**RGPV Syllabus for 6th Sem EX Branch**

**EX- 601 – Communication Engineering**

Unit-1.

Fourier series, Fourier Transform and its properties, Probability, random variables & their

moments, their significance, convolution, auto correlation, cross Correlation & power spectral

density, Gaussian & Rayleigh probability density Function, mean, variance & standard deviation,

central limit theorem, voltage & Power decibel scales. Signal Processing : Types of signal,

deterministic & random, periodic & non Periodic, analog & discrete, energy & power signals,

Representation of sinusoid in different forms & their conversion.

Unit-2

Need of modulation in a communication system, block schematic of a typical Communication

system. AM modulation system, modulation index, generation & detection of AM wave, side

bands & power content in an AM wave, DSB-SC, SSB, their methods of generation & detection,

vestigial side Band modulation, AM transmitter block diagram, comparison of various AM system,

modulation & demodulation circuits. Relationship between phase & freq. modulation, FM wave &

its spectrum, phasor diagram of a narrow band FM signal, wide band FM, methods of generation

& detection of FM, discriminators, pre-emphasis & de-emphasis, Stereophonic FM broadcasting,

FM transmitters.

Unit-3

TRF receiver & its limitations, necessity of heterodyning, super heterodyning Receivers, IF

amplifiers, selection of intermediate frequency. RF amplifiers, detectors, AGC, AVC, FM

receivers, AFC.

Unit-4

Nyquist sampling theorem, TDM, pulse modulations & PCM, quantization error, necessity of non

linear quantizer, A-law, μ-law, FSK & PSK, QPSK, QAM. Source of noise, noise figure, noise

bandwidth, effective noise temperature, performance of AM, FM & digital system in presence of

noise.

Unit-5

Satellite system block diagram, satellite freq. bands, satellite multiple access Format like TDMA,

FDMA, transponders, earth station & satellite eclipses, Link calculation

References:

1. Taub & Shilling, Communication System, TMH

2. Singh & Sapre, Communication System, TMH

3. B.P. Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication System

4. Simon Haykins,, Communication System

5. Wayne Tomasi, Advanced Electronic Communication System, PHI Learning

6. Schaum outline Series, Analog and Digital Communication

7. Martin S. Roden, Analog and Digital Communication

8. Frank R. Dungan, Electronic Communication System, Thomas/ Vikas

9. John G. Prokis, Masoud Salehi, Gerhand bBauch, Contemporary Communication Systems using

MATLAB, Cengage learning 2004.

**EX- 602 – Control Systems**

Unit-I

Modeling of dynamic systems: Electrical, Mechanical and hydraulic systems, Concept of transfer

function, Simulation of differential equations in analog computer, State space description of

dynamic systems: Open and closed loop systems, Signal flow graph, Mason’s formula,

Components of control systems: Error detectors (Synchros & Potentiometer), Servomotors (AC &

DC), techo generators, power amplifier, steeper motors

Unit-II

Time – domain analysis of closed loop systems: Test signals, time response of first and second

order systems, Time domain performance specifications, Steady state error & error constants

Feedback control actions: Proportional, derivative and integral control.

Solution of state equation: Eigen values & eigenvectors digitalization state transitive matrix,

stability Routh-Hurwit stability analysis.

Unit-III

Characteristics equation of closed loop system root loci, construction of loci, Effect of adding,

poles and Zeros on the loci, Stability by root loci.

Unit-IV

Frequency, Domain analysis, Bode plots, Effect of adding, poles and Zeros, Polar plot, Nyquist

stability analysis, Relative stability : Gain and phase margins.

Unit-V

Frequency- Domain compensation : lead lag, Lag-lead compensation, Design of compensating

networks

References:

I.J. Nagrath and M. Gopal, “Control system Engineering”, New Age International.

Modern Control Systems by Roy Chaudhary. PHI

K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, PHI.

B.C. Kuo, Automatic Control systems, PHI

Gopal M., Control System : Principles & Design, TMH.

Stefani, Shahian, Savant, Hostetter, “Design of feed back control System’s”, Oxford.

Krishna. K. Singh & Gayatri Agnihotri, System Design through MATLAB control tool & Simulink,

Stringer Verlag, U.K.

Rudra Pratap, Getting Started with MATLAB, Oxford.

Dhanesh N.Manik, Control Systems, CENGAGE Lea

List of Experiments:

Time response of second order system.

Characteristics of Synchros.

Effect of feedback on servomotors.

Determination of transfer function of A-C servomotor

Determination of transfer function of D-C motor.

Formulation of PI & PD controller and study of closed loop responses of 1st and 2nd order dynamic

systems.

State space model for classical transfer function using MATLAB.

Simulation of transfer function using operational amplifier.

Design problem: Compensating Networks of lead and lag.

Temperature controller using PID.

Grading System w.e.f. 2012-13

Transfer function of a DC generator.

Characteristics of AC servomotor.

Use of MATLAB for root loci and Bode plots of type-1, type-2 systems.

Study of analog computer and simulation of 1st order and 2nd order dynamic equations.

Formulation of proportional control on 1st order and 2nd order dynamic systems.

Feed back control of 3rd order dynamic Systems

Study of lead and lag compensating networks.

Effect of adding poles & zeros on root loci and bode plots of type-1, type-2 systems through MATLAB.

**EX- 603 – Switchgear & Protection**

UNIT-I

Fault Analysis

Fault Analysis per unit, representation and its advantages, faults in power systems (Symmetrical

& Unsymmetrical), Single line and equivalent impendence diagram representation of power

system components. Symmetrical components and its application to power systems, fault

analysis, Sequence networks and their interconnection for different types of faults, Effect of fault

impedance, Current limiting reactors, its location and application, Short circuit calculation.

Unit-II

Protective Relays

Requirement of relays, Primary & backup protection, Desirable qualities of relays, Concept of

Pickup, reset & drop-off, Drop off/ Pickup ratio, inverse time & definite time charters tics, Attracted

armature, Balanced Beam, Induction disc, Induction cup, Moving coil & moving Iron, Rectifier ,

Thermal, Bimetal directional relay, Frequency, DC, all or nothing relays. Pilot & negative

sequence, Over current, Over Voltage, Directional, Differential and Distance relays, R-X diagram,

Impedance mho & reactance relay.Introduction of static analog & digital relays, Classification of

static relays.

Unit-III

Circuit Breakers

Elementary principle of arc quenching, recovery & re-striking voltage, arc quenching devices,

description and operation of Bulk oil, Minimum oil, Air break, Air blast, SF6, Vacuum circuit

breakers and DC circuit breakers, their comparative merits, LT Switch gear, HRC fuses, current

limiting reactor.& their design features, influence of reactors in CB ratings Testing of circuit

breaker, Description of a simple testing station, direct & indirect testing.

Unit-IV

System Protection

Protection of Generators – Earth Fault, percentage, differential, Loss of excitation, Prime mover

failure, Over current, Turn to turn fault, Negative phase sequence, heating, Reverse power

protection schemes

Protection of Transformers

Internal & external fault protection, Differential, Earth fault, Over Current, Over heating, Protection

schemes, Protection of transmission lines, Over current, Distance and carrier current protection

schemes.

Unit-V

Surge Protection & insulation co-ordination

Switching surges, Phenomena of Lightning, over voltage due to lightning, Protection against

lightning, Lightning arrestors, selection of lightning arrestors, Surge absorbers and diverters, Rod

gap, Horn gap expulsion type & valve type lightning arrestors, solid resistance and reactance

earthing, Arc suppression coil, Earthing transformers, Earthwires, Earthing of appliances,

insulation co-ordination, Definitions determination of line insulation, insulation level of substation

equipment, co-ordination amongst items of substation equipment.

Grading System w.e.f. 2012-13

List of Experiments:

1. Determination of drop out factor of an instantaneous over current relay.

2. Determination of operating characteristic of IDMT relay.

3. Determination of operating characteristic of differential relay.

4. Study and operation of gas actuated protective relay.

5. Study and operation of static over current relay.

6. Determination of transmission line parameters using MATLAB.

7. Analysis of power system faults (Symmetrical & Asymmetrical) using MATLAB.

8. Study of SF6 circuit breaker

9. Protectional simulation study of generator, Transformer, Feeder & Motor protection.

References:

B. Ravindran and M Chander, “Power System protection and Switchgear”, New Age International.

Badrirka, Power System protection and switchgear, TMH.

CL Wadhwa, Electrical Power systems, New age International.

Haddi Saadet, “Power System Analysis, TMH

A.R. Bergen, Vijay Vittal, “Power System Analysis, Pearson Education, Asia.

Switchgear & protection Sunil S. Rao. Khanna Publication.

Ravindra P. Singh, Switchgear & Power System Protection, PHI Learning.

**EX- 604 – Electronic Instrumentation**

Unit-I

Electronic Voltmeter: Electronic voltmeter and their advantages, VTVMs Differential amplifier type

electronic voltmeter, D.C. voltmeter using direct coupled amplifier, chopper amplifier type of voltmeter,

Electronic voltmeters using rectifiers, True RMS responding voltmeter, Electronic multimeters, Differential

voltmeter, Vector voltmeter, Vector impedance meter, measurement of power at radio frequency,

calorimeter, Bolometer

CRO: Different parts of CRO, Its Block diagram, Electrostatic focusing, Electrostatic deflection, post

deflection acceleration, Screen for CRTs, Graticule, Vertical & Horizontal deflection system, Time base

circuit, Oscilloscope probes and transducers, Attenuators, Application of CROs, Lissajous patterns,

Special purpose CROs- Multi input, Dual trace, Dual beam, Sampling, Storage (Analog & Digital)

Oscilloscopes.

Unit-II

A.C. Bridge Measurement: Sources and detectors, Use of Bridges for measurement of inductance,

Capacitance & Q factor Maxwells bridge, Maxwells inductance capacitance bridge, Hays bridge,

Andersons bridge, Owen’s Bridge, De-sauty’s Bridge, Schering Bridge, High Voltage Schering bridge,

Measurement of relative permittivity, Heaviside cambell’s bridge, Weins bridge, Universal bridge, Sources

of errors in Bridge circuit, Wagner’s Earthing device, Q meter and its applications and measurement

methods.

Transducers:Transducers definition and classification, mechanical devices as primary detectors,

Characteristic & choice of Transducers, Resistive inductive and capacitive transducers, strain gauge and

gauge factor, Thermistor, Thermo couples, LVDT, RVDT, Synchros, Piezo-Electric transducers, Magnet

elastic and magnetostrictive Hall effect transducers, Opto-electronic transducers such as photo voltaic,

Photo conductive, photo diode and photo conductive cells, Photo transistors, Photo optic transducers.

Unit-III

Signal Generators:Fixed & variable frequency AF oscillators, Sine wave generators, Standard signal

generator, AF Sine and Square wave generator Function generator, Square and pulse generator,

Random noise generator, Sweep generator, TV Sweep generator, Marker generator, Sweep- Marker

generator, Wobblyscope, Video pattern generator Vectroscope, Beat frequency oscillator

Wave analyser:Basic wave analyzer, Frequency selective wave analyzer, Heterodyne wave analyzer,

Harmonic distortion, analyzer, spectrum analyzer digital Fourier analyzer.

Unit-IV

Digital Instruments Advantages of Digital instruments over analog instruments, resolution and sensitivity

of Digital meters. Digital Voltmeter – Ramp type, Dual slope integration type, Integrating type, Successive

approximation type, Continuous balance DVM or Servo balancing potentiometer type

Very nice suject