RGPV Syllabus Electronics and Communication 6th Semester
RGPV Syllabus
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION 6th SEM
RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BHOPAL PROGRAMME: Electronics and Telecommunication COURSE: EC601 Data communication and networks

Course Contents
Unit – I
Introduction to Data Communication and Networks: Data Communication, Networks – Physical structures; different topologies, Categories of Networks: LAN, MAN, WAN, Interconnection of networks, The Internet, Protocols and Standards, Standards Organizations. Network Models, Layered tasks, The OSI model, different layers in OSI model. TCP/IP protocol suite ; different layers, addressing, – physical, logical, port and specific addresses, Analog and digital, digital signalsBit Length, Digital Signal as a Composite Ana
log Signal, Transmission of Digital Signals, Data Rate LimitsNoiseless Channel, Noisy Channel.
Unit – II
Physical Layer : DigitaltoDigital ConversionLine Coding, Line Coding Scheme, Block Coding, Scrembling. Multiplexing – Frequency Division, Wavelength Division, Synchronous Time Division, Statistical Time Division Multiplexing. CircuitSwitched Networks – Three Phases, Efficiency, Delay. Datagram Networks – Routing Table, Efficiency, Delay, Datagram Networks in the Internet. Virtual Circuit Networks – Addressing, Three Phases, Efficiency, Delay, Circuit Switched Technology in WANs. Structure of Circuit and Packet switches, Dialup Modems, Digital Subscriber Line – ADSL, ADSL Lite, HDSL, SDSL, VDSL, Cable TV for Data Transfer Bandwidth, Sharing, CM and CMTS, Data Transmission Schemes.
Unit – III
Data Link Layer: Introduction – Types of Errors, Redundancy, Detection Vs Correction, Forward Error Correction Vs Retransmission, Modular Arithmetic. Block Coding – Error Detection, Error Correction, Hamming Distance, Minimum Hamming Distance. Linear Block Codes, Cyclic Codes – Cyclic Redundancy Check, Hardware Implementation, Polynomials, Cyclic Code Analysis, Advantages. Checksum, Framing – Fixed and VariableSize. Flow and Error Control, Protocols, Noiseless Channels – Simplest and StopandWait Protocols. Noisy Channels – StopandWait Automatic Repeat Request, GoBackN Automatic Repeat Request, Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request.
Unit – IV
Medium Access: Random Access ALOHA, Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA), Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD), Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA). Controlled AccessReservation, Polling, Token Passing. Channelization FrequencyDivision Multiple Access (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), CodeDivision Multiple Access (CDMA). IEEE Standards, Standard Ethernet, Changes in the Standard, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, IEEE 802.11 Architecture, MAC Sub layer, Addressing Mechanism, Physical Layer. Bluetooth Architecture, Radio Layer, Baseband Layer, L2CAP.
Unit V
Connecting LANs: Connecting Devices Passive Hubs, Repeaters, Active Hubs, Bridges, TwoLayer Switches, ThreeLayer Switches, Gateway. Backbone NetworksBus, Star, Connecting Remote LANs. Virtual LANs – Membership, Configuration, Communication between Switches, Network layer – logical addressing – . IPv4Addresses Address Space, Notation, Classful Addressing, Classless Addressing, Network Address Translation (NAT). IPv6 Addresses – Structure and Address Space. Internetworking – Need for Network Layer, Internet as a Datagram Network, Internet as a Connectionless Network. IPv4 Datagram, Fragmentation, Checksum, Options. IPv6 – Advantages, Packet Format, Extension Headers. Transition from IPv4 to IPv6. Address Mapping Logical to Physical Address, Physical to Logical Address, Routing – Delivery forwarding techniques and processes, routing table,, Unicast routing protocols – Optimization, inter domain, intra domain, distance vector, link state and path vector routing, Multicast routing protocol – Unicast, multicast and broadcast, applications, multicast routing and routing protocols.
References:
 B. A. Forouzan and Sophia Chung Fegan: Data Communications and Networking, 4^{th} Ed, TMH.
 W. Tomasi: Introduction to Data Communications and Networking, Pearson Education.
 A. S. Tanenbaum: Computer Networks, Pearson Education.
 W. Stalling: Data and Computer Communication, Pearson Education.
 P. C. Gupta: Data Communications and Computer Networks, PHI.
 A. Elahi and M. Elahi: Data Network and InternetCommunications Technology, Cengage Learning.
 Duck: Data Communication and Networking, Pearson Education.
RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BHOPAL
PROGRAMME: Electronics and Telecommunication
COURSE: EC602 Cellular Mobile Comm.
Category of course  Course Title 
Course code 
Credit4C 
Theory paper(ES)  
Departmental Core (DC13)  Cellular Mobile Communication 
EC 602 
L  T  P  Max. Marks100 Min. Marks: 35 Duration: 3 hrs. 
3 
1 
0 
Course Contents
UnitI
Introduction to cellular mobile system, a basic cellular system, performance criteria, Uniqueness of mobile radio environment, Operation of cellular systems, Planning of cellular system.
Elements of Cellular Radio System Design: General description of problem, Concept of frequency reuse, channels, Co channel interference, reduction factor, Hand off mechanisms, Cell splitting, Consideration of the components of cellular systems.
UnitII
Cochannel Interference, real time cochannel interference measurement at mobile radio transceivers, Design of antenna system – Omni directional and directional, Lowering the antenna height, Reduction of cochannel interference, Umbrella Pattern effect, Diversity receiver, Designing a system to serve a predefined area that experiences CoChannel Interference.
Types of Non cochannel interference adjacent channel Interference, NearEndFarEnd interference, Effects on NearEnd mobile units, CrossTalk, Effects on coverage and interference by applying power decrease, antenna height decrease, Beam Tilting, Effects of cell site Components, Interference between systems, UHF TV Interference, long distance interference.
UnitIII
Cell coverage for signal and traffic : General introduction, Obtaining the mobile pointtopoint model, Propagation over water or flat open area, foliage loss, propagation in near in distance, long distance propagation, pointtopoint prediction model, Cell site antenna heights and signal coverage cells, Mobiletomobile propagation.
Cell site antennas and mobile antennas: Equivalent circuits of antennas, Gain and Pattern Relationship, Sum and Difference patterns, Antennas at cell site, mobile antennas.
UnitIV
Frequency management and Channel Assignment: Frequency management, Frequency spectrum utilization, Setup channels, Fixed channels assignment, Nonfixed channel assignment algorithms, Traffic and channel assignment. Handoffs and Dropped Calls: Types of Handoff, Initiation of Handoff, Delaying a Handoff, Forced Handoff, Queuing of Handoff, Power Difference Handoff, Mobile Assisted Handoff and Soft Handoff, Cellsite Handoff and Intersystem Handoff, Dropped Call Rate.
UnitV
Digital Cellular System: GSM, Architecture, Layer Modeling, Transmission, GSM channels and Channel Modes, Multiple Access Scheme: CDMA, Terms of CDMA systems, output power limits and control, Modulation characteristics, Call processing, Hand off procedures.
Miscellaneous Mobile Systems: TDD Systems, Cordless Phone, PDC, PCN, PCS, Non Cellular Systems, Mobile Integrated Radio Systems, Mobile Satellite Communication.
References:
 Lee: Cellular and Mobile Communication, 2^{nd} edition, McGraw Hill.
 D. P. Agrawal and Q. An Zeng: Wireless and Mobile Systems, Cengage Learning, 2006.
 Faher Kamilo: Wireless Digital Communication, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2006.
 G. J. Mullet: Introduction to Wireless Telecommunication Systems and Networks, Cengage Learning.
 Raj Kamal: Mobile Computing, Oxford University Press.
RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BHOPAL
PROGRAMME: Electronics and Telecommunication
COURSE: EC–603 Digital Signal Processing
Category of course  Course Title 
Course code 
Credit6C 
Theory paper(ES)  
Departmental Core (DC11)  Digital Signal Processing 
EC 603 
L  T  P  Max. Marks100 Min. Marks: 35 Duration: 3 hrs. 
3 
1 
2 
Course Contents
Unit – I
DiscreteTime Signals and Systems
DiscreteTime Signals, DiscreteTime Systems, Analysis of DiscreteTime Linear TimeInvariant Systems, Discrete Time systems described by Difference Equation, Implementation of DiscreteTime Systems, Signal flow Graph representation of digital network, matrix representation.
Unit – II
The zTransform: The Direct ztransform, Properties of the ztransform, Rational ztransforms, Inversion of the z transform, analysis of Linear TimeInvariant systems in the z domain.
Unit – III
Frequency Analysis of Discrete Time Signals: Discrete Fourier series (DFS), Properties of the DFS, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Properties of DFT, Two dimensional DFT, Circular Convolution.
Unit – IV
Efficient Computation of the DFT: FFT algorithms, decimation in time algorithm, Decimation in frequency algorithm, Decomposition for ‘N’ composite number.
Unit – V
Digital filters Design Techniques: Design of IIR and FIR digital filters, Impulse invariant and bilinear transformation, windowing techniques rectangular and other windows, Examples of FIR filters, design using Windowing.
References:
 A.V. Oppenheim and R. W. Schafer: Digital Signal Processing, Prentice Hall.
 Ingle VK and Proakis John G : Digital Signal Processing A MATLab based Approach, Cengage Learning
 L.R. Rabiner and B. Gold: Theory and Application of Digital Signal Processing, Prentice Hall
 John. G. Proakis and Monolakis: Digital Signal Processing, Pearson Education
 Johnny R. Johnson: Introduction to Digital Signal Processing, PHI, New Delhi.
 Salivahanan and Vallavraj: Digital Signal Processing, Mc Graw Hill.
 S. K. Mitra: Digital Signal Processing A Computer based Approach, Mc Graw Hill.
 Schilling and Harris: Fundamentals of DSP using MATLAB, Cengage Learning.
List of experiments:
The following practicals should be performed using Scilab/ Matlab/ any DSP simulation software like MentorDSP
 Generation, analysis and plots of discretetime signals.
 Implementation of operations on sequences (addition, multiplication, scaling, shifting, folding etc).
 Implementation of Linear timeinvariant (LTI) systems and testing them for stability and causality.
 Computation and plot of DTFT of sequences, verification of properties of DTFT.
 Computation and plots of ztransforms, verification of properties of ztransforms.
 Computation and plot of DFT of sequences, verification of properties of DFT.
 Computation and plots of linear/circular convolution of two sequences.
 Computation of radix2 FFT Decimation in time and Decimation in frequency.
 Implementation of IIR and FIR filter structures (direct, cascade, parallel etc).
10. Implementation of various window design techniques (Rectangular, Bartlett, Hann, Hamming etc).
RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BHOPAL
PROGRAMME: Electronics and Telecommunication
COURSE: EC 604 Microwave Engineering
Category of course 
Course Title 
Course code 
Credit6C 
Theory paper(ES)  
Departmental Core (DC14) 
Microwave Engineering 
EC 604 
L  T  P  Max. Marks100 Min. Marks: 35 Duration: 3 hrs. 
3 
1 
2 
Course Contents
UnitI Microwave Transmission System
General representation of E M field in terms of TEM, TE and TM components, Uniform guide structures, rectangular wave guides, Circular Wave guides, Solution in terms of various modes, Properties of propagating and evanescent modes, Dominant modes, Normalized model voltages and currents, Power flow and energy storage in modes frequency range of operation for single mode working, effect of higher order modes, Strip line and micro strip lines general properties, Comparison of coaxial, Micro strip and rectangular wave guides in terms of band width, power handling capacity, economical consideration etc.
UnitII Microwave Networks and Component
Transmission line ports of microwave network, Scattering matrix, Properties of scattering matrix of reciprocal, nonreciprocal, loss less, Passive networks, Examples of two, three and four port networks, wave guide components like attenuator, Phase shifters and couplers, Flanges, Bends, Irises, Posts, Loads, Principle of operation and properties of Eplane, Hplane Tee junctions of wave guides, Hybrid T, Multihole directional coupler, Directional couplers, Microwave resonators rectangular. Excitation of wave guide and resonators by couplers. Principles of operation of nonreciprocal devices, properties of ferrites, Isolators and phase shifters.
UnitIII Microwave Solid State Devices and Application
PIN diodes, Properties and applications, Microwave detector diodes, detection characteristics, Varactor diodes, parametric amplifier fundamentals, ManleyRowe power relation MASER, LASER , Amplifiers, Frequency converters and harmonic generators using Varactor diodes, Transferred electron devices, Gunn effect, Various modes of operation of Gunn oscillator, IMPATT, TRAPATT and BARITT.
UnitIV Microwave Vacuum Tube Devices
Interaction of electron beam with electromagnetic field, power transfer condition. Principles of working of two cavity and Reflex Klystrons, arrival time curve and oscillation conditions in reflex klystrons, modefrequency characteristics. Effect of repeller voltage variation on power and frequency of output. Principle of working of magnetrons. Electron dynamics in planar and cylindrical magnetrons, Cutoff magnetic field, Resonant cavities in magnetron, llmode operation Mode separation techniques, Rising sun cavity and strapping. Principle of working of TWT amplifier. Slow wave structures, Approximate gain relationship in forward wave TWT.
UnitV Microwave Measurements
Square law detection, Broadband and tuned detectors. Waveguide probes, Probe and detector mounts, Slotted line arrangement and VSWR meter, Measurement of waveguide impedance at load port by slotted line, Microwave bench components and source modulation.
Measurement of scattering matrix parameters, High, Medium and lowlevel power measurement techniques, Characteristics of bolometers, bolometer mounts, Power measurement bridges, Microwave frequency measurement techniques, calibrated resonators (transmission and absorption type). Network Analyzer and its use in measurements.
References:
 Y. S. Liao: Microwave Devices, PHI.
 R. E. Collins: Foundations of Microwave Engineering, 2^{nd} Edition, Wiley Publications.
 J.H. Reich: Microwave Principles, East West Press.
 D. M. Pozar: Microwave Engineering, 3^{rd} Edition, Wiley Publications.
List of Experiment: Following illustrative practical should be simulated with the help of any RF simulation software e.g. FEKO / HFSS / IE3D / Microwave Office / Microwave Studio or any other similar software:
 Study the characteristics of Klystron Tube and to determine its electronic tuning range.
 To determine the frequency and wavelength in a rectangular waveguide working on TE_{10} mode.
 To determine the Standing WaveRatio and reflection coefficient.
 To measure an unknown impedance with Smith Chart.
 To study the VI characteristics of Gunn Diode.
 To study the following characteristics of Gunn Diode.
(a) Output power and frequency as a function of voltage.
(b) Square wave modulation through PIN diode.
 Study the function of Magic Tee by measuring the following parameters.
(a) Measurement of VSWR at different ports and
(b) Measurement of isolation and coupling coefficient.
 Study the function of Isolator / Circulator by measuring the following parameters.
(a) Input VSWR measurement of Isolator / Circulator.
(b) Measurement of insertion loss and isolation.
 Study the function of Attenuator (Fixed and Variable type) by measuring the following parameters.
(a) Input VSWR measurement.
(b) Measurement of insertion loss and attenuation.
 Study the function of Multi Hole Directional Coupler by measuring the following parameters.
(a) To measure main line and auxiliary line VSWR.
(b) To measure the coupling factor and directivity.
 Study of a network analyzer and measurements using it.
RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BHOPAL
PROGRAMME: Electronics and Telecommunication
COURSE: EC605 Communication Network and Transmission Lines
Category of course 
Course Title 
Course code 
Credit6C 
Theory paper(ES)  
Departmental Core (DC15) 
Communication Network and Transmission Lines 
EC605 
L  T  P  Max. Marks100 Min. Marks: 35 Duration: 3 hrs. 
3 
1 
2 
Course Contents
Unit – I
Characteristic Parameters of symmetrical and asymmetrical two port networks and their design: image impedance, iterative impedance, characteristic impedance, propagation coefficient, image transfer coefficient ,iterative transfer coefficient, Lattice and BridgedT networks, reactive matching networks, matching techniques, Insertion Loss, symmetrical and asymmetrical attenuators and their design.
Unit – II
Passive LC Filters: Analysis and design of Low pass, high pass, band pass and band elimination filters, mderived filters, composite filters, Filter specifications, Butterworth approximation, Chebyshev approximation, elliptic function approximation, frequency transformation.
Unit – III
Positive real function, LC, RL, RC, and RLC network synthesis, Foster and Cauer network, minimum positive real function, Brune’s method, BottDuffin method, SynthesisCoefficient.
Unit – IV
Transmission line fundamentals: Lumped parameter equivalent, voltage and current on a transmission line, infinite line, characteristic impedance and propagation constant, waveform distortion, attenuation and phase equalizers, distortionless line, loading, liner reflection on a line, reflection coefficient, input and transfer impedances, open circuit and short circuit line, reflection factors, reflection loss, insertion loss, T and tt equivalents of a line, location of line fault. Construction and design of two wire line and coaxial cable.
Unit – V
Line at radio frequencies, parameters of line and coaxial cable at radio frequencies, dissipationless line, voltage and current on a dissipationless line, standing waves, standing wave ratio, input impedance of open circuit and short circuit, power and impedance measurement on lines, eighthwave, quarterwave and half wave line, circle diagram, Smith chart, solution of problems using Smith chart, single and double stub matching .introduction to microstrip lines and its analysis.
References:
 J.D. Ryder: Networks and Transmission Lines, 2^{nd} edition, PHI
 M.E. Valkenberg: Introduction to Modern Network synthesis, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
 G.K. Mithal: Network Analysis, Khanna Publishers.
 Umesh Sinha: Networks and Transmission Lines, Satya Prakashan.
 Suresh: Electric Circuits and Networks, Pearson Education.
List of Experiments: Following illustrative practical should be simulated with the help of any RF simulation software e.g. FEKO / HFSS / IE3D / Microwave Office / Microwave Studio or any other similar software:
 To set up Transmission Line Analyzer for measurements.
 To set up the standing waves formation on a transmission line and observe their maxima and minima using frequency domain method.
 To measure the characteristic impedance of transmission lines using frequency domain method and to differentiate between the matched and unmatched lines.
 To measure the VSWR, reflection coefficient and return loss in a transmission line.
 To measure the dielectric constant of insulator in the transmission line.
 To measure the velocity of propagation and wavelength in the given transmission line.
 To study the attenuation characteristics of signal along a transmission line and observe its variation with frequency. Also calculate the phase constant and propagation constant.
 To study the effect of reactive loads on transmission lines.
 To study the difference between lossy and loss less line.
 To study the physical dimensions of transmission line and estimation of characteristic impedance.
 To study behavior of infinite and short lines.
 To study the operation of Balun transformer.
 To study the loading of transmission lines and estimate the cut off frequency of a loaded line.
 To study the use of coaxial lines as tuned circuits and delay lines.
 To study the input and output impedance of any RF circuits and match it to 50/75 ohms.
 Simulation of various filters.
RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BHOPAL
PROGRAMME: Electronics and Telecommunication
COURSE: EC606 – Minor project
Category of course 
Course Title 
Course code 
Credit4C 
Practical Exam 

Departmental Core (DC16) 
Minor Project 
EC606 
L  T  P 
Max. Marks50 
0  0  4 
Course Contents
Circuits/ Projects based on courses studied/ covered in previous semesters and in this semester should be designed/ simulated/ fabricated in the institution laboratories and a report should be submitted.