RTU Syllabus Biotechnology Engineering 3rd Semester
General Introduction- History and development of microbiology; Discovery of microbial world; experiments of Pasture; Era of the discovery of antibiotics; Haeckel’s three kingdom classification; whittaker’s five kingdom classification Algae, fungi, mycoplasma, viruses. Basic concept in Taxonomy, Classification of microorganisms. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology.
Bacteriology, DNA homology and Numerical taxonomy– Morphology and ultra structure of bacteria; morphological types; Cell Wall- Archaebacteria; gram positive and gram negative differentiation; Structure and function of cilia & flagella; Nucleoid, carboxysomes, plasmids; Bacterial spores- their structure, properties, formation and germination.
Bacterial Genetics, Diversity of Bacterial nutrition and Enumeration of microbes –– Conjugation, transformation & transduction, plasmids and their properties Autotrophic, heterotrophic; Culture media; Total cell count; Isolation; Identification of microbes, Selective culture techniques; Fungi culture techniques; Animal Cell and tissue culture.
Growth of microbial population :Batch culture; Continuous culture of microbes; Growth curve- aerobic and anaerobic; Effect of environment, temperature, pH, radiation and atmosphere on microbial growth; synchronous and asynchronous growth, enumeration of multiplying microorganism, Virus-plaque assays.
Microbial Metabolism and Environmental Microbiology – Metabolic pathways and bioenergetics; production of secondary metabolites, their application in industry; Food Spoilage and preservation: Recycling of biomaterials; production of Biogas; bio-fertilizers; biopesticide; pollution control through use of consortium of microorganism.
- Microbiology- Prescott &
- General Microbiology by
- Microbial Physiology 4th ed. By Alber G.Moat & John W.Foster
- Microbiology by Pelczar- M.J.Chan ECS & Krieg NR-Tata Mcgraw Hill
- Foundation in Microbiology-by Talaro K, Talaro A, Cassida Pelzar and Reid W.C.Brown
- General Microbiology by Y.Stanier.
Cell Theory; Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic organization- Nucleus and Nuclear pore complex; Mitochondria; ER; Golgi complex and other membrane bound cell organelles; Cell as a macromolecular assembly; Cellular compartmentalization, Organeller architecture.
The Nucleus and the Cell cycle division – Chromosomal DNA and its Packaging; Structure of Chromosomes; Basic idea of DNA Replication, Transcription and post transcriptional modifications; Cell Cycle- Mitosis & Meiosis; Checkpoints of the cell cycle.
Cytoskeleton & Cell communication- Nature of the Cytoskeleton; Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments, Microtubules, Cilia and Centrioles, Actin Filaments; Actin-binding Proteins, Muscle; Cell Junctions, Cell – Cell Adhesion, Extra cellular Matrix and Extra cellular Matrix Receptors, Integrins; Cell Wall.
Membrane Structure, Transport of Molecules and Membrane Excitability- The Lipid Bilayer, Membrane Proteins, Principle of Membrane Transport,
Uniport, symport & Antiport- Na/K ATpase, Ca ATpase, GLUT1; Endocytosis and exocytosis; Carrier Proteins and Active Membrane Transport, Ion channels and Electrical Properties of Membranes.
Cell Signaling- General Principle of Cell Signalingl; Signaling via G-Protein linked Cell Surface Receptors; Signaling via Enzyme-linked Cell Surface Receptors; Kinase Receptors; Structural Features of Trans-membrane Receptors; Hormone Receptor; Secondary messengers.
Cancer: Cancer as a Micro evolutionary Process, Tumor cells, Proto-oncogenes and viral oncogenes, Tumor suppressors genes.
Text / Reference Books
- Cell as a Molecular Approach- Bruce Alberts
- The Cell- Geoffery Cooper
- Cell & Molecular Biology by H.Baltimore, WH Freeman, Lodish & Berk
- Cell Biology by Kimball T.W. Wesley
- Cell Biology- Gerald Karp
- Cell & Molecular Biology by De Robertis, Lea and Febiger
Levels of molecular organization. Composition of primary structures of proteins and nucleic acids, Hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, ionic interactions, disulphide bonds and their role in proteins structure and nuclic acid structure
General characteristics of protein structure and functions. Ramachandran or steric contour diagram and potential energy calculation of proteins, secondary structural elements and organization of tertiary structure, zipper model, method for structural elucidation, aspects of protein folding, protein-protein interactions, Scat chard plot, cooperative interactions, the Hill constant and linked functions.
General characteristics and structure of nucleic acid, steric hindrances, conformational properties of bases, stabilizing order forms, base stacking interactions, A, B and Z type double helices, tRNA structure, secondary and tertiary structure, higher organization of DNA, protein nucleic acid interactions
Micelle and bilayer formation, studies of bilayer structure and function, liposomes, order disorder transitions, interforces, transport across membranes (the Nerst Planks approach and rate theory of transport).
Photochemical and photobiological phenomena, mechanism of photosynthesis, vision, absorption and fluorescence.
Books Recommended :
- R. Cantor and P.R. Schirmer, Biophysical Chemistry (Parts 1 and 3). W.H. Freeman, 1980.
- Schuiz and R.H. Shrimer, Principles of protein structure. Springer Verlag, 1984.
- Saenger, Princiles of Nucleic acid structure.
- L. Siler, Physical Chemistry of Membranes : An introduction to the structure and dynamics of biological membranes. Allen and Unwin and the Solomon Press, 1985
Fluid Mechanics Operation
Nature of fluid, viscosity, Laminar-flow, Turbulent flow, steady flow,Prandtl Boundary Layer, Velocity gradient, Hagen Poiseuille’s equation, Bernoulii Equation. friction from changes in velocity or direction, Resistance of immersed bodies. Friction in flow through packed beds.
Flow measurements , Orifice and Venturi meters, Pilot tube, Rotameter and other types of meters, transportation of fluids, pipe fittings and valves, pumps, fundamentals of fluidisation.
Principles of communication, types of comminuting equipment energy and power requirement, crushers , grinders , mixing, types of mixing, power consumption in mixing and agitation.
Mechanical separation, screening, types of screen, filtration principle, constant pressure and constant rate filtration, settling classifiers, floatation principle of centrifugal separations types of centrifuge and industrial application of centrifuge.
Drying, principle and method of drying, types of dryer, fludised bed dryers, rotary drum dryers, vacuum dryers.
Books Recommended :
- McCabe , Smith & Harriot , Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering TMH 5th
- Geanklopolis , Transport Processes & Unit Operations PHI 3rd
- Coulson & Richardson, Chemical engineering Vol. I and II Butterworth
- Badger , W.L.Bachero , J.T., Introduction to Chemical Engineering .
- Foust A.S. Wenzel, L.A. et.al Principles of Unit Operations 2nd edition, Perry, Chilton & Green
Material And Energy Balance
Introduction to Chemical Engineering Calculations : Units and dimensions, the mole unit, conventions in methods of analysis and measurement, basis, temperature, pressures, the chemical equation and stoichiometry.
Gases, Vapours, Liquids and Solids : Ideal gas law calculations, real gas relationships, vapour pressure and liquids, saturation, partial saturation and humidity introduction to vapour-liquid equilibria for multicomponent systems, material balances involving condensation and vaporization.
Material Balances : Material balance of physical processes with and without chemical reaction, including recycle, purge and bypass.
Energy Balances : Concept and Units, calculation of enthalpy changes, general balance with and without reactions, heats of solution and mixing, Unsteady-state material and energy balances.
Solids, liquids and gaseous fuels: Some industrial examples of the above, simple estimation of physical properties (transport, thermodynamic) of fluids and mixtures. Calorific values of fuels, Air Requirement of fuel gases and combustion calculation.
Books Recommended :
- Himmelblau, D.M., “Basic Principles and Calculation in Chemical Engineering,” 6th Ed., Prentice-Hall of
- Bhatt and Vora, “Stoichiometry,” 3rd Ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New
- Hougen, Watson and Ragatz, “Chemical Process Principles,” Vol. 1, Asia Publishing House, New
- Saha, S.N., “Fundamentals of Chemical Engineering,” Dhanpat Rai Publishing , New Delhi, 2000.
Multidisciplinary nature of Environmental studies : Definition, scope and importance
- Need for Public Awareness. Natural Resources : Renewable and non-renewable resources – Natural resources and associated problems – Forest resources – Use and over
- exploitation, deforestation, – Mining, dams and other effects on forest and tribal people
- Water resources – Use and over utilization of surface and ground water – Floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams – Mineral resources : Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral
Solid Waste Management : Causes, effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes. -Disaster management : floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides.Energy resources : Growing energy needs, renewable and non-renewable energy sources use of alternate energy source : Growing energy needs, Land resources : Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification.
Biodiversity and its conservation : Introduction – Definition : genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. Bio-geographical classification of India – Value of biodiversity : consumptive use, productive use, social ethical, aesthetic and option value.
Biodiversity at global, National and local levels. India as a mega-diversity nation – Hot spots of biodiversity – Threats of biodiversity : habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, manwildlife
conflicts. – Endangered and endemic species of India – Conservation of biodiversity : In situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.
Social issues and the environment : From Unsustainable to Sustainable industrial development-urban problems related to energy – Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management– Environmental ethics : issues and possible solutions.
- Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust. Wasteland reclamation.– Environment Protection Act. – Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act – Wildlife Protection Act – Forest conservation
UNIT – V
Human Population and the Environment : Population growth, variation among nations. Population explosion – Family Welfare Programme. – Environment and human health. – Human Rights. – Value Education. – HIV/AIDS. – Women and Child Welfare.
- Role of Information Technology in Environment and human
Book Recommended :
- Text book of Environmental Studies for Undergraduate courses by Erach Bharucha for University Grant
- Environmental Science by David
- Environmental Studies by Anil Kumar
- Environmental Pollution Engineering and control by S.Rao.
- Environmental Pollution by K.C.
- A text book of Ecology and Environment by C.Joshi.
- Environmental Education by S.Bais. Environmental Biotechnology by P.D.Sharma
Milk : Definition, Composition, Chemical and functional properties of milk components: physicochemical properties of milk protein, aggregation of Casein, micelles, factors affecting milk composition, milk secretion and lactation.
Micro-organisms: importance in dairy science and technology. microbial spoilage of milk, hydrolytic rancidity in milk and milk products, autooxidation of milk fats and effects on milk quality.
Milk processing operations: Milk pasteurization, Homogeni zation & Sterilization. Effect of processing of milk components and their functional properties.
Skimming of milk, Cream & Cream characteristics, manufacture of yoghurt and other fermented milk products, Ice cream manufacture, Butter making technology, technology of cheese, processing of concentrated milks and dried milk powder.
Milk quality control, sanitation in the dairy plant, adulteration of milk, dairy equipment maintenance and waste disposal.
Books Recommended :
1 Outlines of Dairy Technology by Sukumar De, Oxford University Press. 2 Milk and Milk Products by Eckles, Combs and Macy, Tata McGraw Hill.
3 Technology of Indian Milk Products by Aneja et al. A Dairy India Publication. 4 Principles of Dairy Processing by James N. Warner, Wiley Eastern Ltd
Cytology of neuron, properties of neuron resting membrane potential Functional consequences of passive membrane.
Voltage gated channels and generation of action potential.
Principles underlying electrical and chemical synaptic transmission Factor controlling transmitter release morphology of chemical synapse and pattern of inter connections.
Chemical messengers and small molecules and peptides Gaseous signals and response of brain, molecular steps in synaptic transmission.
UNIT – V
Molecular aspect of postsynaptic receptor, NMDA receptors, long term potentiation Molecular biology of learning Reaction of neuron to injury.
Books Recommended :
- Human Physiology by C. Chatterjee, Vol. 1 & 2. Medical Allied Agency, Calcutta.
- Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Disease. J. W. Wilson and A. Waugh Churchill and Livingston.
- The Biochemistry of Cell signaling. Ernest, M. Helmirch, Oxford Press.
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