# RTU Syllabus for EEE

**B. TECH.**

**ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING**

**III-SEMESTER 3EX1 MATHEMATICS-III**

** **

Unit-1 LAPLACE TRANSFORM: Laplace transform with its simple properties, applications to the Solution of ordinary and partial differential equations having constant coefficients with special reference to wave and diffusion equations, digital transforms.

Unit-2 FOURIER TRANSFORM: Discrete Fourier transform, Fast Fourier transform, Complex form of Fourier transform and its inverse applications, Fourier transform for the solution of partial differential equations having constant coefficients with special reference to heat equation and wave equation.

Unit-3 FOURIER SERIES: Expansion of simple functions in Fourier series, half range series, changes of interval, harmonic analysis.

CALCULUS OF VARIATION: Functional, strong and weak variations, simple variation problems, Euler’s equation

Unit-4 COMPLEX VARIABLES: Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Elementary conformal mapping with simple applications, Line integral in complex domain, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula.

Unit-5 COMPLEX VARIABLES: Taylor’s series, Laurent’s series, poles, Residues. Evaluations of simple definite real integrals using the theorem of residues. Simple contour integration.

3EX2 OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING USING C++

Unit-1 PROGRAMMING IN C: Review of basics of C. structure & pointer type. Variables. Singly and doubly linked lists. I/O and text file handling. Command line arguments.

Unit-2 OOP FUNDAMENTALS: Concept of class and object. Attributes, public, private and protected members. Derived classes. Single & multiple inheritances.

Unit-3 PROGRAMMING IN C++: Enhancements in C++ over C in data types, operators and functions. Inline functions, constructors and destructors. Friend function. Function and operator overloading.

Unit-4 Working with class and derived classes. Single and. multiple and multilevel inheritances and their combinations. Virtual functions, pointers to objects.

Unit-5 Working with text files. Templates. File handling in C++, Input output flags and formatting operations.

3EX3 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

Unit-1 NETWORK THEOREMS AND ELEMENTS: Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Reciprocity, Superposition, Compensation, Miller’s, Tellegen’s and maximum power transfer theorems. Networks with dependent sources. Inductively coupled circuits – mutual inductance, coefficient of coupling and mutual inductance between portions of same circuits and between parallel branches. Transformer equivalent, inductively and conductively coupled circuits.

Unit-2 TRANSIENT ANALYSIS: Impulse, step, ramp and sinusoidal response Analysis of first order and second order circuits. Time domain & transform domain (frequency, Laplace) analysis. Initial and final value theorems. Complex periodic waves and their analysis by Fourier analysis. Different kind of symmetry. Power in a circuit.

Unit-3 NETWORK FUNCTIONS: Terminals and terminal pairs, driving point impedance transfer functions, poles and zeros. Procedure of finding network functions for general two terminal pair networks. Stability & causality

Unit-4 TWO PORT NETWORKS: Two port parameters and their interrelations – z-parameters, y –

parameters, h-parameters, ABCD parameters. Equivalence of two ports, transformer equivalent, interconnection of two port networks. Image parameters. Attenuation & phase shift in symmetrical T and n Networks.

Unit-5 NETWORK SYNTHESIS: Hurwitz polynomial, positive real function, reactive networks. Separation property for reactive networks. The four-reactance function forms, specification for reactance function. Foster form of reactance networks. Cauer form of reactance networks. Synthesis of R-L and R-C networks in Foster and Cauer forms.

3EX4 ELECTRONIC DEVICES & CIRCUITS Unit-1 SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS : Mobility and conductivity, charge densities in a

semiconductor, Fermi Dirac distribution, carrier concentrations and fermi levels in semiconductor, Generation and recombination of charges, diffusion and continuity equation, Mass action Law, Hall effect.

Unit-2 Junction diodes, Diode as a circuit element, load line concept, clipping and clamping circuits, Voltage multipliers. Construction, characteristics and working principles of UJT Unit-3 Transistor characteristics, Current components, Current gains: alpha and beta. Operating point. Hybrid model, h-parameter equivalent circuits. CE, CB and CC configuration. DC and AC analysis of CE, CC and CB amplifiers. Ebers-Moll model. Biasing & stabilization techniques. Thermal runaway, Thermal stability.

Unit-4 JFET, MOSFET, Equivalent circuits and biasing of JFET’s & MOSFET’s. Low frequency CS and CD JFET amplifiers. FET as a voltage variable resistor.

Unit-5 SMALL SIGNAL AMPLIFIERS AT LOW FREQUENCY: Analysis of BJT and FET, DC and RC coupled amplifiers. Frequency response, midband gain, gains at low and high frequency. Analysis of DC and differential amplifiers, Miller’s Theorem. Cascading Transistor amplifiers, Darlington pair. Emitter follower, source follower.

3EX5 ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS Unit-1 THEORY OF ERRORS: Accuracy & precision, Repeatability, Limits of errors, Systematic & random errors Modeling of errors, Probable error & standard deviation, Gaussian error analysis, Combination of errors.

Unit-2 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING BASIC PARAMETERS: Electronic Voltmeter, Electronic Multimeters, Digital Voltmeter, Component Measuring Instruments, Q meter, Vector Impedance meter, RF Power & Voltage Measurements. Measurement of frequency. Introduction to shielding & grounding.

Unit-3 OSCILLOSCOPES: CRT Construction, Basic CRO circuits, CRO Probes, Oscilloscope Techniques of Measurement of frequency, Phase Angle and Time Delay, Multibeam, multi trace, storage& sampling Oscilloscopes. Curve tracers. Diaphragms, Seismic Accelerometers, Tachogenerators, Load Cell, Piezoelectric Transducers, Ultrasonic Flow Meters.

Unit-4 SIGNAL GENERATION: Sine wave generators, Frequency synthesized signal generators, Sweep frequency generators. Signal Analysis – Measurement Technique, Wave Analyzers, and Frequency – selective wave analyzer, heterodyne wave analyzer, Harmonic distortion analyzer, and Spectrum analyzer.

Unit-5 TRANSDUCERS: Classification, Selection Criteria, Characteristics, Construction, Working Principles, Application of following Transducers- RTD, Thermocouples, Thermistors, LVDT, RVDT, Strain Gauges, Bourdon Tubes, Bellows. Diaphragms, Seismic Accelerometers, Tachogenerators, Load Cell, Piezoelectric Transducers, Ultrasonic Flow Meters 3EE6.1 DATA STRUCTURES & ALGORITHMS Unit-1 Data Structure: Definition, Implementation, Operation, Application, Algorithm writing and convention, Analysis of algorithm, Complexity Measures and Notations. Arrays:

Representation of arrays (multidimensional), Address calculation using column and row major ordering. Linked Lists : Implementation, Doubly linked list, Circular linked list, unrolled linked list, skip-lists, Splices, Sentinel nodes, Application (Sparse Matrix, Associative Array, Functional Programming Unit-2 Stacks: Definition, Implementation, Application (Tower of Hanoi, Function Call and return, Parentheses Matching, Back-tracking, and Expression Evaluation) Queues: Definition, deque, enque, priority queue, bounded queue, Implementation, Application Unit-3 Tree: Definition of elements, Binary trees: Types (Full, Complete, Almost complete), Binary Search Tree, Traversal (Pre, In, Post & Level order), Pruning, Grafting. Application: Arithmetic Expressions Evaluation Variations: Indexed Binary Tree, Threaded Binary Tree, AVL tree, Multi-way trees, B tree, B+ tree, Forest, Trie and Dictionary Unit-4 Graphs: Elementary definition, Representation (Adjacency Matrix, Adjacency Lists) Traversal (BFS, DFS Application: Spanning Tree (Prim and Kruskal Algorithm), Dijkstra’s algorithm, and shortest path algorithms.

Unit-5 Sorting: Bubble, Selection, Insertion, Quick, Radix, Merge, Bucket, Heap, Searching: Hashing, Symbol Table, Binary Search, Simple String Searching 3EX7 COMPUTER PROGRAMMING-I

1 Write a program to find the greatest between four numbers.

2 Write a program to prepare mark sheet of students using structure and class.

3 Write a C program to read several different names and addresses. re-arrange the names in alphabetical order and print name in alphabetical order using structures and class.

4 Write a program to implement concatenation of two strings using pointers.

5 Write a program to perform the complex arithmetic.

6 Write a program to perform the rational number arithmetic.

7 Write a program to perform the matrix operations. (Transpose, Subtraction , addition. multiplication, Test if a matrix is symmetric/lower triangular/ upper triangular)

8 Implement Morse code to text conversion and vice-versa.

9 To calculate Greatest Common Divisor of given numbers.

10 To implement tower of Hanoi problem.

11 Write a program to create a singly link list often students names and implement add node, delete node and isemptylist operations.

12 Write a program to search a pattern in a given string.

13 Write a Program to read add, subtract and multiply integer matrices.

14 Write a program to calculate the power function (m”) using the function overloading technique; implement it for power of integer and double.

15 Implement file creation and operate it in different modes: seek, tell, read, write and close operations.

16 Using multiple inheritance, prepare students’ mark sheet. Three classes containing marks for every student in three subjects. The inherited class generate mark sheet.

3EX8 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS LAB

^{1 }Verification of principle of superposition with dc and ac Sources.

^{2 }Verification of Thevenin, Norton’s theorems in ac circuits.

^{3 }Verification of Maximum power transfer theorem.

4 Determination of transient response of Current in RL and RC circuits with step voltage input . 5 Determination of transient response of current in RLC circuit with step voltage input for under damp, critically damp and over damp cases.

6 Determination of frequency response of current in RLC circuit with sinusoidal ac input. 7 Determination of z and h parameters (dc only) for a network and computation of Y and ABCD parameters.

8 Determination of driving point and transfer functions of a two-port ladder network and verify Y with theoretical values.

3EX9 ELECTRONICS DEVICES & CIRCUITS LAB

1 Study the following devices:

(a) Analog & digital multimeters (b) Function/ Signal generators (c) Regulated d. c. power supplies (constant voltage and constant current operations) (d) Study of analog CRO, measurement of time period, amplitude, frequency & phase angle using Lissajous figures.

2 Plot V-I characteristic of P-N junction diode & calculate cut-in voltage, reverse Saturation current and static & dynamic resistances.

3 Plot V-I characteristic of zener diode and study of zener diode as voltage regulator. Observe the effect of load changes and determine load limits of the voltage regulator.

4 Plot frequency response curve for single stage amplifier and to determine gain bandwidth product.

5 Plot drain current – drain voltage and drain current – gate bias characteristics of field effect transistor and measure of Idss & Vp

6 Application of Diode as clipper & clamper

7 Plot gain- frequency characteristic of two stage RC coupled amplifier & calculate its bandwidth and compare it with theoretical value.

8 Plot gain- frequency characteristic of emitter follower & find out its input and output resistances.

9 Plot input and output characteristics of BJT in CB, CC and CE configurations. Find their h parameters.

10 Study half wave rectifier and effect of filters on wave. Also calculate theoretical & practical ripple factor.

11 Study bridge rectifier and measure the effect of filter network on D.C. voltage output & ripple factor.

3EX10 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS MEASUREMENT LAB

1 Measure earth resistance using fall of potential method.

2 Plot V-I characteristics & measure open circuit voltage & short circuit current of a solar panel.

3 Measure unknown inductance capacitance resistance using following bridges (a) Anderson Bridge (b) Maxwell Bridge

4 To measure unknown frequency & capacitance using Wein’s bridge.

5 Measurement of the distance with the help of ultrasonic transmitter & receiver.

6 Measurement of displacement with the help of LVDT.

7 Draw the characteristics of the following temperature transducers: (a) RTD (Pt-100) (b)

Thermistors (c) Thermocouple

8 Draw the characteristics between temperature & voltage of a K type thermocouple

9 Measure the speed of a Table Fan using stroboscope.

10 Measurement of strain/ force with the help of strain gauge load cell. 11 Study the working of Q-meter and measure Q of coils.

12 To study the working of Spectrum analyzer and determine the bandwidth of different signals.

B. TECH.

ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

IV-SEMESTER

4EX1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I

Unit-1 ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION: Basic principles of Electromechanical energy conversion. Basic aspects and physical phenomena involved in energy conversion. Energy balance.

Unit-2 DC GENERATORS: Construction, Types of DC generators, emf equation, lap & wave windings, equalizing connections, armature reaction, commutation, methods of improving commutations, demagnetizing and cross magnetizing mmf, interpoles, characteristics, parallel operation. Rosenberg generator.

Unit-3 DC MOTORS: Principle, back emf, types, production of torque, armature reaction & interpoles, characteristics of shunt, series & compound motor, DC motor starting. Speed Control of DC Motor: Armature voltage and field current control methods, Ward Leonard method. Braking, losses and efficiency, direct & indirect test, Swinburne’s test, Hopkinsion test, field & retardation test, single-phase series motor.

Unit-4 TRANSFORMERS: Construction, types, emf equation. No load and load conditions. Equivalent circuits, Vector diagrams, OC and SC tests, Sumpner’s back-to-back test, efficiency. Voltage regulation, effect of frequency, parallel operation, autotransformers, switching currents in transformers, separation of losses.

Unit-5 POLYPHASE TRANSFORMERS: Single unit or bank of single-phase units, polyphase connections, Open delta and V connections, Phase conversion: 3 to 6 phase and 3 to 2 phase conversions, Effect of 3-phase winding connections on harmonics, 3-phase winding transformers, tertiary winding.

4EX2 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

Unit-1 NUMBER SYSTEMS, BASIC LOGIC GATES & BOOLEAN ALGEBRA: Binary Arithmetic & Radix representation of different numbers. Sign & magnitude representation, complement notation, various codes & arithmetic in different codes & their inter conversion. Features of logic algebra, postulates of Boolean algebra. Theorems of Boolean algebra. Boolean function. Derived logic gates: Exclusive-OR, NAND, NOR gates, their block diagrams and truth tables. Logic diagrams from Boolean expressions and vica-versa. Converting logic diagrams to universal logic. Positive, negative and mixed logic. Logic gate conversion.

Unit-2 DIGITAL LOGIC GATE CHARACTERISTICS: TTL logic gate characteristics. Theory & operation of TTL NAND gate circuitry. Open collector TTL. Three state output logic. TTL subfamilies. MOS & CMOS logic families. Realization of logic gates in RTL, DTL, ECL, CMOS & MOSFET. Interfacing logic families to one another.

Unit-3 MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUES: Minterm, Maxterm, Karnaugh Map, K map upto 4 variables. Simplification of logic functions with K-map, conversion of truth tables in POS and SOP form. Incomplete specified functions. Variable mapping. Quinn-Mc Klusky minimization techniques.

Unit-4 COMBINATIONAL SYSTEMS: Combinational logic circuit design, half and full adder, subtractor. Binary serial and parallel adders. BCD adder. Binary multiplier. Decoder: Binary to

Gray decoder, BCD to decimal, BCD to 7-segment decoder. Multiplexer, demultiplexer, encoder. Octal to binary, BCD to excess-3 encoder. Diode switching matrix. Design of logic circuits by multiplexers, encoders, decoders and demultiplexers.

Unit-5 SEQUENTIAL SYSTEMS: Latches, flip-flops, R-S, D, J-K, Master Slave flip flops. Conversions of flip-flops. Counters: Asynchronous (ripple), synchronous and synchronous decade counter, Modulus counter, skipping state counter, counter design. Ring counter. Counter applications. Registers: buffer register, shift register.

4EX3 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Unit-1 DIELECTRIC MATERIALS: Polarization phenomenon, spontaneous polarization, dielectric constant and loss, piezo and Ferro electricity application.

Unit-2 MAGNETIC MATERIALS: Dia, Para, ferro- ferrimagnetisms; soft and hard magnetic materials and their applications.

Unit-3 SEMI CONDUCTOR MATERIALS: Crystal growth, zone refining, Degenerate and no degenerate semiconductors, Direct and indirect band gap semiconductors. Electronic properties of silicon, Germanium, Compound Semiconductor, Gallium Arsenide, gallium phosphide & Silicon carbide.

Unit-4 CONDUCTIVE & SUPERCONDUCTIVE MATERIALS: Electrical properties of conductive and resistive materials. Important characteristics and electronic applications of specific conductor & resistance materials. Superconductor phenomenon, Type I and Type II superconductors and their applications.

Unit-5 PASSIVE COMPONENETS & PCB FABRICATION: Brief study of fabrication methods of fixed and variable type of resistors; capacitors, Inductors, solenoid and toroid, air core, iron core and Ferro core conductors. Printed Circuit Boards – Types, Manufacturing of copper clad laminates, PCB Manufacturing process, Manufacturing of single and double sided PCBs. Surface mount devices – advantages & limitations.

4EX4 APPLIED ELECTRONICS

Unit-1 FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS: Classification, Feedback concept, Transfer gain with feedback, General characteristics of negative feedback amplifiers. Analysis of voltage-series, voltage- shunt, current-series and current-shunt feedback amplifier, Stability criterion.

Unit-2 OSCILLATORS: Classification, Criterion for oscillation. Tuned collector, Hartley, Colpitts, RC-Phase shift, Wien bridge and crystal oscillators, Astable, monostable and bistable multivibrators. Schmitt trigger. Blocking oscillators.

Unit-3 HIGH FREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS: Hybrid pie model, conductances and capacitances of hybrid-pie model, high frequency analysis of CE amplifier, gain-bandwidth product. Emitter follower at high frequencies.

Unit-4 DIGITAL LOGIC GATE CHARACTERISTICS: TTL logic gate characteristics. Theory & operation of TTL NAND gate circuitry, Open collector TTL. Three state output logic. TTL subfamilies, MOS & CMOS logic families. Realization of logic gates in RTL, DTL, ECL, CMOS & COMS logic families. Realization of logic gates in RTI, DTI, ECL, CMOSFET. Interfacing logic families to one another.

Unit-5 POWER AMPLIFIERS: Power amplifier circuits, Class A output stages, class B output stage and class AB output stages class C amplifiers, pushpull amplifiers with and without transformers. Complementary symmetry & quasi complementary symmetry amplifiers 4EX5 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

Unit-1 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS: Basic differential amplifier analysis, Single ended and double ended configurations, Op-amp configurations with feedback, Op-amp parameters, Inverting and Non-Inverting configuration, Comparators, Adder.

Unit-2 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS: Integrator, Differentiator, Voltage to frequency & Frequency to voltage converters. Oscillators: Phase shift, Wien bridge, Quadrature, square wave, triangular wave, saw tooth oscillators. Voltage controlled oscillators.

Unit-3 ACTIVE FILTERS: Low pass, high pass, band pass and band reject filters, All pass filter, Switched capacitor filter, Butterworth filter design, Chebyshev Filter design.

Unit-4 PHASE-LOCKED LOOPS: Operating Principles of PLL, Linear Model of PLL, Lock range, Capture range, Applications of PLL as FM detector, FSK demodulator, AM detector, Frequency translator, phase shifter, tracking filter, signal synchronizer and frequency synthesizer, Building blocks of PLL, LM565 PLL.

Unit-5 LINEAR IC’s: Four quadrant multiplier & its applications, Basic blocks of linear IC voltage

regulators, Three terminal voltage regulators, Positive and negative voltage regulators. The 555 timer as astable and monostable multivibrators. Zero crossing detector, Schmitt trigger.

4EX6.1 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY

Unit-1 INTRODUCTION: Vector Relation in rectangular, cylindrical, spherical and general curvilinear coordinates system. Concept and physical interpretation of gradient, Divergence and curl, Green’s & Stoke’s theorems.

Unit-2 ELECTROSTATICS: Electric field intensity & flux density. Electric field due to various charge configurations. The potential functions and displacement vector. Gauss’s law. Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation and their solution. Uniqueness theorem. Continuity equation. Capacitance and electrostatics energy. Field determination by method of images. Boundary conditions. Field mapping and concept of field cells.

Unit-3 MAGNETOSTATICS : Magnetic field intensity, flux density & magnetization, Faraday’s Law, Bio-Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Magnetic scalar and vector potential, self & mutual inductance, Energy stored in magnetic field, Boundary conditions, Analogy between electric and magnetic field, Field mapping and concept of field cells.

Unit-4 TIME VARYING FIELDS: Displacement currents and equation of continuity. Maxwell’s equations, Uniform plane wave in free space, dielectrics and conductors, skin effect sinusoidal time variations, reflection & refraction of Uniform Plane Wave, standing wave ratio. Pointing vector and power considerations.

Unit-5 RADIATION, EMI AND EMC: Retarded Potentials and concepts of radiation, Radiation from a small current element. Radiation resistance: Introduction to Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic compatibility, EMI coupling modes, Methods of eliminating interference, shielding, grounding, conducted EMI, EMI testing: emission testing, susceptibility testing.

4EX7 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-I

1 Speed control of D.C. shunt motor by (a) Field current control method & plot the curve for speed vs field current. (b) Armature voltage control method & plot the curve for speed vs armature voltage.

2 Speed control of a D.C. Motor by Ward Leonard method and to plot the curve for speed vs applied armature voltage.

3 To determine the efficiency of D.C. Shunt motor by loss summation (Swinburne’s) method.

4 To determine the efficiency of two identical D.C. Machine by Hopkinson’s regenerative test. 5 To

perform O.C. and S.C. test on a 1-phase transformer and to determine the parameters of its

equivalent circuit its voltage regulation and efficiency.

6 To perform back-to-back test on two identical 1-phase transformers and find their efficiency & parameters of the equivalent circuit.

7 To perform parallel operation of two 1-phase transformers and determine their load sharing.

8 To determine the efficiency and voltage regulation of a single-phase transformer by direct loading.

9 To perform OC & SC test on a 3-phase transformer & find its efficiency and parameters of its equivalent circuit.

10 To perform parallel operation of two 3-phase transformers and determine their load sharing.

11 To study the performance of 3-phase transformer for its various connections, i.e. star/star star/delta delta/star and delta/delta and find the magnitude of 3rd harmonic current.

4EX8 DIGITAL ELECTORNICS LAB

1 1. To study and perform the following experiments.

(a) Operation of digital multiplexer and demultiplexer. (b) Binary to decimal encoder.

(c) Characteristics of CMOS integrated circuits.

2 To study and perform experiment- Compound logic functions and various combinational circuits based on AND/NAND and OR/NOR Logic blocks.

3 To study and perform experiment -Digital to analog and analog to digital converters.

4 To study and perform experiment- Various types of counters and shift registers.

5 To study and perform experiment – Interfacing of CMOS to TTL and TTL to CMOS ICs.

6 To study and perform experiment- BCD to binary conversion on digital IC trainer.

7 To study and perform experiment –

(a) Astable (b) Monostable (c) Bistable Multivibrators and the frequency variation with different parameters, observe voltage waveforms at different points of transistor.

8 To study and perform experiment -Voltage comparator circuit using IC-710.

9 To study and perform experiment- Schmitt transistor binary circuit.

10 Design 2 bit binary up/down binary counter on bread board.

4EX9 APPLIED ELECTRONICS LAB

1 Plot gain-frequency characteristics of BJT amplifier with and without negative feedback in the emitter circuit and determine bandwidths, gain bandwidth products and gains at 1kHz with and without negative feedback.

2 Study of series and shunt voltage regulators and measurement of line and load regulation and ripple factor.

3 Plot and study the characteristics of small signal amplifier using FET.

4 Study of push pull amplifier. Measure variation of output power & distortion with load.

5 Study Wein bridge oscillator and observe the effect of variation in R & C on oscillator frequency.

6 Study transistor phase shift oscillator and observe the effect of variation in R & C on oscillator frequency and compare with theoretical value.

7 Study the following oscillators and observe the effect of variation of C on oscillator frequency: (a) Hartley (b) Colpitts.

8 Design Fabrication and Testing of k-derived filters (LP/HP).

9 Study of a Digital Storage CRO and store a transient on it.

10 To plot the characteristics of UJT and UJT as relaxation.

11 To plot the characteristics of MOSFET and CMOS.

4EX10 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB

1 Op-Amp characteristics and get data for input bias current measure the output-offset voltage and reduce it to zero and calculate slew rate.

2 Op-Amp in inverting and non-inverting modes.

3 Op-Amp as scalar, summer and voltage follower. 4 Op-Amp as differentiator and integrator.

5 Design LPF and HPF using Op-Amp 741

6 Design Band Pass and Band reject Active filters using Op-Amp 741.

7 Design Oscillators using Op-Amp (i) RC phase shift (ii) Hartley (iii) Colpitts

8 Design (i) Astable (ii) Monostable multivibrators using IC-555 timer

9 Design Triangular & square wave generator using 555 timer.

10 Design Amplifier (for given gain) using Bipolar Junction Transistor.

5EX1 POWER ELECTRONICS

Unit-1 Power Semiconductor Devices: Characteristics of Power Transistor, Thyristor, GTO, Power MOSFET and IGBT. Two-Transistor Model of Thyristor.

Unit-2 SCR: Construction and characteristics, specification and ratings, pulse transformer, optical isolators, methods of turn on: R, RC, UJT relaxation oscillator,

Rating extension by series and parallel connections, string efficiency. Protection of SCRProtection against over voltage, over current, dv/dt, di/dt, Gate protection.

Unit-3 Converters-I: Single Phase half & full wave converters with RL load, Single phase dual converters, Three phase half wave converters, Three phase full converters with RL load, Three phase dual converters.

Unit-4 Converters-II: Single and three-phase semi converters with RL load. Power Factor Improvement-Extinction angle control, symmetrical angle control, pulse width modulation control and sinusoidal pulse width modulation control. Inversion operation. Effect of load and source impedances.

Unit-5 DC-DC Converters: Choppers: Step Up/Down Copper, Chopper Configurations, analysis of type A Chopper Commutation of Choppers. Switched Mode Regulators-buck, boost, buckboost and cuk regulator.

5EX2 ELECTRICAL MACHINES-II

Unit-1 Introduction: General equation of inducted emf, AC armature windings: concentric and distributed winding, chording, skewing, effect on induced emf. Armature and field mmf, effect of power factor and current on armature mmf, harmonics. Rotating fields.

Unit-2 Induction Motors: Construction of squirrel cage & slip ring induction motor, basic principles, flux and mmf waves, induction motor as a transformer. Equivalent circuits, torque equation, torque-slip curves, no load & block rotor tests, circle diagram, performance calculation. Effect of rotor resistance. Cogging, Crawling. Double cage squirrel cage induction motor, induction generator, induction regulator.

Unit-3 Starting & Speed Control of Induction Motors: Various methods of starting & speed control of squirrel cage & slip ring motor, cascade connection, braking.

Single-Phase Induction Motor: Revolving field theory, starting methods, equivalent circuits.

Unit-4 Synchronous Generator: Construction, types, excitation systems, principles.

Equation of induced emf, flux and emf waves, theory of cylindrical rotor and salient pole machines, tworeactance theory, phasor diagrams, power developed, voltage regulation,

OC & SC tests, zero power factor characteristics, potier triangle and ASA method of finding voltage regulation, synchronization, parallel operation, hunting and its prevention.

Unit-5 Synchronous Motors: types, construction, principle, phasor diagrams, speed torque characteristics, power factor control, V-curves, starting methods, performance calculations, applications, synchronous condenser, synchronous induction motor.

5EX3 CONTROL SYSTEMS

Unit-1 Introduction: Elements of control systems, concept of open loop and closed loop systems., Examples and application of open loop and closed loop systems, brief idea of multivariable control systems.

Unit-2 Mathematical Modeling of Physical Systems: Representation of physical system (Electro Mechanical) by differential equations, Determination of transfer function by block diagram reduction techniques and signal flow method, Laplace transformation function, inverse Laplace transformation.

Unit-3 Time Response Analysis of First Order and Second Order System:

Characteristic equations, response to step, ramp and parabolic inputs, transient response analysis, steady state errors and error constants, Transient & steady state analysis of LTI systems.

Unit-4 Stability of the System: Absolute stability and relative stability, Routh’s stability criterion, root locus method of analysis, polar plots, Nyquist stability criterion. M and N Loci, Nichols chart.

Unit-5 Elementary Ideas of Compensation, Networks: Lag, lead and log lead networks, brief idea of proportional, derivative and integral controllers.

5EX4 ANALOG COMMUNICATION

UNIT 1: NOISE EFFECTS IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: Resistor noise, Networks with reactive elements, Noise temperature, Noise bandwidth, effective input noise temperature, Noise figure. Noise figure & equivalent noise temperature in cascaded circuits.

UNIT 2 : AMPLITUDE MODULATION : Frequency translation, Recovery of base band signal,

Spectrum & power relations in AM systems. Methods of generation & demodulation of AM-DSB, AM- DSB/SC and AM-SSB signals. Modulation & detector circuits for AM systems. AM transmitters & receivers.

UNIT 3: FREQUENCY MODULATION : Phase & freq. modulation & their relationship, Spectrum & band width of a sinusoidally modulated FM signal, phasor diagram, Narrow band & wide band FM. Generation & demodulation of FM signals. FM transmitters & receivers.. Comparison of AM, FM & PM. Pre emphasis & deemphasis. Threshold in FM, PLL demodulator.

UNIT 4: NOISE IN AM AND FM: Calculation of signal-to-noise ratio in SSB-SC, DSB-SC, DSB with carrier, Noise calculation of square law demodulator & envelope detector. Calculation of S/N ratio in FM demodulators, Super heterodyne receivers.

UNIT 5: PULSE ANALOG MODULATION : Practical aspects of sampling: Natural and flat top sampling. PAM, PWM, PPM modulation and demodulation methods, PAM-TDM.

5EX5 TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL POWER

Unit-1 (i) Supply systems: – Basic network of power system. Transmission and distribution voltage, effect of system voltage on size of conductor and losses. Comparison of DC 2- wire, DC 3- wire, 1- phase AC and 3- phase AC (3- wire and 4- wire) systems. (ii) Distribution Systems: –

Primary and secondary distribution systems, feeder, distributor and service mains. Radial and ring- main distribution systems. Kelvin’s law for conductor size.

Unit-2 Mechanical features of overhead lines:- Conductor material and types of conductor. Conductor arrangements and spacing. Calculation of sag and tension, supports at differentlevels, effect of wind and ice loading, stringing chart and sag template.

Conductor vibrations and vibration dampers.

Unit-3 Parameters of Transmission Lines: Resistance inductance and capacitance of overhead lines, effect of earth, line transposition. Geometric mean radius and distance. Inductance and capacitance of line with symmetrical and unsymmetrical spacing Inductance and capacitance of double circuit lines. Skin and proximity effects.

Equivalent circuits and performance of short and medium transmission lines.

Unit-4 (i)Generalized ABCD line constants, equivalent circuit and performance of long transmission line. Ferranti effect. Interference with communication circuits. Power flow through a transmission line (ii) Corona: Electric stress between parallel conductors.

Disruptive critical voltage and visual critical voltage, Factors affecting corona. Corona power loss. Effects of corona.

Unit-5 (i) Insulators: Pin, shackle, suspension, post and strain insulators. Voltage distribution across an insulator string, grading and methods of improving string efficiency. (ii) Underground

Cables: Conductor, insulator, sheathing and armoring materials. Types of cables.

Insulator resistance and capacitance calculation. Electrostatic stresses and reduction of maximum stresses. Causes of breakdown. Thermal rating of cable. Introduction to oil filled and gas filled cables.

5EX6.1 BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION

UNIT 1 : HUMAN BODY SUBSYSTEMS: Brief description of neural, muscular, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; their electrical, mechanical and chemical activities.

TRANSDUCERS AND ELECTRODES: Principles and classification of transducers for Bio-medical applications, Electrode theory, different types of electrodes, Selection criteria for transducers and electrodes.

UNIT 2: BIOPOTENTIALS: Electrical activity of excitable cells, ENG, EMG, ECG, ERG, EEG. Neuron potential.

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM MEASUREMENTS: Measurement of blood pressure, blood flow, cardiac output, cardiac rate, heart sounds, Electrocardiograph, phonocardiograph, Plethysmograph, Echocardiograph.

UNIT 3 : INSTRUMENTATION FOR CLINICAL LABORATORY: Measurement of pH valve of blood, ESR measurement, hemoglobin measurement, O_{2} and CO_{2} concentration in blood, GSR measurement. Instrumentation for clinical laboratory: Spectrophotometry, chromatography, Hematology, Measurement of pH value, concentration in blood.

MEDICAL IMAGING: Diagnostic X-rays, CAT, MRI, thermography, Ultrasonography, medical use of isotopes, endoscopy.

UNIT 4: PATIENT CARE, MONITORING AND SAFETY MEASURES: Elements of Intensive care monitoring basic hospital systems and components, physiological effect of electric current shock hazards from electrical equipment, safety measures, Standards & practices.

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS AND BIOTELEMETRY: Real time computer applications, data acquisition and processing, remote data recording and management.

UNIT 5: THERAPEUTIC AND PROSTHETIC DEVICES: Introduction to cardiac pacemakers, defibrillators, ventilators, muscle stimulators, diathermy, heart lung machine, Hemodialysis, Applications of Laser.

5EX6.2 OOPS PROGRAMMING USING JAVA Unit I

JAVA: Variation from C++ to JAVA. Introduction to Java byte code, virtual machine, Program Elements : Primitive data types, variables, assignment, arithmetic, short circuit logical operators, Arithmetic operators, bit wise operators, relational operators, boolean logic operators, the assignment operators, operator precedence. Decision and control statements, arrays.

Unit II

Objects and classes: Objects, constructors, returning and passing objects as parameter. Nested and inner classes.

Single and Multilevel Inheritance, Extended classes, Access Control, usage of super. Overloading and overriding methods. Abstract classes. Using final with inheritance.

Unit III

Package and Interfaces: Defining package, concept of CLASSPATH, access protection, importing package. Defining and implementing interfaces.

String Handling: String constructors, special string operations, character extraction, searching and comparing strings, string Buffer class.

Unit IV

Exception Handling: Exception handling fundamentals, Exception types, uncaught exceptions, try, catch and multiple catch statements. Usage of throw, throws and finally.

Unit V

Applet: Applet Fundamentals, using paint method and drawing polygons, file management (Input/Output) in JAVA.

5EX6.3 INTRODUCTION TO VLSI

Unit-1 Introduction to MOS Technology: Basic MOS transistors, Enhancement Mode transistor action, Depletion Mode transistor action, NMOS and CMOS fabrication.

Unit-2 Basic Electrical Properties of MOS Circuits: Ids versus Vds relationship, Aspects of threshold voltage, Transistor Transconductance gm. The nMOS inverter, Pull up to Pull-down ratio for a NMOS Inverter and CMOS Inverter (Bn/Bp), MOS transistor circuit Model, Noise Margin.

Unit-3 CMOS Logic Circuits: The inverter, Combinational Logic, NAND Gate NOR gate, Compound Gates, 2 input CMOS Multiplexer, Memory latches and registers, Transmission Gate, Gate delays, CMOS-Gate Transistor sizing, Power dissipation.

Unit-4 Basic Physical Design of Simple Gates and Layout Issues: Layout issues for inverter, Layout for NAND and NOR Gates, Complex Logic gates Layout, Layout optimization for performance.

Unit-5 Introduction to VHDL, Verilog & other design tools. VHDL Code for simple Logic gates, flipflops, shift-registers, Counters, Multiplexers, adders and subtractors.

5EX7 POWER ELECTRONICS LAB

1 Study the comparison of following power electronics devices regarding ratings, performance characteristics and applications: Power Diode, Power Transistor, Thyristor, Diac, Triac, GTO, MOSFET, MCT and SIT.

2 Determine V-I characteristics of SCR and measure forward breakdown voltage, latching and holding currents.

3 Find V-I characteristics of TRIAC and DIAC.

4 Find output characteristics of MOSFET and IGBT.

5 Find transfer characteristics of MOSFET and IGBT.

6 Find UJT static emitter characteristics and study the variation in peak point and valley point.

7 Study and test firing circuits for SCR-R, RC and UJT firing circuits.

8 Study and test 3-phase diode bridge rectifier with R and RL loads. Study the effect of filters.

9 Study and obtain waveforms of single-phase half wave controlled rectifier with and without filters. Study the variation of output voltage with respect to firing angle.

10 Study and obtain waveforms of single-phase half controlled bridge rectifier with R and RL loads. Study and show the effect of freewheeling diode.

11 Study and obtain waveforms of single-phase full controlled bridge converter with R and RL loads. Study and show rectification and inversion operations with and without freewheeling diode.

12 Control the speed of a dc motor using single-phase half controlled bridge rectifier and full controlled bridge rectifier. Plot armature voltage versus speed characteristics.

1 Separation of transformer core losses and to determine the hystersis and eddy current losses at rated voltage and frequency.

2 To plot the O.C.C. & S.C.C. of an alternator and to determine its regulation by synchronous impedance method.

3 To synchronize an alternator across the infinite bus (RSEB) & summarize the effects of variation of excitation on load sharing.

4 To plot the V-curve for a synchronous motor for different values of loads.

5 To perform sumpner’s back-to-back test on 3 phase transformers, find its efficiency & parameters for its equivalent circuits.

6 To perform the heat run test on a delta/delta connected 3-phase transformer and determine the parameters for its equivalent circuit.

7 To perform no load and blocked rotor test on a 3 phase induction motor and to determine the parameters of its equivalent circuits. Draw the circle diagram and compute the following (i) Max. Torque (ii) Current (iii) slip (iv) p.f. (v) Efficiency.

8 To perform the load test on a 3-phase induction motor and determine its performance characteristics (a) Speed vs load curve (b) p.f. vs load curve (c) Efficiency vs load curve (d) Speed vs torque curve

9 Determination of losses and efficiency of an alternator.

10 To find Xd and Xq of a salient pole synchronous machine by slip test.

5EX9 CONTROL SYSTEM LAB

I Introduction to MATLAB Computing Control Software. 2 Defining Systems in TF, ZPK form.

3 (a) Plot step response of a given TF and system in state-space. Take different values of damping ratio and wn natural undamped frequency. (b) Plot ramp response.

4 For a given 2nd order system plot step response and obtain time response specification. 5 To design 1st order R-C circuits and observe its response with the following inputs and trace the curve. (a) Step (b) Ramp (c) Impulse

6 To design 2nd order electrical network and study its trarient response for step input and following cases. (a) Under damped system (b) Over damped System. (c) Critically damped system.

7 To Study the frequency response of following compensating Networks, plot the graph and final out corner frequencies. (a) Log Network (b) Lead Network (c) Log-lead Network.

8 To draw characteristics of a.c servomotor

9 To perform experiment on Potentiometer error detector.

10 Check for the stability of a given closed loop system.

II Plot bode plot for a 2nd order system and find GM and PM.

1 Generating station design: Design considerations and basic schemes of hydro, thermal, nuclear and gas power plants. Electrical equipment for power stations,

2 Auxiliary power supply scheme for thermal power plant.

3 Distribution system Design: Design of feeders & distributors. Calculation of voltage drops in distributors. Calculation of conductor size using Kelvin’s law.

4 Methods of short term, medium term and long term load forecasting.

5 Sending end and receiving end power circle diagrams.

6 Instrument Transformers: Design considerations of CTs & PTs for measurement and protection.

7 Substations: Types of substations, various bus-bar arrangements. Electrical equipment for substations.

5EX11 ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT

1 Definition of entrepreneur, qualities of a successful entrepreneur, Charms of being an entrepreneur, achievement- motivation, leadership and entrepreneurial competencies.

2 Decision-making, procedures and formalities for starting own business, financial support system.

3 Identification and selection of business opportunities and market survey, business plan. Implementation and customer satisfaction.

4 Business crises, problem-solving attitude, communication skill. Government policies for entrepreneurs.

5 Knowledge based enterprises, Scope of entrepreneur in present context, area of future entrepreneurship.

6 Marketing & Sales Promotion, Techno-Economic Feasibility Assessment by Preparation of Preliminary & Detailed project report.

6EX1 MODERN CONTROL THEORY

Unit-1 Introduction: Concept of Linear vector space Linear Independence, Bases & Representation, domain and range. Concept of Linearity, relaxedness, time invariance, causality.

Unit-2 State Space Approach of Control System Analysis: Modern Vs conventional control theory,

concept of state, state variable state vector, state space, state space equations, Writing statespace equations of mechanical, Electrical systems, Analogous systems.

Unit-3 State Space Representation using physical and phase variables, comparison form of system representation. Block diagram representation of state model. Signal flow graph representation. State space representation using canonical variables. Diagonal matrix.

Jordan canonical form, Derivation of transfer function from state-model.

Unit-4 Solution of State Equations: Diagonalization, Eigenvalues and eigen vectors.

Matrix exponential, State transition matrix, Properties of state transition matrix.

Computation of State transition matrix concepts of controllability & observability. Pole placement by state feedback, Ackerman’s formula

Unit-5 Digital Control Systems: Introduction, sampled data control systems, signal reconstruction, difference equations. The z-transform, Z-Transfer Function. Block diagram analysis of sampled data systems, z and s domain relationship, digital PID controller

6EX2 MICROPROCESSOR AND MICROCONTROLLER

UNIT 1 : INTRODUCTION: CPU, address bus, data bus and control bus. Input/ Output devices, buffers, encoders, latches and memories.

UNIT 2 : 8085 MICROPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE: Internal data operations and registers, pins and signals, peripheral devices and memory organization, interrupts. CISC and RISC architecture overview.

UNIT 3 : 8085 MICROPROCESSOR INSTRUCTIONS: Classification, format and timing. Instruction set. Programming and debugging, 8 bit and 16 bit instructions.

UNIT 4 : 8085 MICROPROCESSOR INTERFACING: 8259, 8257, 8255, 8253, 8155 chips and their applications. A/D conversion, memory, keyboard and display interface (8279).

UNIT 5: INTRODUCTION TO 8051 MICROCONTROLLER: General features & architecture of 8051. Memory, timers and interrupts. Pin details. Interfacing and applications.

6EX3 PROTECTION OF POWER SYSTEM

Unit-1 (i) Causes and consequences of dangerous currents: Faults, overloads and switching over currents. Introduction to protection, trip circuit of a circuit breaker.

Functional characteristics of a relay, zone of protection, primary and backup protection.

(ii) CTs & PTs: Current transformer construction, measurement and protective CTs.

Type of potential transformers. Steady state ratio and phase angle errors in CTs and PTs. Transient errors in CT and CVT (Capacitive Voltage Transformer).

Unit-2 Overcurrent Protection: HRC fuse and thermal relay. Overcurrent (OC) relays – instantaneous, definite time, inverse time and inverse definite minimum time overcurrent

relays, time and current gradings. Induction disc type relay. Directional overcurrent relay, 30″, 60″ and 90° connections. Earth fault relay. Brief description of overcurrent protective schemes for a feeder, parallel feeders and ring mains.

Unit-3 Generator Protection: Stator protection – differential and percentage differential protection, protection against stator inter-turn faults, stator overheating protection. Rotor protectionprotection against excitation and prime mover failure, field earth fault and unbalanced stator currents (negative sequence current protection).

Unit-4 (i) Transformer Protection: Percentage differential protection, magnetizing inrush current, percentage differential relay with harmonic restraint. Buchholz relay.

Differential protection of generator transfer unit.

(ii) Busbar Protection: Differential protection of busbars, high impedance relay scheme, frame leakage protection.

Unit-5 (i) Transmission Line Protection: Introduction to distance protection.

Construction, operating principle and characteristics of an electromagnetic impedance relay. Effect of arc resistance. Induction cup type reactance and mho relays. Comparison between impedance, reactance and mho relays. Three stepped distance protection of transmission line.

(ii) Induction Motor Protection: Introduction to various faults and abnormal operating conditions, unbalance supply voltage and single phasing. Introduction to protection of induction motors- HRC fuse and overcurrent, percentage differential, earth fault and negative sequence voltage relays.

6EX4 ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONICS

Unit-1 AC Voltage Controllers: Principle of On-Off Control, Principle of Phase control, Single Phase Bi-directional Controllers with Resistive Loads, Single Phase Controllers with Inductive Loads, Three Phase full wave AC controllers, AC Voltage Controller with PWM Control.

Unit-2 Inverters: Principle of Operation, Single-phase bridge inverters, Three phase bridge Inverters: 180 and 120 degree of conduction. Voltage control of Single Phase and Three Phase Inverters, Current Source Inverters, Harmonics and its reduction techniques. Unit-3 Cycloconverters: Basic principle of operation, single phase to single phase, threephase to three-phase and three phase to single phase cycloconverters. Output equation, Control circuit.

Unit-4 DC Power Supplies: Switched Mode DC Power Supplies, flyback converter, forward converter, half and full bridge converter, resonant DC power supplies, bidirectional power supplies.

Unit-5 AC Power Supplies: Switched mode power supplies, Resonant AC power supplies, bidirectional AC power supplies. Multistage conversions, Control Circuits: Voltage Mode Control, Current Mode Control

6EX5 DATA STRUCTURES IN C

Unit-1 Performance Measurement: Space complexity and Time complexity, big oh, omega and theta notations and their significance. Linear Lists – Array and linked representation, singly & doubly linked lists. Concept of circular linked lists.

Unit-2 Array & Matrices: Row and Column Major mapping & representation, irregular 2D array, Matrix operations, Special matrices: diagonal, tri-diagonal, triangular and symmetric. Sparse matrices representation and its transpose.

Unit-3 Stacks: Representation in array & linked lists, basic operation, Applications of stacks in parenthesis matching, towers of Hanoi etc. Queues – Representation in array & linked lists, applications, circular queues.

Unit-4 Trees: Binary Tree, representation in array & linked lists, basic operation on binary trees, binary tree traversal (preorder, post order, in order). Search Trees – Binary search tree, indexed-binary search tree, basic operation, AVL tree, B-tree & Heap Tree. Unit-5 Graphs: Representation of unweighted graphs, BFS, DFS, and Minimum cost spanning trees, Single source shortest path. Sorting – Bubble sort, insertion sort, merge sort, selection sort, quick sort, heap sort.

6EX6.1 NEURAL NETWORKS

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION: Introduction to Neural Networks, Biological basis for NN, Human brain, Models of a Neuron, Directed Graphs, Feedback, Network architectures, Knowledge representation, Artificial intelligence & Neural Networks.

UNIT 2: LEARNING PROCESSES: Introduction, Error -Correction learning, Memory -based learning, Hebbian learning, Competitive learning, Boltzmann learning, Learning with a Teacher & without a teacher, learning tasks, Memory, Adaptation.

UNIT 3: SINGLE LAYER PERCEPTRONS: Introduction, Least-mean-square algorithm, Learning Curves, Learning rate Annealing Techniques, Perceptron, Perceptron Convergence Theorem.

UNIT 4: MULTI LAYER PERCEPTRONS: Introduction, Back-Propagation Algorithm, XOR Problem, Output representation and Decision rule, Feature Detection, Back-Propagation and Differentiation, Hessian Matrix, Generalization.

UNIT 5: RADIAL-BASIS FUNCTION NETWORKS & SELF-ORGANISING MAPS: Introduction to Radial basis function networks, Cover’s Theorem on the Separability of Patterns, Interpolation Problem, Generalized Radial-Basis function networks, XOR Problem. Self-Organizing map, Summary of SOM Algorithm, Properties of the feature map.

6EX6.2 ADVANCED MICROPROCESSORS

Unit-1 8086 Microprocessor: Hardware specifications, architecture, address spaces,

clock generator, bus controller and arbiter, Minimum and maximum mode, System Bus

Timing.

Unit-2 Software & Instruction Set: Assembly language programming: addressing mode and instructions of 8086, linking and execution of programs, MACRO programming, assembler directives and operators.

Unit-3 I/O Interfaces: Programmable peripheral interfacing (8255, 8155), Programmable Timer interfacing (8253,8254), Programmable interrupt controller (8259) Serial Communication interfaces.

Unit-4 Data & Memory Interfacing: A/D, D/A converter interfacing, Memory interfacing and Decoding, DMA controller.

Unit-5 Multiprocessor Configurations: 8086 based Multiprocessor systems. 8087 Numeric data processor.

6EX6.3 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION THEORY

Unit-1 PCM & DELTA Modulation Systems: PCM and delta modulation, quantization noise in PCM and delta modulation. Signal-to-noise ratio in PCM and delta modulation, T1 Carrier System, Comparison of PCM and DM. Adaptive delta Modulation. Bit, word and frame synchronization, Matched filter detection.

Unit-2 Digital Modulation Techniques: Various techniques of phase shift, amplitude shift and frequency shift keying. Minimum shift keying. Modulation & Demodulation. Unit-3 Error Probability in Digital Modulation: Calculation of error probabilities for PSK, ASK, FSK & MSK techniques.

Unit-4 Information Theory: Amount of Information, Average Information, Entropy, Information rate, Increase in Average information per bit by coding, Shannon’s Theorem and Shannon’s bound, Capacity of a Gaussian Channel, BW-S/N trade off, Orthogonal signal transmission.

Unit-5 Coding: Coding of Information, Hamming code, Single Parity-Bit Code, Linear Block code, cyclic code & convolutional code

6EX7 MICROPROCESOR LAB

- Study the hardware, functions, memory structure and operation of 8085 microprocessor kit.
- Program to perform integer division: (i) 8-bit by 8-bit (ii) 16-bit by 8-bit.
- Transfer of a block of data in memory to another place in memory in the direct and reverse order.
- Searching a number in an array and finding its parity.
- Sorting of array in: (i) Ascending (ii) Descending order
- Programme to perform following conversion: (i) BCD to ASCII (ii) BCD to Hexadecimal
- Programme to multiply two 8-bit numbers.
- Programme to generate and sum 15 fibanocci numbers.
- Programme for rolling display of message “INDIAN”.

10. To insert a number at correct place in a sorted array.

- Serial and Parallel data transfer on output port 8155 & 8255 & designing of disco light, running light, and sequential lights on off by above hardware.

12. Generation of different waveform on 8253/ 8254 programmable timer.

6EX8 POWER SYSTEM LAB

1 Study the burden effect on the performance of CT and measure ratio error.

2 Find out the sequence components of currents in three 1-Phase transformers and 3- Phase transformer and compare their results.

3 (i) Study over current relay.

(ii) Draw the current-time characteristic of an over current relay for TMS=1 & 0.5 and PSM=1.25 & 1.0.

4 (i) Study percentage bias differential relay.

(ii) Plot the characteristics of a percentage bias differential relay for 20%, 30% and 40% biasing.

5 Study gas actuated Buchholz relay.

6EX9 MATLAB PROGRAMMING LAB

1 Basics of MATLAB matrices and vectors, matrix and array operations, Saving and loading data, plotting simple graphs, scripts and functions, Script files, Function files,

Global Variables, Loops, Branches, Control flow, Advanced data objects, Multidimensional matrices,

Structures, Applications in linear algebra curve fitting and interpolation. Numerical integration, Ordinary differential equation. (All contents is to be covered with tutorial sheets)

2 Simulink: Idea about simulink, problems based on simulink. (All contents is to be covered with tutorial sheets)

6EX10 ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONICS LAB

I Study and test AC voltage regulators using triac, antiparallel thyristors and triac & diac. 2 Study and test single phase PWM inverter.

3 Study and test buck, boost and buck- boost regulators. 4 Study and test MOSFET chopper.

5 Study and test Zero voltage switching.

6 Study and test SCR DC circuit breaker.

7 Control speed of a dc motor using a chopper and plot armature voltage versus speed characteristic.

8 Control speed of a single-phase induction motor using single phase AC voltage regulator.

9 (i) Study single-phase dual converter. (ii) Study speed control of dc motor using singlephase dual converter.

10 Study one, two and four quadrant choppers (DC-DC converters).

II Study speed control of dc motor using one, two and four quadrant choppers. 12 Study single-phase cycloconverter.

7EX1 DATA BASE MANGEMENT SYSTEM

Unit-1 Introduction, need, purpose and goals of DBMS. DBMS Architecture, Concept of keys, Generalization and specialization, introduction to relational data model, ER modeling, concept of ER diagram.

Unit-2 Database Design: Conceptual Data Base design. Theory of normalization,

Primitive and composite data types, concept of physical and logical databases, data abstraction and data independence, relational algebra and relational calculus.

Unit-3 SQL, DDL and DML. Constraints assertions, views database security. Application Development using SQL: Host Language interface, embedded SQL programming. GL’s, Forms management and report writers. Stored procedures and triggers. Dynamic SQL, JDBC.

Unit-4 Internal of RDBMS: Physical data organization in sequential, indexed, random and hashed files. Inverted and multilist structures.

Unit-5 (i) Transaction Management: Transaction concept, transaction state, serializability, conflict erializabiltiy, view serializability. (ii) Concurrency Control: Lock based protocol. (iii) Deadlock Handling: Prevention detection, recovery. (iv) Recovery System: Log based recovery.

7EX2 POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS

Unit-1 (i) Percent and per unit quantities. Single line diagram for a balanced 3-phase system. (ii) Admittance Model: Branch and node admittances Equivalent admittance network and calculation of Y bus. Modification of an existing Y bus.

Unit-2 (i) Impendence Model: Bus admittance and impedance matrices. Thevenin’s theorem and Z b Direct determination of Z bus. Modification of an existing bus. (ii) Symmetrical fault Analysi Transient on a Transmission line, short circuit of a synchronous machine on no load, short circu of a loaded synchronous machine.

Equivalent circuits of synchronous machine under su transient, transient and steady state conditions. Selection of circuit breakers, Algorithm for sho circuit studies. Analysis of 3 phase faults.

Unit-3 (i) Symmetrical Components: Fortescure theorem, symmetrical component transformation. Phase shift in star-delta transformers. Sequence Impedances of transmission lines, Synchronous Machine and Transformers, zero sequence network of transformers and transmission lines. Construction of sequence networks of power system.

(ii) Fault Analysis:

Analysis of single line to ground faults using symmetrical components, connection of sequence networks under the fault condition.

Unit-4 Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis: (i) Analysis of line-to-line and double line to ground faults using symmetrical components, connection of sequence networks under fault conditions. (ii) Analysis of unsymmetrical shunt faults using bus impedance matrix method.

Unit-5 Load Flow Analysis: Load flow problem, development of load flow equations, bus classification. Gauss Seidel, Newton Raphosn, decoupled and fast decoupled methods for load flow analysis. Comparison of load flow methods.

7EX3 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES

Unit-1 Artificial Intelligence: Introduction to AI and knowledge based Expert systems: Introduction,Importance and Definition of AI, ES, ES building tools and shells.

Unit-2 Knowledge Representation: Concept of knowledge, Representation of knowledge using logics rules, frames. Procedural versus. Declarative knowledge, forward versus backward chaining. Control Strategies: -Concept of heuristic search, search techniques depth first search, Breath first search, Generate & test hill climbing, best first search.

Unit-3 Artificial Neural Network: Biological Neurons and synapses, characteristics Artificial Neural Networks, types of activation functions. Perceptions: Perception representation, limitations of perceptrons. Single layer and multiplayer perceptrons. Perceptron learning algorithms.

Unit-4 Basic Concepts in Learning ANN: Supervised learning, Back propagation algorithm, unsupervised learning, Kohonen’s top field network & Algorithm.

Unit-5 Fuzzy Logic: Fuzzy logic concepts, Fuzzy relation and membership functions, Defuzzufication, Fuzzy controllers G