RTU Syllabus Biotechnology Engineering 4th Semester
Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance, Deviations of Mendel’s Laws, sex linked inheritance, Polygenic and Maternal inheritance.
Chromosome structure and replication, DNA Structure, DNA Replication (Prokarytic and Eukaryotic), Inhibitors of DNA replication, Mutation- elementary concept, Types of mutations, Point mutation (Base pair change, frame shift, deletion, inversion, insertion etc.)
Structure and functions of m-RNA, r-RNA and t-RNA, Transcription apparatus, Transcription in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, post transcriptional processing of RNA, s (t-RNA, r-RNA, m-RNA). Inhibitors of transcription, reverse transcription.
The genetic code and its features, deciphering of genetic code, protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, post translational modifications.
- Molecular Genetics of Bacteria by Larry synder and wendey champness, ASM press, Washington,
- Genetics by Goodenough U, Hold Saunders International,
- Principles of Genetics by Gardner, E.J., Simmons M.J.slustad
- Gene’s VIII by Benajmin Lewin, oxford University press, oxford
- Molecular Biology by Freielder D.,Jones and Barilett pub. Inc
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
Microscopy- Microscopic identification of various microorganisms; phase contrast and confocal microscopy; SEM-TEM microscopy.
Electrophoretic Techniques- Basis and principle of Electrophoresis; Electrophoresis of proteins and nucleic acids; 1D & 2D Gels; pulsed field electrophoresis; capillary electrophoresis; western southern and northern blotting; dot and slot, gel documentation.
Methods of biochemical analysis- Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleotides analysis; enzymatic assays of various metabolites; DNA purification and PCR-based analysis; DNA fingerprinting; DNA sequencing.
Immunological Techniques- Antiserum production, immunofluroscence, immuno histocompatibility ELISA; localization of cells in tissues immunoblotting; monoclonal antibodies.
Spectroscopy- UV-Visible spectroscopy, infrared-spectroscopy, NMR & Mass spectroscopy; Principle and application.
- Biochemical techniques- Wilson
- Biochemical techniques- David Freilfelder
- Holem and H.Peck;Analytical Biochemistry.Longman,1983.
- G.Cooper;The Tools of Biochemistry.Wiley Intersciences,1997.
- Scopes, Protein Purification :Principles and Practices.Springer Verlag, 1982.
- Selected readings from Methods in Enzymology,Acadernic Pres
Basic concepts– Cell fate and commitment, its mechanism, mosaic and regulative development, maintenance of differentiation, pattern formation and compartments, Apoptosis, Senescence and Ageing.
Morphogenesis- model organism, developmental mutantsnts, Transgenic organism in development, cellular and microsurgical techniques, Genes and their role in development, signal transduction in development cell division cycle,cytoskeleton.cell adhesion and the extra cellular matrix.
Unicellular models- sporulation in Bacillus subtilis– Mating type switching in yeast aggregation and culmination in dicyostelium discordeum, Sex gametes and fertilization- germ line speciation, germ cell migration,gametogenesis,gastrulation in invertebrate and vertebrate, cell lineage, Axis specification in vertebrates, fate of ectoderm, measoderm and endoderm.
Cell differentiation mechanism and factors affecting it– Developmental gradients in hydra, axial gradients in Drosophila development, Organogenesis in invertebrates and vertebrates
Plant development Essential and and accessory parts of plants, fertilization and development of plant embryo, development of seeding, root, shoot, leaf and flower, plant versus animal development
- Developmental Biology by Gilbert
- M.Twyman 2001 Developmental Biology. Viva books private Ltd. New Delhi.
- Developmental Biology-5th edition,sineaur Associate Inc.Slack JMV 1991,From egg to embryo Cambridge University Press K.
- Wolpert L.1997,Principles of Oxford University Press.Oxford University
THERMODYNAM ICS OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
Energy, thermodynamics and living processes – an introduction Energetic processes in the biosphere: The ecosystem.Thermodynamics systems: equilibrium, activity coefficients and phase equilibrium functions of state, cyclic processes, work, energy and metabolic heat; Mechanical equivalent of heat, energy as a function of state.
The laws of thermodynamics: Second law; Reversible vs. irreversible processes entropy, work; Combination of the first and second law, Free energy, useful work and delta G. Entropy:, Probabilistic nature of Entropy, Order and Disorder.
Biological systems as open, non-equilibrium systems: failure of classical thermodynamics in describing biological processes, Standard free energy changes and equilibrium constants, direction and rate.
Chemical potential: Visualization of the potential velocity and steady flow; Fick’s law and diffusion. Local Equilibria and steady state: Energy vs. Power; Transducers in biological states, Constitutive equations.
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, First and second law, The electrochemical potential, External forces an steady state, Fick’s Law, chemical reactions in the steady state, internal entropy production, cells as non-equilibrium stationary states; Diffusion and membrane transport. Thermodynamic analysis of oxidative photophospghorylation, stability of non-equilibrium stationary states, ordering in time and space far from equilibrium, glycolytic oscillations, biological clocks and biological rhythm.
- Biological Thermodynamics, D.T. Haynie, Cambridge University
- Biophysical Chemistry, C.R. Cantor and P.R. Schimmel, Freeman
- Physical Chemistry: Principles and Applications in Biological Sciences, I. Tincoco, K.Sauer and J.C. Wang, Prentice Hall College
- Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences, R. Chang, University Science Books
- Thermodynamics and Kinetics for the Biological Sciences, G.G. Hammes, John Wiley and Sons
Biochemical Evolution- Classical evolution of Nitrogenous bases and amino acids; Evolution of Enzyme Systems; Classical experiments based on it; Biochemistry of water.
Amino Acids, Peptides and proteins- Structure, properties, classification and functions of amino acids, amino acid sequence determination, structure and function of proteins, Protein denaturation and renaturation, folding pathways, folding accessory proteins, Separation techniques based on their structure and properties, Clinical Significance.
Carbohydrates- Definition; Basic structure; Mono and Polysaccharide; properties and functions of monosaccharides and related compounds; structural poly- saccharides- cellulose and chitin; storage polysaccharides- starch, glycogen; peptidoglycan and glycosaminoglycans; proteoglycans and glycoproteins; Separation and Characterization Techniques; Clinical significance.
Lipids- Structure and Classification of lipids; Functions; nomenclature; physical and chemical properties of fatty acids; general structure and functions of triacylglycerols; Phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, cholesterol & lipoprotein structures; properties and functions of steroids; Separation and Characterization Techniques; Clinical Significance.
Enzymes- Defination; Nomenclature and classification; Co-enzymes, co- factors & prosthetic groups; Reaction and derivation of Michaelis-Menten equation, Lineweaver-Burke plot, Enzyme inhibition; Allosteric regulation of enzymes, Isozymes; Mode of catalysis.
Biochemical Energetics- Energy Yielding and Energy Requiring Reactions; Oxidation- Reduction Reactions, Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; ATP Yield; Photo-phosphorylation, Active and Passive transport.
Vitamins and Hormones- Structure, properties and biological functions of vitamins; Chemistry, properties and biological functions of plant and animal hormones.
- L. Lehninger, D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox, “ Principles of Boichemistry”, 3rd Edn., Worth Publishers.
- Biochemistry by Lubert Stryer. H. Freeman & Company, NY.
- Zubay, “Biochemistry”, 4th Edn., McGrawhill Publishers.
- Biochemistry- Stump & Cohn
- Biochemistry Voet and Voet Biochemistry Garrett & Grasim.
History and definition of drugs, sources of drugs – plants, animals and microbes, crude drugs- Scope and Importance, Classification (Taxonomical, Morphological, Chemical Pharmological); Role of biopharmaceuticals in treatment of various health disorders.
Cultivation and utilization of medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India. Genetics asTapplied to Medicinal Herbs.
Methods of Drug evaluation (Morphological, Microscopic, Physical and Chemical).TPreliminary screening, Assay of Drugs – Biological evaluation/assays, MicrobiologicalTmethods. Chemical Methods of Analysis : Chemical estimation, spectrophotometry and Fluorescence analysis.
Gycosides, Tannins, Volatile Oils, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Resins-Extraction MethodsTand Manufacturing practices.
Production of therapeutic proteins, hormones, cytokines – interferon, interleukins I and II, tumor necrosis factor (TNF).
- Pharmacognacy, K. Kokate, A. P. Purohit, S.P. Gokhle (1996), Nirali Prakashan, 4th edition.
- Natural Products in Medicine : A Biosynthetic Approach (1997),
- Biopharmaceuticals : Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Gari Walsh, 1998, John Wiley and Sons
IMPACT OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ON SOCIETY
Introduction of energy scenario, Conventional and non-conventional resources of energy, Utility and waste management of thermal and hydral energy, General idea of solar, wind, bio-mass, geothermal, tidal and wave energy, Sources and management of nuclear power energy, Electromagnetic energy, Ratio frequency and microwaves and it’s biological effects.
Global warming, Depletion of Ozone layer, Human activity and meterology, Animal and plant biodiversity. EI-Nino phenomenon and its effects, Solid waste, Waste disposal methods, Recycling of solid waste and its management.
Atmosphere-Introduction, Structure of the atmosphere, Chemical and Photochemical reactions, Primary air pollutants-sources, Control and harmful effects of Cox, NOx, SO, Hydrocarbons particulates, sampling techniques, Air pollution from automobiles, Photochemical smog, Acid rain, Case studies of air pollution.
Hydrosphere – aquatic environment, Organic and inorganic water pollutants, Domestic and industrial waste water treatment, Aerobic and anaerobic treatment processes, Sampling and preservation, case studies of water pollution.
Lithosphere and noise pollution, Introduction of land and soil pollution, Treatment and disposal and harmful effects, General introduction of noise pollution and its effects. Sound unwanted from noise changes, Traffic noise, Prediction and control.
Generation of Solid Wastes : Problems associated with Solid Waste Disposal, Goals and objectives of Solid Waste Management, Classification of Solid Waste. Solid Waste Generation, Factors Influencing Generation of Solid Waste, Characteristics of Solid Waste, Analysis of Solid Waste.
Onsite Handling, Storage and Processing : Public health and Aesthetics, onsite Handling, onsite Storage, Dust bins, Community Containers, Container Locations, Onsite Processing Methods.
Solid waste collections, transfer and transport : Collection Systems, equipment and labour requirement, collection routes, options for transfer and transport systems.
Processing and disposal methods : Nature, Processing techniques and methods of disposal, sanitary land filling, composting and incineration, Bioremediation.
Recovery of resources, conversion products and energy : Material, recovery, energy generation and recovery operation, reuse in other industry.
Books Recommended :
- Tehobanogious, H. Theisen and R. Blassen – Solid Waste Engineering, Principles and Management Issues, Mc-Graw Hill Book
- L. Mantell Solid Waste Management, John Wiley, New York, 1975.
- Bhide and Sundershen, “Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries”.
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