oxford
- Linear Circuit Analysis, Decarlo, Oxford
- Linear Integrated Circuits, Nair, Wiley
- Analysis And Design Of Analog Integrated Circuits, Gray, 5e, Wiley
- Analog Mos Integrated Circuits For Signal Processing-Gregorian, Gregorian, 1e, Wiley
- Linear Integrated Circuits, S Salivahanan, TMH
- Electronic Circuits: Discrete And Integrated, Donald Schilling, TMH
- Op-Amps And Linear Integrated Circuits, Gayakwad, Ramakant A, PHI

UNIT 1: TRANSMISSION LINE: Types of transmission lines, general transmission line equation, line constant, equivalent circuits, infinite line, and reflection on a line, SWR of line with different type of terminations. Distortion less and dissipation less lines, Coaxial cables, Transmission lines at audio and radio frequencies, Losses in transmission line,. Characteristics of quarter wave, half wave and lines of other lengths,

UNIT 2:TRANSMISSION LINE APPLICATIONS:Smith chart and its application. Transmission line applications, Impedance matching Network. Single & double Stub matching. Measurement of parameters of transmission line, measurement of attenuation, insertion loss, reflection coefficient and standing wave ratio.

UNIT 3: ATTENUATORS & FILTERS: Elements of telephone transmission networks, symmetrical and Asymmetrical two port networks. Different Attenuators, n-section & T- section attenuators, stub matching, Transmission equalizers Filters, constant K-section, Ladder type, n-section, T-section filter, m-derived filter sections, Lattics filter section.

UNIT 4: TELEPHONE TRANSMISSION: Telephone set, Touch tone dial types, two wire/ four wire transmission, Echo suppressors & cancellors, cross talk. Multi-channel systems: Frequency division & time division multiplexing.

UNIT 5: AUTOMATIC TELEPHONY & TELEGRAPHY: Trunking concepts, Grade of service, Traffic definitions, Introduction to switching networks, classification of switching systems. Principle of Electronic Exchange, EPABX and SPC Digital telephone Exchange, Numberig Plan, Fascimile services.

BOOKS

- Digital Telephony, Bellamy, Wiley
- Fields And Waves In Communication Electronics 3ed By Ramo, Wiley

UNIT 1: NOISE EFFECTS IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: Resistor noise, Networks with reactive elements, Noise temperature, Noise bandwidth, effective input noise temperature, Noise figure. Noise figure & equivalent noise temperature in cascaded circuits.

UNIT 2: AMPLITUDE MODULATION: Frequency translation, Recovery of base band signal, Spectrum & power relations in AM systems. Methods of generation & demodulation of AM-DSB, AM-DSB/SC and AM-SSB signals. Modulation & detector circuits for AM systems. AM transmitters & receivers.

UNIT 3: FREQUENCY MODULATION: Phase & freq. modulation & their relationship, Spectrum & band width of a sinusoidally modulated FM signal, phasor diagram, Narrow band & wide band FM. Generation & demodulation of FM signals. FM transmitters & receivers.. Comparison of AM, FM & PM. Pre emphasis & deemphasis. Threshold in FM, PLL demodulator.

UNIT 4: NOISE IN AM AND FM: Calculation of signal-to-noise ratio in SSB-SC, DSB- SC, DSB with carrier, Noise calculation of square law demodulator & envelope detector. Calculation of S/N ratio in FM demodulators, Super heterodyne receivers.

UNIT 5: PULSE ANALOG MODULATION: Practical aspects of sampling: Natural and flat top sampling. PAM, PWM, PPM modulation and demodulation methods, PAM-TDM.

BOOKS

- Modern Digital & Analog Communication Systems, Lathi, Oxford
- Analog Communication, Chandrasekhar, Oxford
- An Introduction To Analog & Digital Communications-, Haykins, Wiley
- Digital And Analog Communication Systems-, Shanmugam, Wiley
- Communications Systems, 4ed-, Haykins, Wiley
- Principles Of Communication Systems, Herbert Taub, Donald Schilling, Goutam Saha-, TMH
- Communication Systems, R Singh, S. Sapre, TMH
- Analog Communication, K. N. Hari Bhat, Pearson
- Digital & Analog Communication Systems, Leon W. Couch, Pearson

UNIT 1: WAVE GUIDES:Introduction of Microwaves and their applications. Rectangular Waveguides, Solution of Wave equation in TE and TM modes. Power transmission and Power losses. Excitation of modes in Rectangular waveguides, circular waveguides:

Basic idea of TE and TM modes, field patterns, TEM mode of propagation.

UNIT 2: WAVEGUIDE COMPONENTS: Scattering matrix representation of networks. Rectangular cavity and circular cavity resonators. Waveguide Tees, Magic Tees. Hybrid rings. Waveguide corners, Bends and twists. Directional couplers, Circulators and isolators.

UNIT 3: KLYSTRONS: Limitation of conventional vacuum tubes, Construction and operation of two cavity & multicavity klystrons. Velocity modulation and electron bunching (analytical treatment), Applegate diagram and applications of two cavity klystrons. Construction, working and operation of Reflex klystron. Applications and practical considerations. Velocity modulation, power output and frequency characteristics of a Reflex klystron. Electron admittance.

UNIT 4: TRAVELLING WAVE TUBES (TWT): Construction, operation and practical consideration of helix type TWT. Introduction to CW power, pulsed dual mode TWT.

Coupled cavity TWT. Applications of TWT.

UNIT 5: MAGNETRON: Types of Magnetron. Construction, operation, analysis and practical consideration of cavity or travelling wave magnetron. Introduction to coaxial, frequency angle and voltage tunable magnetrons. Backward cross field oscillator,

Forward wave cross field amplifier.

BOOKS

- Foundations For Microwave Engineering – R.E. Collin, R.E. Collin, Wiley
- Microwave Engineering By, Pozar, Wiley
- Microwave Engineering, Annapurna Das, Sisir Das, TMH
- Microwave Devices And Circuits, 3, Samuel Y. Liao, Pearson
- Microwave Devices And Circuit Design, Ganesh Prasad Srivastava, Vijay Laxmi Gupta, PHI
- Microwave Semiconductor Devices, Roy Mitra, PHI

UNIT 1: HUMAN BODY SUBSYSTEMS: Brief description of neural, muscular, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; their electrical, mechanical and chemical activities.

TRANSDUCERS AND ELECTRODES: Principles and classification of transducers for Bio-medical applications, Electrode theory, different types of electrodes, Selection criteria for transducers and electrodes.

UNIT 2: BIOPOTENTIALS: Electrical activity of excitable cells, ENG, EMG, ECG, ERG, EEG. Neuron potential.

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM MEASUREMENTS: Measurement of blood pressure, blood flow, cardiac output, cardiac rate, heart sounds, Electrocardiograph, phonocardiograph, Plethysmograph, Echocardiograph.

UNIT 3: INSTRUMENTATION FOR CLINICAL LABORATORY: Measurement of pH valve of blood, ESR measurement, hemoglobin measurement, O_{2} and CO_{2} concentration in blood, GSR measurement.Instrumentation for clinical laboratory: Spectrophotometry, chromatography, Hematology, Measurement of pH value, concentration in blood.

MEDICAL IMAGING: Diagnostic X-rays, CAT, MRI, thermography, Ultrasonography, medical use of isotopes, endoscopy.

UNIT 4: PATIENT CARE, MONITORING AND SAFETY MEASURES: Elements of Intensive care monitoring basic hospital systems and components, physiological effect of electric current shock hazards from electrical equipment, safety measures, Standards & practices.

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS AND BIOTELEMETRY: Real time computer applications, data acquisition and processing, remote data recording and management.

UNIT 5: THERAPEUTIC AND PROSTHETIC DEVICES: Introduction to cardiac pacemakers, defibrillators, ventilators, muscle stimulators, diathermy, heart lung machine, Hemodialysis, Applications of Laser.

BOOKS

- Medical Instrumentation: Application And Design, 3ed-, Webster, Wiley
- Biomedical Signal Processing, D Reddy, TMH
- Electronics In Medicine And Biomedical Instrumentation, PHI

UNIT 1 : ADVANCED TREES – Definitions and operations on weight balanced trees (Huffman trees), 2-3 trees and Red-Black trees. Augmenting Red-Black trees to dynamic order statistics and interval tree applications. Operations on disjoint sets and its Union-Find problem. Implementing sets, discitionerics, priority queues and concatenable queues using 2-3 trees.

UNIT 2 : MERGEABLE HEAPS – Mergeable Heap operations, binomial trees, implementing binomial heaps and its operations. 2-3-4- trees and 2-3-4 heaps. Structure and potential function of Fibonacci heap. Implementing Fibonacci Heap.

UNIT 3 : GRAPH THEORY DEFINITIONS – Definitions of Isomorphism, Components, Circuits, Fundamental Circuits, Cut-sets, Cut-Vertices, Planer and dual graphs, Spanning trees, Kuratovski’s two graphs.

UNIT 4 : GRAPH THEORETIC ALGORETHMS – Algorithms for connectedness, finding all spanning trees in a weighted graph and planarity testing. Breadth first and depth first search, topological sort, strongly connected components and, articulation point.

UNIT 5 : APPLICATION OF GRAPHS- Single source shortest path and all pair shortest path algorithms. Min-Cut Max-Flow theorem of network flows, Ford-Fulkerson Max Flow algorithms.

Books

- “ Data Structures using C” by A.M. Tanenbaum.
- “The C Programming Language” by Kerninghan.
- “An introduction to data structures with applications: by Trembly and Sorenson.
- “Fundamentals of Data structures” by Horowitz and Sahani.

UNIT 1 : MATRIX COMPUTATION: Algebra of matrix, Inverse of a matrix, Rank of a matrix, Matrix inversion by Gauss elimination, Computer programs for matrix inversion.

UNIT 2 : SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS: Cramer’s rule, Gauss elimination, Gauss Jordan elimination and Gauss Seidal iterative method and their implementation in C.

UNIT 3 : SOLUTION OF NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS: Interval bisection method, Secant method, Regula- Falsi method, Curve fitting, Method of least squares and their implementation in C.

UNIT 4 : SOLUTION OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS: Euler’s method, Modified Euler’s method, Runge Kutta method of fourth order, Solution of partial differential equation with special reference to heat equation, Laplace equation and wave equation Milne’s and their implementation in C.

UNIT 5 : STATISTICAL METHODS: Curve fitting methods – method of least squares, fitting a straight line, parabola. Correlation and Linear regression.

Books

- Numerical methods for Scientific and Engineering Computation by M.K.Jain, S.R.K.Iyengar, R.K. Jain.
- Elementary Numerical Analysis by Samuel D.Conte and Cart de Boor, McGraw Hill International Edition.
- Numerical methods for Science and Engineering, PHI by R.G.Stanton
- Computer based numerical algorithms by E.V. Krishnamoorthy
- Introduction to Numerical Analysis by E. Atkinson

D:Electronics_APPROVED RTU SYLLABUSESBTech (EC) RTUMODIFIED III BTechSYLL(EC).doc PG-5

5EC7 ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING DESIGN LAB

To design the following circuits, assemble these on bread board and test them.

Simulation of these circuits with the help of appropriate software.

- Op-Amp characteristics and get data for input bias current, measure the output-offset voltage and reduce it to zero and calculate slew rate.
- Op-Amp in inverting and non-inverting modes.
- Op-Amp as scalar, summer and voltage follower.
- Op-Amp as differentiator and integrator.
- Design LPF and HPF using Op-Amp 741
- Design Band Pass and Band reject Active filters using Op-Amp 741.
- Design Oscillators using Op-Amp (i) RC phase shift (ii) Hartley (iii) Colpitts
- Design (i) Astable (ii) Monostable multivibrators using IC-555 timer
- Design Triangular & square wave generator using 555 timer.
- Design Amplifier (for given gain) using Bipolar Junction Transistor.

5EC8 MICROWAVE ENGINEERING LAB

- Study of various microwave components and instruments like frequency meter, attenuator, detector & VSWR meter.
- Draw V-I characteristics of microwave source like Gunn diode/ Reflex Klystron.
- Measurement of frequency and wavelength in a rectangular waveguide.
- Measurement of VSWR (small as well as large values) & reflection coefficient.
- Measure an unknown impedance with smith chart.
- Draw the following characteristics of Gunn Diode

(i) Output power and frequency as a function of voltage

(ii) Square wave modulation by PIN diode.

- Drawing polar pattern of Horn antenna.
- To observe the action of directional coupler and its use in separating incident & reflected wave.
- Study of Magic Tee, Circulator, isolator
- Study of spectrum analyzer & its use in observing the response of

(i) High frequency amplifier

(ii) Low pass, high pass, band pass, band reject filters.

D:Electronics_APPROVED RTU SYLLABUSESBTech (EC) RTUMODIFIED III BTechSYLL(EC).doc PG-6

5EC9 COMMUNICATION LAB-I

- Harmonic analysis of a square wave of a modulated wave form.
- Observe the Amplitude modulated wave form & measure modulation index. Demodulation of AM signal.
- Generation & Demodulation of DSB – SC signal.
- Modulate a sinusoidal signal with high frequency carrier to obtain FM signal. Demodulation of the FM signal.
- To observe the following in a transmission line demonstrator kit :

(a) The propagation of pulse in non reflecting transmission line.

(b) The effect of losses in transmission line.

(c) Transmission with standing waves on a Transmission line.

(d) The resonance characteristics of a half-wave length long X-mission line.

- (a) To observe the operation of sampling and sample & hold circuits.

(b) To study the effect of sampling time (sampling pulse width).

(c) To study the effects of changing the sampling frequency & observing aliasing phenomena.

- To study & observe the operation of a super heterodyne receiver.
- To study & observe the amplitude response of automatic gain controller (AGC ).

9, 10. PAM, PWM & PPM: Modulation and demodulation.

5EC10 – SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB-I

Simulation in MATLAB Environment:

- Generation of continuous and discrete elementary signals (periodic and non-periodic) using mathematical expression.
- Generation of Continuous and Discrete Unit Step Signal.
- Generation of Exponential and Ramp signals in Continuous & Discrete domain.
- Continuous and discrete time Convolution (using basic definition).
- Adding and subtracting two given signals. (Continuous as well as Discrete signals)
- To generate uniform random numbers between (0, 1).
- To generate a random binary wave.
- To generate random sequences with arbitrary distributions, means and variances for following :

(a) Rayleigh distribution

(b) Normal distributions: N(0,1).

(c) Gaussion distributions: N (m_{x}, ax^{2})

- To plot the probability density functions. Find mean and variance for the above distributions 6EC1-MICROWAVE ENGINEERING-II

UNIT 1: MICROWAVE MEASUREMENTS: Detection of microwaves, Microwave power measurement, Impedance measurement, Measurement of scattering parameters, Frequency measurement, VSWR measurements.

UNIT 2: Introduction to microstrip lines, Parallel striplines, Coplanar striplines, Shielded striplines, Slot lines, Integrated Fin line, Non-radiative guide, Transitions, Bends and Discontinuities.

UNIT 3: MICROWAVE NETWORK ANALYSIS: Impedance and Admittance matrices, Scattering matrix, Reciprocal networks and Loss less networks parameters, ABCD Matrix, Equivalent circuits for Two port Network, Conversions between two port network Signal flow graphs, Discontinuities in waveguides and microstrip.

UNIT 4: MICROWAVE SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Construction, Operation and Practical applications of PIN diode, varactor and Tunnel diode, Gunn diode, IMPATT, TRAPTT diodes, BJT, JFET, MESFET, CCD, MASER and LASER.

UNIT 5: MONOLITHIC MICOWAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Introduction, Materials, MMIC Growth, MOSFET fabrication, Thin film formation, Hybrid integrated circuit fabrication, Advantages & Difficulties of MICs.

BOOKS

- Microwave Engineering, Annapurna Das, Sisir Das, TMH
- Foundations For Microwave Engineering, R.E. Collin, Wiley
- Microwave Devices And Circuits, Samuel Y. Liao, Pearson
- Microwave Engineering, Pozar, Wiley
- Microwave Engineering, M.L. Sisodiya, New Age

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION: CPU, address bus, data bus and control bus. Input/ Output devices, buffers, encoders, latches and memories.

UNIT 2: 8085 MICROPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE: Internal data operations and registers, pins and signals, peripheral devices and memory organization, interrupts.

CISC and RISC architecture overview.

UNIT 3: 8085 MICROPROCESSOR INSTRUCTIONS: Classification, format and timing. Instruction set. Programming and debugging, 8 bit and 16 bit instructions.

UNIT 4: 8085 MICROPROCESSOR INTERFACING: 8259, 8257, 8255, 8253, 8155 chips and their applications. A/D conversion, memory, keyboard and display interface (8279).

UNIT 5: INTRODUCTION TO 8051 MICROCONTROLLER: General features & architecture of 8051. Memory, timers and interrupts. Pin details. Interfacing and applications.

BOOKS

- 8051 Microcontroller: Hardware, Software And Application., V Udayashankara, M Mallikarjunaswamy, TMH
- Introduction To Microprocessors, Mathur, TMH
- Modern Microprocessors, Korneev, Wiley
- The 8085 Microprocessor: Architecture, Programming And Interfacing, K. Udaya Kumar, Pearson
- Microprocessor Interfacing And Applications, B.P.Singh, New Age
- Microprocessor: Architecture, Programming And Application For 8085, Goankar,

Penram International

- Microprocessor: Architecture, Programming And System Featuring In 8085, William A.Routt, Delmur Pub
- The 8051 Microcontrollers & Embedded Systems, Mazidi, Pearson

UNIT 1: SEMICONDUCTOR POWER DEVICES – Basic characteristics & working of Power Diodes, Diac, SCR, Triac, Power Transistor, MOSFETs, IGBT, and GTO.

UNIT 2: RECTIFIERS & INVERTERS – Working principles of single and three phase bridge rectifiers, Voltage and current source inverters.

UNIT 3: POWER SUPPLIES: Principle of operation of choppers. Step up, Step down and reversible choppers. High frequency electronic ballast, Switch Mode Power Supply:

Fly back converter, forward/buck converter, Boost converter and buck-boost converter. Uninterruptible Power Supply.

UNIT 4: MOTOR CONTROL: Introduction to speed control of DC motors using phase controlled converters and choppers, Basic idea of speed control of three phase induction motors using voltage and frequency control methods.

UNIT 5: Stepper Motors: Variable reluctance, Permanent magnet and hybrid stepper motors. Induction and dielectric heating control.

BOOKS

- Power Electronics Principles & Applications, Joseph Vithayathil, TMH
- Power Eletronics, Ravish Singh, TMH
- Industrial Electronics And Control, Ttti, TMH
- Power Electronics: Converters Applications., Mohan, Robbins, Wiley
- Power Electronics, Moorthi, Oxford
- Elements Of Power Electronics, Krein, Oxford
- Power Electronics, R.S.Murthy, Pearson
- Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices And Applications, Muhammad.H.Rashid, Pearson

UNIT 1: PCM & DELTA MODULATION SYSTEMS: Uniform and Non-uniform quantization. PCM and delta modulation, Signal to quantization noise ratio in PCM and delta modulation. DPCM, ADM, T1 Carrier System, Matched filter detection. Error probability in PCM system.

UNIT 2: BASE BAND TRANSMISSION: Line coding(RZ, NRZ): Polar, Bipolar,

Manchester, AMI. Inter symbol interference, Pulse shaping, Nyquist criterion, Raised cosine spectrum.

UNIT 2: DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES: Geometric interpretation of signals, Orthogonalization.

ASK, BPSK, BFSK, QPSK, MSK modulation techniques and Coherent detection of these techniques.

Calculation of error probabilities.

UNIT 4: INFORMATION THEORY: Amount of Information, Average Information,

Entropy, Information rate, Increase in Average information per bit by coding, Shannon’s Theorem and Shannon’s bound, Capacity of a Gaussian Channel, BW-S/N trade off,

UNIT 5: CODING: Coding and decoding of Information, Hamming code, Single Parity- Bit Code, Linear Block code, cyclic code & convolutional code.

BOOKS

- Analog And Digital Communication, Hwei Hsu, Debjani Mitra, TMH
- Digital Commnunication, Amitabha Bhattacharya, TMH
- Schaums Outline And Digital Communication, Hwei Hsu, TMH
- Taub’s Principles Of Communication Systems, Taub & Schilling, TMH
- Electronic Communication Systems, Kennedy, TMH
- Analog And Digital Communication, Sudakshina Kundu, Pearson
- Digital Communication, Sklar & Ray, Pearson
- Digital Communication, Ian Glover, Pearson
- Modern Digital And Analog Communication Systems, Lathi, Oxford
- Digital Communications, Simon Haykin, Wiley
- Digital And Analog Communication Systems, K.Sam Shanmugam, Wiley
- An Introduction To Analog And Digital Communication System, Simon Haykin, Wiley
- Information Theory And Network Coding, Raymond W, Springer
- Principle Of Digital Communication, J.Das, New Age
- Digital Commnunication, Barry John, Le, Edward, David.G, Springer

UNIT 1: CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND COMPONENTS: Examples and application of open loop and close loop systems. Brief idea of multivariable control system, Brief idea of Z-transform and digital control systems. Differential equations. Determination of transfer function by block diagram reduction

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