# RGPV Syllabus Electronics and Instrumentation Third Semester

B.E. 301 – ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS II

**Unit I**

Fourier Series: Introduction of Fourier series , Fourier series for Discontinuous functions, Fourier series for even and odd function, Half range series Fourier Transform: Definition and properties of Fourier transform, Sine and Cosine transform.

Unit II

Laplace Transform: Introduction of Laplace Transform, Laplace Transform of elementary functions, properties of Laplace Transform, Change of scale property, second shifting property, Laplace transform of the derivative, Inverse Laplace transform & its properties, Convolution theorem, Applications of L.T. to solve the ordinary differential equations

Unit III

Second Order linear differential equation with variable coefficients : Methods one integral is known, removal of first derivative, changing of independent variable and variation of parameter, Solution by Series Method

Unit IV

Linear and Non Linear partial differential equation of first order: Formulation of partial differential equations, solution of equation by direct integration, Lagrange’s Linear equation, char pit’s method. Linear partial differential equation of second and higher order: Linear homogeneous and Non homogeneous partial diff. equation of nth order with constant coefficients. Separation of variable method for the solution of wave and heat equations

Unit V

Vector Calculus: Differentiation of vectors, scalar and vector point function, geometrical meaning of Gradient, unit normal vector and directional derivative, physical interpretation of divergence and Curl. Line integral, surface integral and volume integral, Green’s, Stoke’s and Gauss divergence theorem

References

(i) Advanced Engineering Mathematics by Erwin Kreyszig, Wiley India

(ii) Higher Engineering Mathematics by BS Grewal, Khanna Publication

(iii) Advance Engineering Mathematics by D.G.Guffy

(iv) Mathematics for Engineers by S.Arumungam, SCITECH Publication

(v) Engineering Mathematics by S Sastri. P.H.I.

**EX – 302 Electromagnetic Theory**

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**Unit I**

Cartesian, cylindrical & spherical co-ordinate systems, scalar & vector fields, gradient, divergence & curl of a vector field, Divergence theorem & Stokes’s theorem, concept of vectors. Electrostatic Fields – Coulomb’s law, electric field intensity due to different charge distribution viz. line charge, sheet charge, Field due to continuous volume – electric potential, properties of potential function, potential gradient equipotential surfaces, line of force, Gauss law, applications of Gauss law, Gauss law in point form, method of images.

Unit II

Laplace’s & Poisson’s equations, solution of Laplace’s equation, Electric dipole, dipole moment, potential & electric field intensity due to dipole, Behavior of conductors in an electric field. Conductor & insulator, electric field inside a dielectric, polarization, Boundary value conditions for electric Field, Capacitance & Capacitances of various types of capacitors, Energy stored and energy density in static electric field, Current density, conduction & convection current density ohms law in point form, equation of continuity.

Unit III

Static Magnetic Field, Biot-Savart’s law, Magnetic Field intensity due to straight current carrying filament, circular, square and solenoidal current carrying wire, Relationship between magnetic flux, flux density & magnetic Field intensity; Ampere’s circuital law and its applications, magnetic Field intensity due to infinite sheet and various other configurations, Ampere’s circuital law in point form, Magnetic force, moving charge in a magnetic field, Lorentz Force on straight and long current carrying conductors in magnetic field, force between two long & parallel current carrying conductors. Magnetic dipole & dipole moment, a differential current loop as dipole, torque on a current carrying loop in magnetic field, Magnetic Boundary conditions.

Unit IV

Scalar magnetic potential and its limitations, Vector magnetic potential and its properties, vector magnetic potential due to different simple configurations; Self and Mutual inductances, determination of self & mutual inductances, self inductance of solenoid, toroid coils, mutual inductance between a straight long wire & a square loop. Energy stored in magnetic Field & energy density, Faraday’s Law, transformer & motional EMFs, Displacement current, Maxwell’s equations as Generalization of circuit equations, Maxwell’s equation in free space, Maxwell’s equation for harmonically varying Field, static and steady fields, Maxwell’s equations in differential & integral form.

Unit V

Electro Magnetic Waves : Uniform plane wave in time domain in free space, Sinusoidally time varying uniform plane wave in free space, Wave equation and solution for material medium, Uniform plane wave in dielectrics and conductors, Pointing Vector theorem, instantaneous, average and complex poynting vector, power loss in a plane conductor, energy storage, Polarization of waves, Reflection by conductors and dielectric – Normal & Oblique incidence, Reflection at surface of a conducting medium, surface impedance, transmission line analogy.

**References:**

- Mathew N.O Sadiku; Elements of Electromagnetic; Oxford.
- P.V. Gupta; Electromagnetic Fields; Dhanpat Rai.
- N.N. Rao; Element of Engineering Electromagnetic; PHI.
- William H. Hayt; Engineering Electromagnetic; TMH.
- John D. Kraus; Electromagnetic; TMH.
- Jordan Blaming; Electromagnetic wave & Radiating System; PHI.
- David K. Cheng; Fields and Wave Electromagnetic; Addison Wesley.
- S.P. Seth; Electromagnetic Field ;Dhanpat Rai & Sons

Note: Field plotting of electromagnetic systems on a PC using standard software’s. Application for low and high frequency devices. Suggested software’s, GEMINI(Infolytica), ANSYS, ANSOFT, NISA.

**EX – 303 Electronic Instrumentation**

**Unit I**

Measurement and error, Accuracy and precision, sensitivity resolution, Error & Error analysis,

Effect of temperature, Internal friction, Stray field, Hysterisis and Frequency variation & method of minimizing them, Loading effects, due to shunt connected and series connect ed instruments, calibration curve, Testing & calibration of instruments.

Galvanometers – Theory & operation of ballistic galvanometer, D’arsonal galvanometer, galvanometer motion & damping, Sensitivity, Flux meter, Vibration galvanometer, Spot deflection galvanometer. Definition of analog & digital instruments, Classification of analog instruments, their operating principle, Operating force, Types of supports, Damping, Controlling.

**Unit II**

Different types of Ammeter & Voltmeter – PMMC, MI, Electrodynamometer, Hotwire,

Electrostatic, Induction, Rectifier, Ferro dynamic & Electro-thermal, Expression for control & deflection torque, their advantages, disadvantages & error, Extension of range of instruments using shunt & multiplier.

**Unit III**

Instrument transformers: Potential and current transformers, ratio and phase angle errors, testing of instrument transformers, Difference between CT and PT, errors and reduction of errors. Measurement of power: Power in AC and DC Circuit, Electrodynamometer type of wattmeter, Construction, theory, operation & error, Low power factor & UPF wattmeter, Double element and three element dynamometer wattmeter, Measurement of power in three phase circuit, one, two & three wattmeter method, Measurement of reactive power by single wattmeter, Measurement of power using CTs & PTs.

**Unit IV**

Measurement of Energy: Single phase induction type energy meter – construction & operation – driving and braking torques -errors & compensations – Testing by phantom loading and using R.S.S. meter- Three phase energy meter – Tri-vector meter – Maximum demand meter, Ampere hour meter.

Potentiometer – DC potentiometer standardization – Lab type Crompton’s potentiometer, application of DC potentiometer, AC polar type and coordinate type potentiometer, their construction and applications.

**Unit V**

Miscellaneous Instruments & Measurements: Power factor meter, Single phase and three phase Electro-dynamometer type & moving iron type.

Frequency meter – Vibrating reed, Resonance type & Weston type, Synchronoscope, Ohmmeter – series & stunt type, Multi-meter, Megger & Ratio meter.

Resistance Measurement – Classification of low, medium & high resistance – Voltmeter, Ammeter, Wheatstone Bridge, Kelvin’s double bridge & loss of charge methods for resistance measurement, Earth resistance measurement.

Magnetic Measurement – B-H Curve, Hysterisis Loop determination, Power loss in sheet metal – Lloyd Fischer square for measurement of power loss.

**References:**

- E W Golding & F C Widdis; Electrical Measurement & Measuring Instruments; Wheeler Pub.
- A.K. Sawhney; Electrical & Electronic Measurements & Instrument; Dhanpat Rai & Sons Pub.
- Buckingham & Price; Electrical Measurements; Prentice Hall List of experiments (Expandable):
- Measurement of low resistance using Kelvin’s Double bridge
- Measurement of medium resistance using Wheatstone’s bridge
- Measurement of high resistance by loss of charge method
- Measurement of Insulation resistance using Megger
- Measurement of earth resistance by fall of potential method and verification by using earth tester
- Measurement of power in a single phase ac circuit by 3 voltmeter/ 3 Ammeter method
- Calibration of a dynamometer type of wattmeter with respect to a standard/Sub Standard wattmeter
- Calibration of a induction type single phase energy meter
- Calibration of a dynamometer type of wattmeter by Phantom Loading method
- Measurements using Instrument Transformers
- Study of various types of Indicating Instruments
- Measurement of Power in three phase circuit by one, two & three wattmeters.

**EX – 304 Electronics Devics & Circuits- I**

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**Unit I**

Semiconductor Diode & Rectifiers: Semiconductor diodes, ideal & practical diode equivalent circuit & frequency response, graphical analysis of diode circuits, diode applications, clipping and clamping circuits, half wave & full wave rectifier circuits with & without filters.Type of diodes and their applications, Signal diodes, Power Diode, Zener diode, Varactor diode, Schottky diode, PIN diode, Tunnel diode, Photo diode. Direct tunneling equivalent circuit, Tunnel diode oscillator; Solar Cell, LED, LEDs specification & geometry of LEDs, Colours of LEDs, LCD, Diffusion and Transition capacitance of P-N junction diode, Simple zener regulators.

**Unit II**

Transistor Characteristics: Construction, principle of operation, V-I characteristics, Symbols, equivalent circuit, parameter calculations, applications, limitations and specifications of BJT, FET, uJt and MOSFET’S (Different configurations of transistors are to be considered), Specifications of BJT, FET, UJT and MOSFET’s.

**Unit III**

Amplifiers: Biasing, DC Equivalent Model, criteria for fixing operating point and methods of bias stabilization, thermal runaway and thermal stability, small signal low- frequency transistor amplifier – circuits; h-parameters, representation of transistor, analysis of single stage transistor amplifier using h-parameters, voltage gain current gain, input impedance output impedance, Comparison of bJt & FET. RC coupled amplifier – frequency response, cascaded amplifiers (all configurations of BJT and FET are to be considered). High frequency model of transistor ? and ?, cut-off frequencies of a transistor, single stage and multi stage amplifiers, Calculation of bandwidth of single and multistage amplifiers, concept of gain bandwidth product. Specifications of amplifiers, effect of cascading on bandwidth, Darlington amplifier, boot strapping, stability and thermal consideration, Noise in BJT.

**Unit IV**

Feedback Amplifiers and Oscillators: Concept of feedback, negative & positive feedback gain & sensitivity, Bandwidth, classification of feedback amplifiers, general characteristics of negative feedback amplifier, effect of feedback on amplifiers characteristics, condition for oscillation, RC and LC type of oscillators, Crystal oscillators, frequency and amplitude stability of oscillations, Generalized analysis of LC oscillators, quartz, Hartley Clopitts, R-C Phase shift and Wein Bridge oscillators, UJT oscillator.

**Unit V**

Power Amplifiers and Tuned Amplifiers & Regulator: Classification of power amplifiers,

Class A,B,AB and C power amplifiers, Push pull & complementary push pull amplifiers. Design of heat sinks, Power output, efficiency, cross – over distortion and harmonic distortion, Derating curve. Specifications of power amplifiers, single tunned and double tunned voltage amplifiers. Interstage design, Staibility consideration, Class B and Class C tuned power amplifiers and specifications.

**References:**

- Nashelsky & Boysted; Electronic Devices and Circuits; PHI
- Millman Halkias; Electronic Devices and Circuits; McGraw- Hill
- Millman & Grabel; Micro Electronics; McGraw-Hill
- Salivahanan; Electronic Devices and Circuits; TMH
- Cathey; Electronic devices and circuits (Shaum); TMH
- Bogart; Electronic Devices and Circuits; Universal Book Stall, Delhi
- Millman & Halkias; Integrated Electronics; McGraw- Hill.
- Nagrath I.J.; Electronics; PHI

List of experiments (expandable):

1. V-I Characteristics of different types of Diodes.

- Applications of diodes and Design of various clipping and clamping circuits.
- Design half & full wave rectifier
- Design & Analysis of transistor amplifier in CE, CB & CC configuration.
- Use of UJT as relaxation Oscillator.
- Design & Analysis of JFET Amplifier.
- Design & Analysis of MOSFET Amplifier.
- To study and construct power amplifiers of various classes.
- Study of various oscillators.

NOTE- – All experiments (wherever applicable) should be performed through the following steps. Step 1: Circuit should be designed/ drafted on paper. Step 2: Where ever applicable the designed/drafted circuit should be simulated using Simulation S/W (TINA-V7/ PSPICE/ Labview/ CIRCUIT MAKER etc.). Step 3: The designed/drafted circuit should be tested on the bread board and compare the results with the simulated results. Step 4: Where ever required the bread board circuit should be fabricated on PCB.

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**EX – 305 Network Analysis**

**Unit I**

Introduction to circuit elements R,L,C and their characteristics in terms of linearity & time dependant nature, voltage & current sources controlled & uncontrolled sources KCL and KVL analysis, Nodal & mesh analysis, analysis of magnetically coupled circuits, Transient analysis :- Transients in RL, RC&RLC Circuits, initial conditions, time constants. Steady state analysis- Concept of phasor & vector, impedance & admittance, Network topology, concept of Network graph, Tree, Tree branch & link, Incidence matrix, cut set and tie set matrices, dual networks, Dot convention, coupling coefficient, tuned circuits, Series & parallel resonance.

**Unit II**

Network Theorems for AC & DC circuits- Thevenins & Norton’s, Superpositions, Reciprocity, Compensation, Substitution, Maximum power transfer, and Millman’s theorem, Tellegen’s theorem, problems with dependent & independent sources.

**Unit III**

Frequency domain analysis – Laplace transform solution of Integro-differential equations, transform of waveform synthesized with step ramp, Gate and sinusoidal functions, Initial & final value theorem, Network Theorems in transform domain

**Unit IV**

Concept of signal spectra, Fourier series co-efficient of a periodic waveform, symmetries as related to Fourier coefficients, Trigonometric & Exponential form of Fourier series.

**Unit V**

Network function & Two port networks – concept of complex frequency, Network & Transfer functions for one port & two ports, poles and zeros, Necessary condition for driving point & transfer function. Two port parameters – Z,Y, ABCD, Hybrid parameters, their inverse & image parameters, relationship between parameters, Interconnection of two ports networks, Terminated two port network.

**References:**

- M.E. Van Valkenburg, Network Analysis, (PHI)
- F.F.Kuo, Network Analysis.
- Mittal GK; Network Analysis; Khanna Publisher
- Mesereau and Jackson; Circuit Analysis- A system Approach; Pearson.
- Sudhakar & Pillai; Circuit & Networks- Analysis and Synthesis; TMH
- Hayt W.H. & J.E. Kemmerly; Engineering Circuit Analysis; TMH
- Decarlo line; Linear circuit Analysis; Oxford
- William D Stanley : Network Analysis with Applications, Pearson Education
- Roy Choudhary D; Network and systems; New Age Pub
- Charles K. Alexander & Matthew N.O. Sadiku: Electrical Circuits :TMH
- Chakraborti :Circuit theory: Dhanpat Rai
- B.Chattopadhyay & P.C.Rakshit; Fundamental of Electrical circuit theory; S Chand
- Nilsson & Riedel , Electric circuits ;Pearson

List of experiments (Expandable):

1. To Verify Thevenin Theorem.

- To Verify Superposition Theorem.
- To Verify Reciprocity Theorem.
- To Verify Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.
- To Verify Millman’s Theorem.
- To Determine Open Circuit parameters of a Two Port Network.
- To Determine Short Circuit parameters of a Two Port Network.
- To Determine A,B, C, D parameters of a Two Port Network
- To Determine h parameters of a Two Port Network
- To Find Frequency Response of RLC Series Circuit.
- To Find Frequency Response of RLC parallel Circuit.

NOTE- – All experiments (wherever applicable) should be performed through the following steps. Step 1: Circuit should be designed/ drafted on paper. Step 2: Where ever applicable the designed/drafted circuit should be simulated using Simulation S/W (TINA-V7/ PSPICE/ Labview/ CIRCUIT MAKER etc.). Step 3: The designed/drafted circuit should be tested on the bread board and compare the results with the simulated results. Step 4: Where ever required the bread board circuit should be fabricated on PCB.

EX -307 Self Study (Internal Assessment)

Objective of Self Study: is to induce the student to explore and read technical aspects of his area of interest / hobby or new topics suggested by faculty.

Evaluation will be done by assigned faculty based on report/seminar presentation and viva.

EX -308 Seminar / Group Discussion(Internal Assessment)

Objective of GD and seminar is to improve the MASS COMMUNICATION and CONVINCING/ understanding skills of students and it is to give student an opportunity to exercise their rights to express themselves.

Evaluation will be done by assigned faculty based on group discussion and power point presentation.