RTU Syllabus Biotechnology Engineering 5th Semester
Bioenergetics:first and second laws of thermodynamics and concept of free energy, high- energy phosphate compounds.
Carbohydrate metabolism :Glycolysis,kreb’s cycle. pentose phosphate pathway, glyoxylate cycle, glycogenolysis and glycogenesis,gluconeogenesis.Anaerobic respiration and basics of fermentation.
Lipid Metabolism : Biosynthesis of odd and even carbon saturated and Unsaturted Fatty acids, formation of ketone bodies,biosynthesis of triacylglycerols, membrane phospholipids,cholestrol and steroids.
Protein metabolism : metabolic fate of amino group,transamination and deamination, decarboxylation and oxidative degradation of amino acid,Nitrogen excretion and urea cycle.
Nucleic acid metabolism : Biosynthesis and break down of purine & pyrimidine nucletide by De novo and salvage pathway. Phosphorus and sulphur regulation. Metabolic regulation.
Books Recommended :
Principles of biochemistry :-Lehniger 3rd ed.McMilklan Biochemistry:-G.Zubay
Biochemistry:- Stryer 5th ed.2001 W.H.Freeman Biochemistry:-Garret and Grasim Pub.Somders college
RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
Introduction to gene cloning, tools and enzymes used in gene manipulation:-Restriction enzymes DNA ligases DNA Polymerase Reverse Trascriptase Polynucleotide kinase,End labeling and other process used in rDNA technology.
Major cloning vehicle and their application-Plasmid vectors, cosmid, Phagemid, phage vector,YAC,BAC,Ti plasmids,expression vector, shuttle vectors binary vectors, Transposons
Making of genomic and cDNA libraries, their screening and major application,Blotting Techniques- Southern Blotting, Nouthern Blotting and Western Blotting..
Production of Recombinant Therapeutic Proteins, DNA Vaccines, Production of transgenic microbes and their application in Biotechnology.
BOOKS RECOMMENDED :-
- Gene Cloning :-T.A. Brown 4th Ed Print
- Gene VII:- Benzamin Lewin Oxford University Press.1st Ed.Print 2003
- From genes to Clones:-Winacker 1st Ed. Print Panima Publishing Corp.
- From genes to Genomes:- Dale and Schantz Jhon.Wiley and Sons.Print 2002
- Gene manipulation :-Old and Primrose.Blackwell Science print
- Molecular Biotechnology:Glick and Pasternak ASM Press
OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMM ING USING C++
Object Oriented Programming Tools and C++:An overview of C++ programming,simple program construction,functions,statements, inputs/outputs. Variables and manipulators, data types. Library functions.
Functions :function declaration, calling, passing arguments to functions and returning values from functions,reference arguments,overloaded functions, variable and storage classes.
Objects and Classes :classes and objects, C++ objects and memory. Arrays:definition, multidimensional arrays, passing arrays to functions, arrays of structures.arrays as class members data,arrays of objects,arrays of strings.
Operator overloading: Overloading unary,binary and arithmetic operators,adding polar coordinates.concatening strings.multiple overloading,pitfalls of operator overloading and conversation.
Inheritance:derived class and base class, overriding memory functions, class hierarchy,public and private inheritance,multiple inheritance. Pointers:Addresses and pointers,pointer and arrays, pointer and functions use of pointers in strings, linked lists and memory management.
Introduction :-Basic concepts of heat and mass transfer, importance of heat and mass transfer in food processing .Conduction :Principles of conduction heat transfer fourier’s law,derivation of general heat conduction equation incartsian and cylindrical coordinates, steady state heat transfer through slabs,plane walls,composite walls,cylinders,spheres etc. insulation and its purpuses, critical thickness of insulation cylinder and sphers,general heat transfer equation for extended surfaces (Fins)
Convection :Natural and forced convection, nusselt number,dimensional analysis for free and forced convection dimensionless numbers used in convective heat transfer,important correlations for free and forced convection.
Radiation :Introduction,reflection,absorption and transmission of radiation,characterstics of black,grey and real bodies in relation to thermal radiation,Stefan Boltzman law; Kirchoff’s law, Wein displacement laws, intensity of radiation, radiation between black bodies and diffused grey surfaces.
Heat Exchangers :Classification,overall heat transfer coefficient, fouling factors, log- mean temperature difference for parallel and counter flow heat exchangers,heat transfer in shell and tube heat exchangers,effectiveness of parallel and counter flow heat exchanger by general and NTU (Number of Transfer Units) method, design of heat exchanger,applications of plate heat exchanger in HTST pasteurizer with regeneration.
Evaporator: Types of evaporator-Natural circulation evaporators, Force circulation evaporator, falling film evaporators, climbing film evaporator, agitated thin-film evaporators and plate evaporators, principles of evaporation and evaporators.
BOOKS RECOMMENDED :
Heat transfer,Principles And Applications PHI New Delhi 2001 :Dutta K.
Heat Transfer :-Rao.Y.V.C.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAM ICS
Review of First Law and Second Law of Thermodynamics. Volumetric Properties of Pure Fluids.PVT behavior of pure substances,Concepts of phase,Ideal gas equation of state, virial equation and its applications,cubic equations of state,generalized correlations for gases and liquids.
Heat Effects :Sensibel heat effects,heat effects accompanying phase changes of pure substances,standard heats of reaction, formation and combustion,effect of temperature on the standard heat of reaction. Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids Fundamental property relations,Maxwell’s equations, Residual properties, Clapeyron’s Equation, Generalized correlations for thermodynamic properties of gases.
Multicomponent Systems: Chemical potential,ideal-gas mixture,ideal solution,Raoult’s Law.Partial properties,fugacity and fugacity coefficient, generalized correlation for the fugacity coefficient,excess Gibbs’ energy,activity coefficient.
Phase Equilibria at Low to Moderate Pressures:Phase rule,phase behavior for vapor liquid systems,Margules equation, Van Laar equation, Wilson equation,NRTL equation.Dew point,buble point and flash calculations.Solution Thermodynamics:Ideal solution,fundamental residual-property relation, fundamental excess-property relation, Evaluation of partial properties.Heat effects of mixing processes. Partially miscible systems.
Chemical Reaction Equilibria.Reaction coordinate,equilibrium criteria to chemical reactions,standard Gibbs’ energy change and the equilibrium constant. Effect of temprature on the equilibrium constant,evaluation of constant relations between equilibrium constants and compositions: gas-phase reactions,liquid-phase reactions. Calculation of equilibrium compositions for single-phase reactions. Multireaction equilibria.
1. Smith,J.M. Van Ness, H.C.and Abbott, M.M., “Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics”
2. Rao,Y.V.C., “Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics”, University Press,1997.
PLANT SECONDARY METABOLITES
Introduction,secondary plant products in nature and their occurrence,types and uses. Basic tools and techniques used in isolation and saparation. Sources and types of antitumour compounds, food additives and insecticides
Production in vitro-optimization selection effect of metabolism on secondary metabolite-production, production under stress factors.
Production of alkaloids steroids and saponins, Flavonoids. Mechanism and control by different factors, detoxification of secondary metabolites.
Production of Tannins, Gycosides, Resins. Microbial secondary metabolites, their occurrence types and uses.
Production of secondary metabolites by bioconversion genetic transformation for production of secondary metabolite Large scale production in bioreactor.
1. Secondary Metabolites:-K.C.Ramawat.Oxford Press.Reprint 2000.
INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY AND ENZYME TECHNOLOGY
1. Introduction, Classification of Microbial products. Microbial Processes for Production of organic acids, solvents, antibiotics, enzymes
2. Production of polysaccharides, lipids, pigments and Microbial Biotransformation.
3. Strain Improvement of industrially important Microorganisms, Equipments and Accessories for industrial processes. STR and Airlift fermenters, Bioreactors used for solid substrate fermentation.
4. Enzymes: Methods of Separation,. Enzyme Immobilization Technology, Protein Engineering.
5. Application of enzymes in industry, analytical purpose and medical therapy
BOOKS RECOMMENDED :-
- Industrial microbiology:-Casida Newage Publication 2001
- Industrial microbiology:-Prescott and Dunn CBS Publications 4th Ed. 1999
- Enzymes:-Trevor.Horwood 2001
- Journals and Reviews
PRODUCTION OF RECOMBINANT MOLECULES
1. Rationale for the design of vectors for the over expression of recombinant proteins: selection of suitable promoter sequences, ribosome binding sites,transcription terminator,fusion protein tags, purification tags,protease cleavage sites and enzymes
2. Plasmid copy number,inducible expression system, Methods of DNA Transfection in Mammalian Cell lines
3. Over expression conditions, production of inclusion bodies, solubilization of insoluble proteins,purification protocols and upscalling
4. Determination of purity and activity of over expressed protein
5. Experiments using model systems: E. coli, Yeast, Baculovirus, Agrobacterium tumifience
BOOKS RECOMMENDED :-
- Gene Manipulation:-Old and Primrose. Blackwell Science. Print 2001
- Protein Engineering :-Lilia Alberghina.Harvard Academy 2003
- Pharmaceutical Biotechnology :-Vyas and Dixit CBS Publications 1999
- Recombinant DNA :-Watson and Gillman Scientific Book 2nd Ed. 2001
- Molecular biotechnology :-Glick & Pasternak.ASM Press
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