# RGPV Syllabus for 6th Sem EC Branch

**EC – 601 Industrial Electronics**

Unit-I

Power Supplies

Power supply, rectifiers (half wave, full wave), performance parameters of power supplies, filters (capacitor,

inductor, inductor-capacitor, pi filter), bleeder resistor, voltage multipliers .

Regulated power supplies (series and shunt voltage regulators, fixed and adjustable voltage regulators,

current regulator), switched regulator (SMPS), comparison of linear and switched power supply, switch

mode converter (flyback, buck, boost, buk-boost, cuk converters).

Unit-II

Thyristors

Silicon controlled rectifies (SCR), constructional features, principle of operation, SCR terminology, turn-on

methods, turn-off methods, triggereing methods of SCR circuits, types of commutation, comparison of

thyristors and transistors, thermal characteristics of SCR, causes of damage to SCR, SCR overvoltage

protection circuit, seies and parrel operation of sCRs, Line commutated converters (half wave rectifier with

inductive and resistive load, single phase and three phase full wave rectifiers).

Unit-III

Other members of SCR family

Triacs, Diacs, Quadracs, recovery characteristics, fast recovery diodes, power diodes, power transistor,

power MOSFET, Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), loss of power in semiconductor devices,

comparison between power MOSFET, power transistor and power IGBT.

Unit-IV

Applications of OP-AMP

Basics of OP-AMP, relaxation oscillator, window comparator, Op-comp as rectangular to triangular pulse

converter and vice- versa, Wien bridge oscillator, function generator, frequency response of OP-AMP,

simplified circuit diagram of OP-AMP, power supplies using OP-AMP, filters (low-pass, high pass) using

OP-AMP.

Unit-V

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

Functions, applications, advantages and disadvantages of PLC over conventional relay controllers,

comparison of PLC with process control computer system, factors to be considered in selecting PLC,

functional block diagram of PLC, microprocessor in PLC, memory, input and output modules (interface

cards), sequence of operations in a PLC, status of PLC, event driven device, ladder logic language, simple

process control applications of PLC, Programming examples.

References:

1. Bishwanath Paul: Industrial Electronics and control, PHI Learning.

2. Rashid: Power Electronics- Circuits, devices and applications, Pearson Education.

3. Singh and Khanchandani: Power Electronics, TMH

4. Bhimbra: Power Electronics, Khanna Publishers.

5. Moorthi: Power Electronics, Oxford University Press.

6. Webb: Programmable Logic Controllers- Principles and Applications, PHI Learning.

7. Petruzulla: Programmable Logic Controllers, TMH.

**EC-602 Cellular Mobile Communications**

Unit-I

Introduction to cellular mobile system

A basic cellular system, performance criteria, uniqueness of mobile radio environment, operation of cellular

systems, planning of cellular system.

Elements of cellular radio system design

General description of problem, concept of frequency reuse channels, co-channel interference reduction

factor, desired C/I in an omni-directional antenna system, hand off mechanism, cell splitting, components of

cellular systems.

Unit-II

Cell coverage for signal and traffic

General introduction, mobile point-to-point model, propagation over water or flat open area, foliage loss,

propagation in near- in distance, long distance propagation, path loss from point-to-point prediction model,

cell site antenna heights and signal coverage cells, mobile-to-mobile propagation.

Cell site antennas and mobile antennas

Equivalent circuits of antennas, gain and pattern relationship, sum and difference patterns, antennas at cell

site, unique situations of cell site antennas, mobile antennas.

Unit-III

Cochannel interference reduction

Cochannel interference, real time cochannel interference measurement at mobile radio transceivers, design

of antenna systems – omni directional and directional, lowering the antenna height, reduction of cochannel

interference, umbrella- pattern effect, diversity receiver, designing a system to serve a predefined area that

experiences cochannel interference.

Types of Noncochannel interference

Adjacent channel interference, near-end-far-end interference, effect on near-end mobile units, cross-talk,

effects of coverage and interference by applying power decrease, antenna height decrease, beam tilting,

effects of cell site components, interference between systems, UHF TV interference, long distance

interference.

Unit-IV

Frequency management and Channel Assignment

Frequency management, frequency spectrum utilization, setup channels, channel assignment, fixed

channel assignment, non-fixed channel assignment algorithms, additional spectrum, traffic and channel

assignment, perception of call blocking from the subscribers

Handoffs and dropped calls

Value of implementing handoffs, initiation of handoff, delaying a handoff, forced handoff, queuing of

handoff, power- difference handoff, mobile assisted handoff and soft handoff, cell-site handoff and

intersystem handoff, dropped call rate formula.

Unit-V

Digital Cellular Systems

GSM- architecture, layer modeling, transmission, GSM channels and channel modes, multiple access

scheme.

CDMA- terms of CDMA systems, output power limits and control, modulation characteristics, call

processing, hand off procedures.

Miscellaneous mobile systems- TDD systems, cordless phone, PDC, PCN, PCS, non cellular systems.

References:

1. Lee: Cellular and Mobile Telecommunication- Analog & digital systems, TMH.

2. Rappaport: Wireless Communications- principles and practice, Pearson Education.

3. Lee: Mobile communications design fundamentals, Wiley India.

4. Faher Kamilo: Wireless Digital Communication, PHI Learning.

5. Raj Kamal: Mobile Computing, Oxford University Press.

**EC – 603 Digital Signal Processing**

Unit – I

Discrete-Time Signals and Systems

Discrete-time signals, discrete-time systems, analysis of discrete-time linear time-invariant systems,

discrete time systems described by difference equation, solution of difference equation, implementation of

discrete-time systems, stability and causality, frequency domain representation of discrete time signals and

systems.

Unit – II

The z-Transform

The direct z-transform, properties of the z-transform, rational z-transforms, inversion of the z transform,

analysis of linear time-invariant systems in the z- domain, block diagrams and signal flow graph

representation of digital network, matrix representation.

Unit – III

Frequency Analysis of Discrete Time Signals

Discrete fourier series (DFS), properties of the DFS, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), properties of DFT,

two dimensional DFT, circular convolution.

Unit – IV

Efficient Computation of the DFT

FFT algorithms, decimation in time algorithm, decimation in frequency algorithm, decomposition for ‘N’

composite number.

Unit – V

Digital filters Design Techniques

Design of IIR and FIR digital filters, Impulse invariant and bilinear transformation, windowing techniquesrectangular

and other windows, examples of FIR filters, design using windowing.

References:

1. Oppenheim and Schafer: Digital Signal Processing, PHI Learning.

2. Johnny R. Johnson: Introduction to Digital Signal Processing, PHI Learning.

3. Proakis: Digital Signal Processing, Pearson Education.

4. Rabiner and Gold: Theory and Application of Digital Signal Processing, PHI Learning.

5. Ingle and Proakis: Digital Signal Processing- A MATLAB based Approach, Thompson, Cengage

Learning.

List of Experiments:

1. Generation, analysis and plots of discrete-time signals.

2. Implementation of operations on sequences (addition, multiplication, scaling, shifting, folding etc).

3. Implementation of Linear time-invariant (LTI) systems and testing them for stability and causality.

4. Computation and plot of DTFT of sequences, verification of properties of DTFT.

5. Computation and plots of z-transforms, verification of properties of z-transforms.

6. Computation and plot of DFT of sequences, verification of properties of DFT.

7. Computation and plots of linear/circular convolution of two sequences.

8. Computation of radix-2 FFT- Decimation in time and Decimation in frequency.

9. Implementation of IIR and FIR filter structures (direct, cascade, parallel etc).

10. Implementation of various window design techniques (Rectangular, Bartlett, Hann, Hamming etc).

**EC – 604 Antennas and Wave Propagation**

Unit I

Radiation

Potential function and the Electro magnetic field, potential functions for Sinusoidal Oscillations, retarded

potential, the Alternating current element (or oscillating Electric Dipole), Power radiated by a current

element, Application to short antennas, Assumed current distribution, Radiation from a Quarter wavemonopole

or Half wave dipole, sine and cosine integral, Electromagnetic field close to an antenna, Solution

of the potential equations, Far-field Approximation.

Unit II

Antenna Fundamentals

Introduction, network theorems, directional properties of dipole antennas, travelling –wave antennas and

effect of feed on standing-wave antennas, two –element array, horizontal patterns in broad-cast arrays,

linear arrays, multiplication of patterns ,effect of earth on vertical patterns, Binomial array, antenna gain,

effective area.

Unit III

Types of antennas

Babinet’s principles and complementary antenna, horn antenna, parabolic reflector antenna, slot antenna,

log periodic antenna, loop antenna, helical antenna, biconical antenna, folded dipole antenna, Yagi-Uda

antenna, lens antenna, turnstile antenna. Long wire antenna: resonant and travelling wave antennas for

different wave lengths, V-antenna, rhombic antenna, beverage antenna, microstrip antenna.

Unit IV

Antenna array synthesis

Introduction, retarded potentials, array structures, weighting functions, linear array analysis, different forms

of linear arrays, Schelknoff unit circle, linear array synthesis, sum and difference patterns, Dolph-

Chebychev synthesis of sum pattern, Taylor synthesis of sum patterns, Bayliss synthesis of difference

patterns, planar arrays, arrays with rectangular boundary.

Unit V

Propagation of radio waves

Fundamentals of electromagnetic waves, effects of the environment, modes of propagation.

Ground wave propagation- Introduction, plane earth reflection, space wave and surface wave, transition

between surface and space wave, tilt of wave front due to ground losses.

Space wave propagation- Introduction, field strength relation, effects of imperfect earth, curvature of earth

and interference zone, shadowing effect of hills and buildings, absorption by atmospheric phenomena,

variation of field strength with height, super refraction, scattering, tropospheric propagation, fading, path

loss calculations.

Sky wave propagation- Introduction, structural details of the ionosphere, wave propagation mechanism,

refraction and reflection of sky waves by ionosphere, ray path, critical frequency, MUF, LUF, OF, virtual

height, skip distance, relation between MUF and skip distance.

References:

1. Jordan and Balmain: Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating System, PHI Learning.

2. Krauss: Antennas and wave propagation, TMH.

3. Balanis: Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.

4. Harish and Sachidananda: Antennas and wave propagation, Oxford University Press.

5. Raju: Antennas and Wave Propagation, Pearson Education.

6. Kennedy: Electronic Communication Systems, TMH.

List of Experiments:

1. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of an Omni Directional Antenna.

2. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Directional Antenna.

3. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Parabolic Reflector Antenna.

4. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Log Periodic Antenna.

5. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Patch Antenna.

6. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Dipole/ Folded Dipole Antenna.

Grading System w.e.f. 2012-13

7. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Yagi (3-EL/4EL) Antenna.

8. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Monopole/ WHIP/ Collinear Antenna.

9. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Broad site Antenna.

10. To Plot the Radiation Pattern of a Square Loop Antenna.

**EC – 605 VLSI Circuits and Systems**

Unit I

Introduction

Introduction to CMOS VLSI circuit, VLSI design flow, Design strategies ,Hierarachy, regularity, modularity,

locality, MOS Transistor as a Switches, CMOS Logic, Combinational circuit, latches and register,

Introduction of CAD Tool , Design entry, synthesis, functional simulation.

Unit II

Specification of sequential systems

Characterizing equation & definition of synchronous sequential machines. Realization of state diagram and

state table from verbal description, Mealy and Moore model machines state table and transition diagram.

Minimization of the state table of completely and incompletely specified sequential machines.

Unit III

Asynchronous Sequential Machine

Introduction to asynchronous sequential machine, Fundamental mode and Pulse mode asynchronous

sequential machine, Secondary state assignments in asynchronous sequential machine, races and

hazards.

Unit IV

State Machine

Algorithmic state machine and fundamental concept of hardware/ firmware algorithms. Controllers and data

system designing.

Unit V

Fault Detection in combinational circuit

Types of faults, Fault detection using Boolean Difference and path sensitization method.

Concept of PROM, PLA, PAL, CPLD and FPGA, PALASM software applications.

Refrences:

1. Neil Weste: Principle of CMOS VLSI Design, TMH.

2. Kohavi: Switching & Finite Automata Theory, TMH.

3. Lee: Digital Circuits and Logic Design, PHI Learning..

4. Roth Jr.: Fundamentals of Logic Design, Jaico Publishing House.

5. Parag K. Lala: Fault Tolerant and Fault Testable Hardware Design, BS Publication.

**EC – 606 Software Lab- IV**

VHDL

Hardware abstraction, Basic language elements: identifiers, data objects, data types, operators, behavioral

modeling, data flow modeling, structural modeling, simulation and analysis.

VERILOG

Overview of digital design with Verilog, Hierarchical Modeling: basic concepts, models and ports, gate level

modeling, data flow modeling, behavioral modeling, logic synthesis with Verilog HDL, simulation.

Experiments:

Design and simulation of following using Verilog/ VHDL .

Logic gates: NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR.

Half adder, full adder, subtractor, latches, multiplexers- 2:1, 4:1, 8:1, comparators, decoders- 2:4, 3:8, 4:16.

4-bit ripple carry full adder,4-bit Ripple carry counter, parity generator, up/down counters.

References:

1. Samir palnitkar: Verilog HDL- A Guide to Digital Design and Synthesis, Pearson Education.

2. Bhasker: A Verilog HDL Primer –synthesis, Pearson Education

3. Pedroni: Circuit Design with VHDL, PHI Learning.

4. Perry: VHDL- Programming by example, TMH.

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