# RGPV Syllabus Of Electrical Engineering BE 7th Semester

EE-7001 High Voltage Engineering

**Unit-I Introduction:-**

Introduction to HV technology, advantages of transmitting electrical power at high voltages, need for generating high voltages in laboratory. Important applications of high voltage.

**Unit-II Breakdown phenomena:-**

Classification of HV insulating media, Properties of important HV insulating media. Gaseous dielectrics: Ionizations: primary and secondary ionization processes. Criteria for gaseous insulation breakdown based on Townsend’s theory, Limitations of Townsend’s theory. Streamer’s theory breakdown in non uniform fields. Corona discharges. Paschen’s law and its significance. Time lags of Breakdown. Breakdown in solid dielectrics: Intrinsic Breakdown, avalanche breakdown, thermal breakdown, and electro mechanic breakdown. Breakdown of liquids dielectric dielectrics: Suspended particle theory, electronic Breakdown, cavity breakdown (bubble’s theory), electro convection breakdown.

**Unit-III Generation of HV AC DC and Impulse Voltage and current:-**

HV AC-HV transformer; Need for cascade connection and working of transformers units connected in cascade, Series resonant circuit- principle of operation and advantages. Tesla coil. HV DC- voltage doubler circuit, cock croft- Walton type high voltage DC set, Introduction to standard lightning and switching impulse voltages. Analysis of single stage impulse generator-expression for Output impulse voltage, Multistage impulse generator Components of multistage impulse generator. Triggering of impulse generator by three electrode gap arrangement. Triggering gap and oscillograph time sweep circuits. Generation of switching impulse voltage. Generation of high impulse current.

**Unit-IV Measurement of high voltages:-**

Electrostatic voltmeter-principle, construction and limitation. Generating voltmeter- Principle, construction. Series resistance micro ammeter for HV DC measurements. Standard sphere gap measurements of HV AC, HV DC, and impulse voltages;Factors affecting the measurements. Potential dividers-resistance dividers capacitance dividers mixed RC potential dividers. Surge current measurement.

**Unit-V High voltage tests on electrical apparatus:-**

Definitions of technologies, tests on isolators, circuit breakers, cables insulators and transformers.

Reference books: 1. E. Kuffel and W.S. Zaengl, “High voltage engineering fundamentals”, 2nd edition, Elsevier, press, 2005. 2. M.S.Naidu and Kamaraju, “High Voltage Engineering”, 3rd edition, THM, 2007. 3. L. L. Alston, “High Voltage technology”, BSB Publication, 2007.. 4. Rakosh Das Begamudre, Extra High voltage AC transmission engineering, Wiley Easternlimited, 1987. 5. Transmission and distribution reference book-Westing House.C.L.Wadhwa, High voltage engineering, New Age International Private limited, 1995.

EE-7002 Electric Drives

**Unit – I **

Control of D.C. motors by converters:- Introduction to Thyristor Controlled Drives, single phase

semi and fully controlled converters and three semi and fully controlled converters connected to d.c.

separately excited and d.c. series motors-continuous current operation, Output voltage and current

waveforms, Speed and Torque expression, Speed-Torque Characteristics, Problems on converter fed

d.c. motors.

**Unit – II **

Four quadrant operation of D.C. Drives.: Introduction to Four quadrant operation, Motoring

operations, Electric braking, Plugging, dynamic and regenerative braking operations. Four quadrant

operation of D.C. motor by Dual converters-Closed loop operation of DC motor (Block diagram only)

Control of D.C. Motors by Choppers:-Single quadrant, Two-quadrant and four quadrant chopper fed

d.c. separately excited and series excited motors, Continuous current operation, Output voltage and

current waveforms-Speed torques expressions-Speed torque characteristics, Problems on Chopper fed

d.c. motors, Closed loop operation (Block diagram only)

**Unit-III **

Control of Induction Motors on stator side:-Control of Induction Motor by AC Voltage

controllers- Waveforms, Speed torque characteristics, Variable frequency control of induction motor

by Voltage Source, Current Source inverters and cycloconverters, PWM control Comparison of VSI

& CSI operations, Speed- torque Characteristics, Numerical problems on induction motor drives,

Closed loop operation of induction motor drives. (Block diagram only)

**Unit-IV **

Control of Induction Motors from rotor side:-Static rotor resistance control, Slip power recovery static Scherbius Drive, Static Kramer Drive, Their performance and speed torque characteristics

advantages- application-problems.

**Unit-V **

Control of Synchronous Motors:- Separate control & Self control of synchronous motors, Operation

of self controlled synchronous motors by VSI, CSI and Cycloconverters. Load commutated CSI fed

Synchronous motor, Operation, Waveform, Speed torque Characteristics, Application, Advantage,

Numerical problems, Closed loop operation os synchronous motors drives. (Block diagram only)

**References: **

1. G.K. Dubey “Fundamentals of Electrical Drives”-. Narosa Publications

2. Gopal K. Dubey “Power semiconductor Controlled Drives”- PHI

3. S.B. Dewan, G.R. Slemon, A. Straughen “Power semiconductor Controlled Drives

4. B.K. Bose “Power Electronic control of AC Drives”. PHI Learning.

5. Ned Mohan Electrical Drive Wiley India

6. V. Subramanyam “Thyristor control of Electric Drive” Tata Mc Graw Hill Pub

7. N.K. De , P.K. Sen “Electric Drives” PHI

8. S.K. Pillai, “A first course of Electrical Drive” New age International.

9. S.K. Pillai. “Analysis of Thyristor Power conditioned Motors” University Press (India)Ltd.

10. Longman P.V. Rao, “Power semiconductor Drives”, BS Publications.

11. S.Shiva Nagaraju power semiconductor drive PHI learning

EE-7003 Computer Application to Power System

**Unit -I**

Models of power system components, network model using graph theory, formation of Z bus, transmission line models, regulating transformer, line loadability, capability curves of alternator.

**Unit -II**

Control of load bus voltage using reactive power control variable, SVC & SVS, Regulated shunt compensation, series and shunt compensation, Uniform series and shunt compensation and effect on loadability of transmission lines.

**Unit -III**

Sensitivity analysis- General sensitivity relations, generation shift distribution factors, line outage distribution factors, compensated shift factors, sensitivity associated with voltageVAR, sensitivities relating load bus voltage changes in terms of PV bus voltage changes, sensitivity relating changes in reactive power generation for changes in PV Bus Voltage.

**Unit -IV**

Power system security – Security functions, Security level, contingency analysis, security control, economic dispatch using LP formulation, pre-contingency and post- contingency, corrective rescheduling.

**Unit -V**

Voltage stability – Difference between voltage and angle stability, PV Curve for voltage stability assessment, proximity and mechanism, modal analysis using reduced Jacobian, participation factor, effect of series and shunt compensation on voltage stability , effect of load models.

**References: **

1. Power Generation, Operation and Control by A.J. wood and B.F. Wollenberg John Wiley & Sons Inc. 1984.

2. Computer methods in power systems analysis – by stage G.W. and E.L. Abiad A.H. Mc Graw Hill. Computer Techniques in Power Systems Analysis- Pai M.A. Tata Mc Graw Hill.

3. Computer Modeling of Electrical Power Systems, Arrillaga J. Arnord C.P Harker B.J. John Wiley &Son

4. Computer Aided Power Systems Analysis Kusic G.L.- 2nd Edition, CRC Press

5. Modern Power Systems Analysis Nagrath I.J. and Kothari D.P. Tata Mc Graw Hill.

6. Power System Analysis Grainger J.J. & Stevnson W.D. Mc Graw Hill.

7. Power System Stability and control -P Kundur ,IEEE Press 1994.

8. Advance Power Systems Analysis and Dynamics Singh L.P. JohnWiley.

9. Chakrabarti –Power System Analysis operation & Control – PHI Learning

EE-7004 Elective – III (1) Advance Power Electronics

**UNIT- 1 **

Introduction to various power electronics supplies. Performance parameters for power electronics supplies and their measurement. Device selection, Control circuits. Switch mode power supplies, Square wave switching, Resonant mode operation of Power supplies , Ferroresonant, Linears and the switchers.

**UNIT- 2 **

DC to DC Converters: Analysis and design of buck, boost, buck-boost and cuk converters, two quadrant and full bridge converters. Isolated converters i.e., flyback, forward and bridge topology. Design of d.c. inductor. Concept of integrated magnetics, converter control, averaged model, statespace model.

**UNIT- 3**

DC to Controlled AC: Controlled inversion, three phase full bridge inverters. 180 mode and 120 mode operation, harmonic analysis, PWM control of VSI, current mode control of PWM VSI, space vector modulation, three phase current sourced PWM CSI,

**UNIT- 4**

AC Choppers: Modeling and analysis of AC choppers, harmonics control using symmetrical and asymmetrical waveform pattern,

**UNIT- 5 **

Soft switching DC to DC converters, zero current switching topologies, zero voltage switching topologies, generalized switching cell, ZCT and ZVT DC converters,

**Text Books: **

1. “Power Electronics Circuits”, Issa Batarseh, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2004.

2. “Power Electronics: ”, L.Umanad, Wiley India.

3. “Power Electronics: Converters, Applications, and Design”, Ned Mohan, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2001.

4. “Power Electronics: Devices and Circuits”, Jagannathan, PHI Learning 2012

**Reference Books: **

1. “Power Electronic Systems Theory and Design”, Jai P Agrawal, Pearson Education Asia, 2001.

2. “Switching Power Supply Design”, A I Pressman, McGraw Hill Publication, 1991.

3. “Handbook of Power Electronics”, M H Rashid

EE-7004 Elective – III (2) Computer aided Design of Electrical Machines

**Introduction:** Design problem-Mathematical programming methods, computer aided design- Mathematical formulation of the problem. Programming techniques (LP & NLP only), Methods of solution, Unconstrained optimization problems, constrained optimization problems.

**Optimal design of DC machine: **Design of armature, Windings and field systems, Selection of variables for optimal design, Formulation of design equations, Objective function, Constraint functions, Algorithms for optimal design.

**Optimal design of power transformer:** Design of magnetic circuit, Design of windings, Selection of variables for optimal design, Formulation of design equations, Objective function, Constraint functions, Algorithms for optimal design.

**Optimal design for 3-phase alternator:** Design of stator, windings, Design of Field systems for salient pole and non-salient pole machines, Selection of variables for optimal design, Formulation of design equations, Objective function, Constraint functions, Algorithms for optimal design.

**Optimal design of 3-phase induction motor:** Design of stator, Windings Design of squirrel cage rotor, Design of slip ring rotor, Selection of variables for optimal design, Formulation of design equations, Objective functions Constraint functions, Algorithms for optimal design.

**References: **

1.Design and Testing of Electrical Machines,MV Deshpandey PHI Learning

2.Computer- Aided Design of Electrical Equipment- by Dr. M. Ramamoorthy-Affiliated East-West press Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

3.Electrical Machine Design- by A.K. Sawhney, Dhanpat Rai & Sons.

4.Principles of Electrical Machine Design with Computer Programmes by- S.K. Sen, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. 5.Performance and Design of A.C. Machines-M.G. Say, Affiliated East West Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

EE-7004 Elective – III (3) Renewable & Non-Conventional Energy Systems

**Unit – I**

Renewable Energy Systems Energy Sources, Comparison of Conventional and non-conventional, renewable and non-renewable sources. Statistics of world resources and data on different sources globally and in Indian context. Significance of renewable sources and their exploitation. Energy planning, Energy efficiency and management.

**Unit – II**

Wind Energy System Wind Energy, Wind Mills, Grid connected systems. System configuration, working principles, limitations. Effects of wind speed and grid conditions. Grid independent systems – wind-battery, winddiesel, wind-hydro biomass etc. wind operated pumps, controller for energy balance.Small Hydro System Grid connected system, system configuration, working principles, limitations. Effect of hydro potential and grid condition. Synchronous versus Induction Generator for stand alone systems. Use of electronic load controllers and self excited induction generators.Wave Energy System: System configuration: grid connected and hybrid systems.

**Unit – III**

Solar Radiation Extraterrestrial solar radiation, terrestrial solar radiation, Solar thermal conversion, Solar Photo tonic System Solar cell, Solar cell materials, efficiency, Characteristics of PV panels under varying insulation. PV operated lighting and water pumps, characteristics of motors and pumps connected to PV panels. Biomass Energy System: System configuration, Biomass engine driven generators, feeding loads in stand-alone or hybrid modes, Biomass energy and their characteristics.

**Unit – IV**

Energy from oceans Ocean temperature difference, Principles of OTEC, plant operations, Geothermal Energy Electric Energy from gaseous cells, Magneto-hydro generated energy, Non hazardous energy from nuclear wastes, Possibilities of other modern non-conventional energy sources.

**Unit – V**

Electric Energy Conservation Energy efficient motors and other equipment. Energy saving in Power Electronic controlled drives. Electricity saving in pumps, air-conditioning, power plants, process industries, illumination etc. Methods of Energy Audit. Measurements systems; efficiency measurements. energy regulation, typical case studies, various measuring devices analog and digital, use of thyristers.

**References:**

John Twidell & Toney Weir, Renewable Energy Resources, E & F N Spon.

El-Wakil, Power Plant Technology, McGraw Hill.

Rai G D, Non-conventional Energy Resources, Khanna.

F Howard E. Jordan, “Energy-Efficient Electric Motor & their Application-II”, Plenum Press, New York, USA.

Anna Mani, “Wind Energy Resource Survey in India-Ill”, Allied Publishers Ltd., New Delhi,

S.P. Sukhatme: Solar Energy, TMH-4e,

Dr. A. Ramachandran, Prof B.V Sreekantan & M F.C. Kohli etc, “TERI Energy Data Directory & Year book 1994-95”, Teri Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi,

EE-7004 Elective – III (4) SCADA Systems & Applications

**Unit I**

Introduction to SCADA and PLC:SCADA: Data acquisition system, evaluation of SCADA, communication technologies, monitoring and supervisory functions. PLC: Block diagram, programming languages, Ladder diagram, Functional Block diagram, Applications, Interfacing of PLC with SCADA.

**Unit II**

SCADA system components: Schemes, Remote Terminal Unit, Intelligent Electronic Devices, Communication Network, SCADA server.

**Unit III**

SCADA Architecture-Various SCADA Architectures, advantages and disadvantages of each system, single unified standard architecture IEC 61850 SCADA / HMI Systems.

**Unit IV**

SCADA Communication-Various industrial communication technologies- wired and wireless methods and fiber optics, open standard communication protocols.

**Unit V**

Operation and control of interconnected power system-Automatic substation control, SCADA configuration, Energy management system, system operating states, system security, state estimation.

**Unit VI**

SCADA applications Utility applications, transmission and distribution sector operation, monitoring analysis and improvement. Industries oil gas and water. Case studies, implementation, simulation exercises.

**Reference Books:**

1. Stuart A Boyer: SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition.

2. Gordan Clark, Deem Reynders, Practical Modem SCADA Protocols.

3. Sunil S. Rao, Switchgear and Protections, Khanna Publication.

EE-7005 Elective – IV (1) Power System Economics

**UNIT -1 **

**Power System Fundamentals **

Regulation and Deregulation, condition for deregulation, problems with regulation, risk management, congestion management, ATC, screening curve.

**Unit-2 **

**Competitions in Power Market**

What is competition, efficiency of perfect competition, marginal cost in power market, role of marginal cost, working with marginal cost, results of marginal cost.

**UNIT-3**

** Market Power And Structure**

Define market power, price quality outcomes, three stages of market power, using price quality outcomes to show power, monopoly in power auction, market power on demand side.

**UNIT- 4 **

**Restructure**

Fundamental restructure system, transmission pricing, restructure models, OASIS, structure of OASIS, transfer capability of OASIS.

**UNIT -5 **

**Designing And Testing**

Market Rules Design for competitive prices, testing of market design, designing to reduce market power.

**REFERENCES: **

1- Power system economics-designing for electricity-steven stoft. (IEEE press & WILEY-

INTERSCIENCE).

2- Electric Power Systems weedy,cory, wily india 2nd edition

EE-7005 Elective – IV (2) EHVAC/DC Transmission

**Unit-I**

Constitution of EHV a.c. and d.c. links, Kind of d.c. links, Limitations and Advantages of a.c. and d.c. transmission, Principal application of a.c. and d.c. transmission, Trends in EHV a.c. and d.c. transmission, Power handling capacity. Converter analysis garetz circuit, Firing angle control, Overlapping.

**Unit-II**

FACTS devices, basic types of controller, series controller, static synchronous series compensator(SSSC), thyristor-controlled series capacitor(TCSC), thyristor controlled series reactor(TCSR), shunt controller (STATCOM), static VAR compensator(SVC), series-series controller, combined series-shunt controller, unified power flow controller(UPFC), thyristor controlled phase shifting transformer(TCPST).

**Unit-III**

Components of EHV d.c. system, converter circuits, rectifier and inverter valves, Reactive power requirements, harmonics generation, Adverse effects, Classification, Remedial measures to suppress, filters, Ground return. Converter faults & protection harmonics misoperation, Commutation failure, Multiterminal D.C. lines.

**Unit-IV**

Control of EHV d.c. system desired features of control, control characteristics, Constant current control, Constant extinction angle control. Ignition Angle control. Parallel operation of HVAC & DC system. Problems & advantages.

**Unit-V**

Travelling waves on transmission systems, Their shape, Attenuation and distortion, effect of junction and termination on propagation of traveling waves. Over voltages in transmission system. Lightning, switching and temporary over voltages: Control of lighting and switching over voltages

**Reference:**

1. S. Rao,- “EHV AC & DC Transmission” Khanna pub.

2. Kimbark,-” HVDC Transmission” john willy & sons pub.

3. Arrillaga,- “HVDC Transmission”2nd Edition ,IEE londan pub.

4. Padiyar, -“HVDC Transmission” 1st Edition ,New age international pub.

5. T.K. Nagsarkar,M.S. Sukhiza, -“Power System Analysis”, Oxford University

6. Narain.G. Hingorani, l. Gyugyi-”Undustanding of FACTS concept and technology”, john willy & sons pub.

7. P.Kundur- “H.V.D.C. Transmission” McGraw Hill Pub.

EE-7005 Elective – IV (3) FACTS

**UNIT I **

Basic Issues Involved in Bulk Power Transmission, Review of basics of power transmission

networks-control of power flow in AC transmission line- Analysis of uncompensated AC

Transmission line- Passive reactive power compensation, Principle of Transmission system

compensation, Need for FACTS controllers- types of FACTS controllers and Benefits

**UNIT II**

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR (SVC) and Purpose

Voltage control by SVC – Advantages of slope in dynamic characteristics- Influence of SVC

on system voltage, Design of SVC voltage regulator, Modeling of SVC for power flow and

stability studies, Applications- Enhancement of transient stability, Steady state power

transfer, Enhancement of Power system damping, Prevention of voltage instability

**UNIT III **

THYRISTOR AND GTO THYRISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITORS

(TCSC and GCSC)

Concepts of Controlled Series Compensation –Analysis of TCSC-GCSC , Different modes of

operation, Modeling of TCSC and GCSC for load flow studies- modeling TCSC and GCSC

for stability studies- Applications of TCSC and GCSC, SSR mitigation.

**UNIT IV**

VOLTAGE SOURCE CONVERTER BASED FACTS CONTROLLERS

Static synchronous compensator(STATCOM)- Static synchronous series

compensator(SSSC)- Operation of STATCOM and SSSC-Power flow control with

STATCOM and SSSC- Modeling of STATCOM and SSSC for power flow studies –operation

of Unified and Interline power flow controllers(UPFC and IPFC).

**UNIT V**

CONTROLLERS AND THEIR CO-ORDINATION

FACTS Controller interactions – SVC–SVC interaction – co-ordination of multiple controllers using

linear control techniques – Quantitative treatment of control coordination.

**References- **

1. Mohan Mathur, R., Rajiv. K. Varma, Thyristor – Based FACTS Controllers for Electrical

Transmission Systems, IEEE press and John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2002.

2. K.R.Padiyar, FACTS Controllers in Power Transmission and Distribution, New Age

International (P) Ltd., Publishers, New Delhi, Reprint, 2008.

3. A.T.John, Flexible AC Transmission System, Institution of Electrical and Electronic

Engineers (IEEE), 1999.

4. NarainG.Hingorani, Laszio. Gyugyl, Understanding FACTS Concepts and Technology of

Flexible AC Transmission System, Standard Publishers, Delhi, 2001.

5. V. K.Sood, HVDC and FACTS controllers- Applications of Static Converters in Power

EE-7005 Elective – IV (4) Advanced Control System

**UNIT-I**

Review of Linear Control System: Modelling through differential equations and difference equations, State space method of description and its solution, Discretization of continuoustime state space model, Laplace and z-domain analyses of control systems, Controllability, Observability & Stability, Bode & Nyquist analysis, Root Loci, Effect of load disturbance upon control actions.

**UNIT-II**

Development of feedback control laws through state space technique, Modal control, Pole placement problem.

**UNIT-III**

Variable Structure Control and its applications. Examples on variable structure control.

**UNIT-IV**

Control of nonlinear dynamics: Lyapunov based control function, Phase plane technique, Lyapunov Stability analysis.

**UNIT-V**

Optimal Control: Calculus of variation, Euler-Lagrange equations, Boundary conditions, Transversality condition, Bolza problem, Pontyagin’s maximum principle.

**Reference: **

1. Automatic Control System – B.C. Kuo, PHI, New York, 1975.

2. Modern Control Engineering: K. Ogata,PHI. New Delhi, 1992.

3. Digital Control Systems – B. C. Kuo, Oxford Pub.

4. Discrete-Time Control Systems – K. Ogata. PHI. New Delhi

5. Advanced Control Systems N Sarkar PHI Learning

6. Control System Engineering S NISE Wiley India

EE-7006 Major Project –I (Planning & Literature Survey)

The Major Project Work provides students an opportunity to do something on their own and under the supervision of a guide. Each student shall work on an approved project, which may involve fabrication, design or investigation of a technical problem that may take design, experimental or analytical character or combine element of these areas. The project work involves sufficient work so that students get acquainted with different aspects of manufacture, design or analysis. The students also have to keep in mind that in final semester they would be required to implement whatever has been planned in the Major Project in this semester. It is possible that a work, which involves greater efforts and time may be taken up at this stage and finally completed in final semester, but partial completion report should be submitted in this semester and also evaluated by an external examiner. At the end of semester, all students are required to submit a synopsis.