Pune Technical University Petrochemical Engineering

 

UNIVERSITY OF PUNE

STRUCTURE OF B.E. (PETROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING)

COURSE – 2008

Sub.

No.

Subject

Teaching Scheme Hrs/Week

Examination Scheme (Marks)
 

Lect

Pr

Tut/

Drg

Paper

TW Pr Or

TERM – I

412401 Reaction Engineering – II

4

100

412402

Process Dynamics and Control

4

2  

100

25

50
412403 Environmental Engineering

4

2

100

25

50

412404 Elective – I

4

2

100

50
412405 Elective – II

4

100

412406 Professional Ethics

2

50

412407 Project

2

  Total

20

10  

500

100 50 100
  Total Term – I

30

750

TERM – II

412408 Refinery Process Design

4

2

100

50

 
412409 Plant Design and Process Economics

4

2   100     50
412410 Elective – III

4

2

100

50

412411 Elective – IV

4

100

412412 Chemical Engineering Laboratory II   2    

50

   
412407 Project Work

6

100   50
  Total 16 14

400 200 50 100
  Total Term – II

30

750

  Total for the year

60

900 300 100 200
  Grand Total  

1500

L: Lectures / week, Pr: Practical / week, T: Tutorial, D: Drawing TW: Term Work, OR: Oral

 

 

Semester One

Elective – I, 412404

412404 A Biochemical Engineering
412404 B Novel Separation Processes
412404 C Elements of Fluidization Engineering
412404 D Green Chemistry

 

Elective – II, 412405

412405 A Optimization Techniques for Process Industries
412405 B Emerging feed stocks and Technologies for Petrochemicals
412405 C Natural Gas Technology
412405 D Health, Safety and Environment in Process Industry

 

Semester Two

Elective – III, 412410

412410 A Process Modeling and Simulation
412410 B Fine Chemical Industries
412410 C Colloidal and Interface Science
412410 D Renewable Energy Sources

 

Elective – IV, 412411

412411 A Petroleum Exploration and Production Operations
412411 B Catalyst Science and Technology
412411 C Polymer Reaction Engineering
412411 D Open Elective

 

The students can opt for any elective subject of the same semester which is not offered or taken before. The elective subject may be related to the program or may be offered by any program under faculty of engineering, university of Pune. An elective proposed by an industry may also be offered to students with the permission of Board of Studies and Faculty of Engineering. The procedure related to same has to be completed by November 30 for smooth functioning of elective.

412401   REACTION ENGINEERING-II (B. E. Petrochemical Engineering 2008 Course)

Teaching Scheme:                                                                      Examination Scheme: Lectures: 4 Hrs / week                                                                                                      Paper: 100 Marks

Objectives:

1)     To understand complications of the rate equation in case of a multiphase reaction on account of diffusional, mass transfer and heat transfer effects.

2)     To get acquainted with the principles used in design of multiphase reactors.

SECTION – I Unit I: Introduction to Heterogeneous Reactions  (08)

Heterogeneous systems of various kinds, Complications of the rate equation and the contacting patterns for multiphase contact. Rate equation for surface kinetics, Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics

Unit II: Solid Catalyzed Reactions                                                                                       (08)

Pore diffusion, Pore diffusion resistance combined with surface kinetics, Model of a single cylindrical pore, Effectiveness factor, Extension of the model to arbitrary shape of particles and to arbitrary kinetics of surface reaction, Laboratory tests for predicting pore diffusion effects.

Performance equations for reactors containing porous catalyst particles, Experimental methods for finding rates, Product distribution in multiple reactions. ( Case of A ^ R ^ S only )

Unit III: Catalysis Fundamentals and Deactivating Catalysts                                                (08)

Catalyst preparation, manufacture and characterization, Use of catalysts in refining and petrochemical industry, Mechanisms of catalyst deactivation such as fouling, poisoning etc. Rate and performance equations for deactivating catalyst, possible reactor policies for a batch of deactivating catalyst.

 

Industrial examples of absorption with reaction, liquid-liquid reactions, Rate equations for straight mass transfer and mass transfer accompanied with reaction (all important regimes). Hatta Number, Problems in tower design.

Unit V: Fluid – Particle Reactions and Non-Ideal Flow                                                         (08)

Selection of a model for fluid-particle reaction, Shrinking core model, Conversion-time relationships for various shapes and controlling regimes, Determination of rate controlling step.

Residence Time Distribution (RTD), RTD for ideal reactors, Introduction to Axial Dispersion Model, and Tanks-in-Series Model.

Unit VI: Refinery Reactions and Reactors                                                                            (08)

Kinetics of conversions involving complex mixtures, Kinetic lumps, Kinetic models for catalytic cracking, Hydrocracking, reforming and thermal cracking, Principles involved in the design of multiphase reactors used in refining such as fluidized beds, trickle beds, moving beds and fixed beds.

Reference Books:

1)     Levenspiel O., “Chemical Reaction Engineering”, Third Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2003.

2)      Smith J. M., “Chemical Engineering Kinetics”, McGraw-Hill, 1981.

3)      Scott Fogler H., “Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering”, Prentice-Hall of India, 1997.

4)      Sharma M. M. and L. K. Doraiswamy, “Heterogeneous Reactions – Vol. I and II”, John Wiley and Sons, 1984.

 

412402     PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL (B. E. Petrochemical Engineering, 2008 Course)

Teaching Scheme:                                                                      Examination Scheme: Lectures: 4 Hrs / week                                                                                                      Paper: 100 Marks Practicals: 2 Hrs / week                                                                                                      Term work: 25 Marks Oral: 50 Marks

Objectives:

1)     To understand the importance of system dynamics and feedback control.

2)     To be able to analyze open loop and closed-loop system properties.

3)     To be able to design a control system to meet desired objectives.

4)      To be able to perform model-based design and tuning of controllers.

5)     To learn to understand the basic principles of digital control including Z-transforms and signal processing.

SECTION – I Unit I: Introduction        (08)

Review of Laplace transforms, Partial fraction expansions, Introduction to process control, Process control objectives and benefits, Basic principles of process control, Design aspects of process control systems, State variables and state equation for chemical processes, Input – Output model, Linearization of non-linear systems

Unit II: First and Second Order Systems                                                                             (08)

First order, second order systems, Systems with time delays, Response of first order and second systems, Physical examples of first order and second order systems, Response of first order systems in series, Interacting and Noninteracting systems, and Transportation lag.

Unit III: The Control System                                                                                               (08)

Block diagram, Development of block diagram, Controller and final control element, comparison of response of various modes of control, Block diagram for chemical reactor control system, Reduction of block diagram, Closed loop transfer functions, overall transfer function for single and multiloop systems, Transient response of simple control systems: Proportional and proportional-integral control for load and set point changes.

 

Concept of stability, Stability criterion, Routh test for stability, Concept of root locus, Plotting root locus diagrams.

Substitution rule, The Bode stability criterion. Bode diagrams for (a) First Order System, (b) First Order Systems in series, (c) Second Order System, (d) Transportation Lag (e) Proportional Controller (f) P-I Controller, (g) P-D Controller, (h) PID controller. Gain and Phase margins. Controller tuning methods, Nyquist stability criterion.

Unit V: Advanced Control Techniques                                                                                (08)

Principles of digital control, Fundamentals of digital controls, Computer interface, direct digital controls, Distributed control Systems and plant wide control system, advanced control techniques like ratio control, cascade control, adaptive control, Split range control etc.

Typical schemes for the control of unit operations and processes such as inventory control, heat exchanger control, and distillation column control.

Unit VI: Digital Control Techniques and Industrial Applications of Process Control (08)

Introduction to Z-transforms, Sampling of continuous signals, design of feedback control, Programmable logic control.

Typical strategies for the control of parameters such as level, flow, pressure, temperature and composition, Control valve sizing and characteristics, Plant wide control, State-of-the-art technologies in industrial automation such as DCS, PLC, SCADA, Field bus technology etc. Recent trends in industrial process automation.

Term Work:

Every student should carry out minimum eight experiments from the following list and submit the journal, which will form the term work.

List of Practicals:

1)     To determine time constant of thermometer and time constant of manometer.

2)     To understand control behavior of liquid level control system.

3)     To determine characteristic constants of two tank interacting system and two tank non­interacting system.

4)      To determine control valve characteristics.

5)     To determine the response of a) Thermal system with proportional control. b) Thermal system with transportation lag and proportional control. c) Thermal system with transportation lag and PI control.

6)     To determine the response of shell and tube heat exchanger with PID control.

7)      To implement a control strategy for a given process using dynamic mode of a commercial process simulator such as Aspen Plus.

8)     To simulate a control strategy for a given process using a commercial mathematical software such as MATLAB.

9)     Study of pneumatic servo system.

10)  Study of microprocessor based PID controller system.

11)  Study of SCADA system.

Reference Books:

1)     Donald K. Coughanowr; “Process System Analysis and Control”; McGraw Hill, Third Edition, New York, 2001

2)      Seborg D. E., T. F. Edgar, D. A. Mellichamp; “Process Dynamics and Control”; Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2004.

3)      Stephanopoulos G.; “Chemical Process Control: Introduction to Theory and Practice”; Prentice-Hall of India, 1995.

4)      Thomas E. Marlin; “Process Control: Designing Processes and Control Systems for Dynamic Performance”, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000.

5)      Ogunnaike B. A., W. H. Ray; “Process Dynamics, Modeling and Control”, Oxford University Press, 1994.

 

412403   ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING (B. E. Petrochemical Engineering, 2008 Course)

 

 

 

Examination Scheme: Paper: 100 Marks Term work: 25 Marks Practical: 50 Marks

 

 

 

Objectives:

1)     To learn to appreciate interrelationship between various components of ecosystem.

2)     To get acquainted with characterization of treatment methods for air and water pollution in process industry.

3)     To know regulatory framework for pollution prevention.

SECTION – I

Unit I: Components of Environment and Current Environmental Issues

Ecosystem – Structure and functional components of ecosystem, Impact of man on the environment, Natural and man-made impacts on water, air and land, Current environmental issues, Hazardous waste and Bio-medical waste, Global issues – Biodiversity, Climatic change, Ozone layer depletion, clean development mechanisms (CDM), Kyoto Protocol, Role of the environmental engineer

Unit II: Air Pollution and Control Methods                                                                         (08)

Sources and classification of air pollutants, Major emissions from global sources, Air pollution laws and standards, Air pollution sampling and measurements, Control methods, Cleaning of gaseous effluents, Particulate and gaseous emission control, Control of specific gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide emission, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, organic vapor from effluent gases.

Unit III Meteorological Aspects and Air pollution control                                                   (08)

Metrological aspects of air pollution dispersion, Temperature lapse rates and stability, Wind velocity and turbulence, Plume behavior, Dispersion of air pollutants.

Air pollution control from major process industries such as Petroleum refining and petrochemical plants, Thermal power plants, Cement industry, Fertilizer and Pulp and Paper industries.

 

Origin of wastewater, General standards for quality of water for different purposes, Water intake structures, Types of water pollutants and their effects, Water pollution laws and standards, Waste water characteristics: physical characteristics and chemical characteristics.

Unit V: Wastewater Treatment Technologies                                                                       (08)

Sampling Techniques: Methods of Analysis, Characterization, oxygen demanding wastes, Basic processes of treatment, volume and strength reduction, neutralization, equalization and proportionalization.

Design of Conventional Biological Treatment: Activated sludge process, Trickling Filters, Sludge treatment and disposal, Low cost waste treatment systems, Biological waste treatment.

Tertiary Treatment Systems: Coagulation and filtration, Removal of dissolved solids, Nitrogen removal, ammonia stripping, Phosphorous removal, advanced biological systems, sludge treatment and disposal, Wastewater disposal and reuse.

Unit VI: Wastewater Treatment for Specific Industries                                                        (08)

Sources, characteristics and methodology for the treatment of industrial wastes of Dairy, sugar Beverage, Paper and pulp mills, Tannery, Textile mill, Fertilizer plant, Steel plant and Oil refinery and Petrochemical plants

Environmental Regulations:

OSHA, Regulatory framework, Regulation of hazadorous materials and substances, ISO 14000, Pollution control standards of WHO, EPA,BIS, MPCB, CPCB.

Case Studies:

Conventional water and sewage treatment plants – Industrial water treatment plants – Sludge management facilities – Wastewater reclamation plants – Field visits.

Term Work:

Every student should carry out minimum eight experiments from the following list and submit the journal, which will form the term work.

List of Practicals:

1)     To analyze a given hydrocarbon waste for Dissolved oxygen.

2)     To analyze a given hydrocarbon waste for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

3)     To analyze a given hydrocarbon waste for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)

4)      To analyze a given hydrocarbon waste for Total solids: Suspended solids, Dissolved solids, volatile solids, settleable solids and non settleable solids

 

5)       To calculate Sludge Volume Index (SVI) of given sample.

6)     To analyze a given hydrocarbon waste for Conductivity / Salt concentration.

7)      To analyze a given hydrocarbon waste for Heavy metals (at least two).

8)     To separate dust from gas using electrostatic precipitator.

9)     To separate solids from gas using ventury scrubber.

10) To analyze a given gaseous effluent sample for SOx, NOx.

11) To analyze a gaseous sample for volatile organics using Gas Chromatograph.

12) To analyze a given hydrocarbon waste for Total organic carbon.

Reference Books:

  1. Rao C. S.; “Environmental Pollution Control Engineering”; Wiley Eastern Ltd., 1996.
  2. Peavy H. S., Rowe D. R. and Tchobanoglous George; “Environmental Engineering”; McGraw Hill, 1985.
  3. Rao M. N. and H. V. N. Rao; “Air Pollution”; Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 2001.
  4. George Technoglobus; Burton F. L.; “Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse”; Fourth Edition, Metcalf and Eddy, Inc.; Tata McGraw Hill, 2003.
  5. De Nevers, “Air Pollution Control and Engineering”, McGraw Hills, 1993
  6. “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 20th Edn., American Public Health Association, Washington. D.C. 1998 of Hazardous waste treatment and disposal, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1997.

Objectives:

  1. To understand use of biotechnology in chemical manufacturing.
  2. To gain familiarity with fundamental principles of cell science and biochemistry.
  3. To understand kinetics of enzymatic reactions and biomass production.
  4. To get acquainted with transport phenomena in various types of bioreactors.
  5. To know specific considerations involved in Bioseparations.

SECTION – I

Unit I: Microbiology and Biochemical Principles

Cell Doctrine, Structure of cells, Important cell types, Chemicals of life, Lipids, Sugars and Poly saccharides, conversions of Nucleotides to RNA and DNA, Amino acids into proteins, Hybrid biochemicals, Hierarchy of cellular organization.

Unit II: Enzyme Technology

Kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions, Enzyme-substrate complex and enzyme action, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Parameter evaluation, Modulation and regulation of enzymatic activity, Enzyme deactivation, Enzyme stabilization, Industrial applications of hydrolytic and nonhydrolytic enzymes.

Introduction to enzyme immobilization.

Unit III: Kinetics of Substrate Utilization, Product Formation and Biomass Production (08)

Ideal reactors for kinetic measurements, Kinetics of balanced growth, Transient growth kinetics, structured kinetic models, Product formation kinetics, Thermal death kinetics of cells and spores.

 

Gas-liquid mass transfer in cellular systems, Determinations of oxygen transfer rates, Mass transfer in sparged vessels, Factors affecting mass transfer coefficients, Mass and heat transfer correlations, Scale-up considerations.

Unit V: Bioreactors                                                                                                             (08)

Fed-Batch Reactors, Enzymes-catalyzed reactions in CSTR-Various Schemes, CSTR with recycle and wall growth, Plug flow reactor, Introduction to dynamic behaviour of CSTR, Sterilization reactors, Multiphase bioreactors, Fluidized bed. Packed bed, Trickle bed, Bubble column, Aerobic and Anaerobic Fermenter, Alternate bioreactor configurations, High surface area configurations for tissue culture.

Unit VI: Bioseparations                                                                                                       (08)

Product recovery operations, Recovery of cells and solid particles, Filtration, Centrifugation, Sedimentation, Foam separation, Extraction, Sorption, Chromatography, Membrane separations, Drying, Electrophoresis, New trends, Bioprocess economics.

Term Work:

Every student should carry out minimum eight experiments from the following list and submit the journal, which will form the term work.

List of Practicals:

1)     To demonstrate the use of rennet in casein coagulation in different pH conditions.

2)     To hydrolyze protein-based stains in fabrics into soluble amino acids.

3)     To analyze amino acid concentrations by the ninhydrin colorimetric method during the enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein.

4)     To compare the enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of cellulose.

5)     To study the various parameters that affect the kinetics of alpha-amylase catalyzed hydrolysis of starch.

6)     To recover proteins/enzymes from a solution by salting-out.

7)     To compare the effectiveness of three methods of enzyme immobilization by gel entrapment.

8)     To demonstrate the use of microorganisms in food processing by using yogurt as an example.

9)     Cell Differentiation by gram’s stain.

10) To simulate cell fractionation based on density gradient.

11) To study the effect of sugar content on wine fermentation.

12) To measure the kinetic parameters of invertase.

13) To study separation of proteins.

 

Reference Books:

1)     James E. Bailey and David F. Ollis, “Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals”, McGraw Hill, 1986.

2)     Roger Harrison, Paud Todd, Scott Rudge, Demetri Petrides, “Bioseparations Science and Engineering”, Oxford University Press, 2003.

3)      Shuler Michael L and Kargi Fikret, “Bioprocess Engineering Basic Concepts”, Prentice Hall, New Delhi, 2004.

4)      Shivshanker B., “Bioseparations Principles and Techniques”, Prentice Hall, New Delhi, 2005.

 

Objectives:

1)     To identify the multiple factors influencing the choice of separation techniques.

2)     To be able to qualitatively and quantitatively address the fundamental aspects of specialty separation processes.

SECTION – I Unit I: Overview of Separation Processes and their Selection        (08)

Characteristics and selection of separation process: Importance and variety of separation, economic significance, characteristics, inherent separation factor, selection, factors influencing the choice of separation process, solvent selection, selection of equipment. Recent advances in separation techniques based on size, surface properties, ionic properties and other special characteristics of substances, Rate based versus equilibrium separation processes, Selection of separation process, Energy requirements of separation processes.

Unit II: Surfactant Based Separation Techniques                                                                 (08)

Basic principles, classifications, Surfactants at inter phases and in bulk, Foam fractionation, Foam flotation, Adsorptive bubble separations, Ion flotation, Microemulsion / Macroemulsions, Hydrotopes, Solvent ablation.

Unit III: Membrane Separations                                                                                          (08)

Introduction, Type and choice of membranes, Plate and frame, tubular, spiral wound and hollow fibre membrane reactors and their relative merits, Membrane filtration, Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, Reverse Osmosis, Dialysis, Models for membrane separations, Design and economics of membrane separation processes.

SECTION – II

Unit IV: Separation by Adsorption Techniques                                                                  (08)

Mechanism and Isothermal Characterization, Type and choice of adsorbents, Normal adsorption techniques such as Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA), Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA), Types of equipment and processes, Recent advances, Process design and economics.

Introduction, types of chromatography, Elution chromatography: Principles and Retention theory, Band broadening and separation efficiency, Types of chromatography, Large scale elution (cyclic/batch) chromatography, Selective adsorption of biological macromolecules, Simulated countercurrent techniques, Comparison with other separation methods.

Unit VI: Ionic Separations and advanced Separation Processes                                          (08)

Mechanism, Ion exchange resins, Capacity, Equilibrium and kinetics, Ion exchange equipment- Design and operation, Principles of Electrophoresis and Electrodialysis, Two phase partitioning, Reserve Micelle Extraction, Isoelectric Focusing.

Recent Advanced Separation Processes: Super Critical Fluid (SCF) Extraction, bio-filtration Reactive separations, Bioseparations, Parametric pumping, Cryogenic Separation, Zone melting etc.

Term Work:

Every student should carry out minimum eight experiments from the following list and submit the journal, which will form the term work.

List of Practicals:

  1. Oxygen separation from air using a membrane laboratory unit.
  2. Water softening using a laboratory scale reverse osmosis unit.
  3. Reverse osmosis of saline solution
  4. Separation of chemicals using ultra-filtration.
  5. Ultrafiltration of some dilute solutions
  6. Microfiltration of raw material.
  7. Water softening or deionization by ion exchange.
  8. Clean up of a gas stream by activated carbon adsorption.
  9. Design of a gas separation experiment using pressure swing adsorption
    1. Design of an experiment for separation of trace organics (or dewatering of an organic) using Pervaporation.
    2. Lab. Experiment on Electrodialysis.
    3. Lab. Experiment on Gas Chromatography.

Reference Books:

  1. King C. J.; “Separation Processes”; Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., 1982.
    1. E.J. Henley and J.D. Seader, Equilibrium Stage Separation Operations in Chemical Engineering, Wiley, 1981.
    2. Richardson and Coulson; “Chemical Engineering”; Volume-II, Pergamon Press, 1993
      1. Philip Schweitzer; “Handbook of Separation Techniques for Chemical Engineers”, Third Edition, Tata McGraw Hill New York, 1997.
      2. Geankoplis C.J., “Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles”, Fourth Edition, Prentice-Hall of India, 2003

 

Objectives:

1)     To get acquainted with fundamentals of fluidization engineering, different regimes, classification of particles.

2)     To understand movement of bubbles mixing in bed.

3)     To get qualitative appreciation of mathematical models of Fluidized Bed

SECTION – I Unit I: Introduction to Fluidized Bed       (08)

The fluidized state, Nature of hydrodynamic suspension particle-particle forces, species of fluidization, Mapping of regimes, Fluidization quality, Gas distributors, Advantage and disadvantages of fluidization.

Unit II: The Fluidization Phenomenon and Classification of Particles

Fluidization with and without carryover of particles, Estimation of minimum fluidization velocity, Terminal velocity of particles, Geldart classification of particles: Group C, Group A, Group B, Group D particles and their characteristics.

Unit III: Hydrodynamics of Fluidization Systems                                                                 (08)

General bed behavior pressure drop, Flow regimes, Incipient fluidization, pressure fluctuations, phase holdups, Measurement techniques, Empirical correlations for solids holdup, liquid holdup and gas holdup, Flow models – generalized wake model, structural wake model and other important models.

SECTION – II

Unit IV: Heat and Mass Transfer Fluidization Systems                                                       (08)

Mass transfer – gas-liquid mass transfer, Liquid solid mass transfer and wall to bed mass transfer, Heat transfer – column wall – to – bed heat transfer, Immersed vertical cylinder-to-bed heat transfer, Immersed horizontal cylinder to-bed heat transfer.

Effect of pressure and temperature on fluidized behavior, Sintering and Agglomeration of particles, Particle residence time in bed, Particle entrainment and carryover, shapes of a single bubble, Rise velocity of bubble, Bubble breakup, Slugs, Freely bubbling beds, continuously slugging beds, Mechanism of solid mixing, Gas Backmixing, Cloud formation, Davidson model, Solids within bubble, Coalescence.

Unit VI: Industrial Applications of Fluidization / Fluidized Bed Heat Transfer                     (08)

Particle to gas heat transfer, Bed to surface heat transfer, Increase of available heat transfer are using immersed tubes, fluidized solids as heat transfer medium.

Fluidized Bed Drying: Advantages, Batch dryers, Continuous well mixed dryers, Continuous plug flow dryers, Vibrated dryers, Multi-stage dryers Fluid bed dryers with internal heating.

Fluidized Bed as Catalytic Reactors: Advantages, Gas motion in and around bubbles, Interphase mass transfer, Reactor model for fine particle bubbling beds, Reactor model for large particle bubbling beds, Conversion in the freeboard of reactor, Turbulent bed reactors, Axial and radial gas mixing, Two phase bubbling bed reactor models.

Term Work:

Every student should carry out minimum six experiments from the following list and submit the journal, which will form the term work.

List of Practicals:

1)     Simulation of fluidized bed reactor using MATLAB

2)     Determination of minimum fluidization velocity and pressure drop for fluidized bed.

3)     Experiments on fluidization regimes on Fluidized bed.

4)      Design of gas distributors for a fluidized bed.

5)      Calculation of bubble growth inside a fluidized bed reactor.

6)     Design of a fluidized bed dryer.

7)      Development of mathematical models of a fluidized bed reactor.

8)      Calculation of residence time in a fluidized bed system.

9)      Scale up strategies and challenges for Fluidized bed reactor

10)  Simulation of Fluidized Bed Reactor in commercial mathematical software such as ASPEN

Reference Books:

1)      Kunii D., O. Levenspiel, “Fluidization Engineering”, Second Edition, Butterworth Heinemann, 1991.

2)      D. Geldart Ed., “Gas Fluidization Technology”, John Wiley Sons, 1986.

3)        Liang-Shih Fan, Gas-Liquid-Solid Fluidization Engineering, , Butterworths, 1989

4)      Mosoon Kwauk, Fluidization Idealized and Bubbleless, with Applications, Science Press, 1992

 

Objectives:

1)     To acquire a fundamental understanding of basic chemistry/technology principles within the framework of Green Chemistry.

2)     To get acquainted with the development of latest technologies and methodologies for environmentally benign processes currently practiced in various industrial sectors with an emphasis on the design, manufacture, and use of chemicals and processes that have little or no pollution potential or environmental risk and are both economically and technologically feasible.

SECTION-I

Unit I: Introduction

Why green chemistry? Toxicity of chemicals.Accidents with chemicals.Waste and its minimisation.Sustainability (including social, political & economic factors).The green political movement.The roles and responsibilities of chemists and chemical engineers. Definition and overview of the twelve principles of green chemistry.

Unit II: Green Synthesis

Establishing a full mass balance. Waste treatment/recycle. Synthetic Efficiency. Green Chemistry Metrics. Individual Reactions Analysis. Atom Economy, E-factor, & Reaction Mass Efficiency (RME).Synthesis Plans Analysis: Synthesis Tree Algorithms for Linear and Convergent Plans Raw Material Cost Estimate Material Efficiency & Synthetic Elegance Ranking. Trade off with economics. Less Hazardous Materials in Synthesis. Designing Safer Products. Renewable feedstocks.

Unit III: Green Solvents                                                                                                    (08)

Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries. Critical review of organic solvents typically used in chemical processes.Critical review of: ionic liquids, supercritical CO2, water, fluorous phase chemistry, solvent-free / solid phase chemistry. Examples of green reagents.

 

Energy Efficiency. Quantifying and minimising the use of utilities and other inputs. Overview of emerging frontiers in energy efficient synthesis such as Photochemistry, Microwave Chemistry, Sonochemistry, Electrosynthesis

Unit V: Catalysis

Role of Catalysis. Heterogeneous Catalysis. Solid acids. Templated silica. Polymer-supported reagents. Homogeneous catalysis. Phase transfer catalysis. Biocatalysis. Photocatalysis

Unit VI: Hazard Minimization

Design for Degradation. Rules for degradation. Process safety and thermal hazards.

Process control using real-time analysis.Process intensification

Term Work:

Every student should carry out minimum eight experiments/Assignments from the following list and submit the journal, which will form the term work.

List of Practicals:

  1. Acetylation of primary Amine.
  2. Base Catalysed Aldol condensation.
  3. Synthesis of BioDiesel by transesterification reaction.
  4. Radical Coupling Reaction.
  5. Synthesis of Adipic Acid by Green Oxidation reaction.
  6. Preparation of Benzopinacol by Green Photochemical reaction.
    1. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction by Green Approach to prepare p- Bromoacetanilide.
    2. Coenzyme catalyst Benzoin condensation.
    3. Preparation of Benzillic Acid by rearrangement with green approach.
    4. Case study of Biomass Utilization as Green Technology
    5. {4+2} Cycloaddition reaction.
    6. Preparation of Benzopinacolone by rearrangement.
    7. Bromination of Trans stilbene by green technology.
    8. To study Transesterification of dimethyl oxalate with phenol over TiO2/SiO2 References:
    9. Anastas, P.; Warner, J. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice; Oxford University Press: London, 1998.
    10. Lancaster, M.; Green Chemistry an Introductory Text, Royal Society of Chemistry,

Cambridge, UK 2002.

  1. Albert S. Matlack; “Introduction to Green Chemistry” Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York,

2001.

  1. Zimmerman, J.B.; Anastas, P.T. “The 12 Principles of Green Engineering as a Foundation for Sustainability” in Sustainability Science and Engineering: Principles. Ed. Martin Abraham, Elsevier Science, 2005.
  2. Anastas, P.; Zimmerman, J. “Design through the Twelve Principles of Green Engineering,” Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 94A – 101 A, 2003

 

ELECTIVE-II (A)

412405 (A) OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES (B. E. Petrochemical Engineering. 2008 Course)

Teaching Scheme:                                                                      Examination Scheme:

Lectures: 4 Hr / week                                                                 Paper: 100 marks

Objectives:

  1. To develop understanding of the principles, techniques, standard tools of process optimization.
  2. To formulate multiobjective optimization problem with and without constraints based on process requirements.
  3. To gain exposure to application of optimization techniques in case of various petrochemical processes.

SECTION-I

Unit I: Principles of Optimization                                                                                        (08)

Introduction to optimization and its scope in chemical processes, Nature and organization of optimization problems, Design Variable, Constraints, Objective Function, Necessary and sufficient conditions.

Unit II: Single Variable Optimization Algorithms                                                                (08)

Optimality Criteria, Bracketing Methods, Region Elimination Methods: Fibonacci search and Golden section search methods, Gradient Based Methods: Newton-Raphson, Bisection, Secant methods

Unit III: Multivariable Optimization                                                                                   (08)

Optimality criteria, Hessian matrix, Unidirectional search, Direct Search: Simplex search, Powell’s conjugate gradient methods, Gradient based methods: Steepest Descent Method, Newton’s methods, Marquardt’s method

SECTION-II Unit IV: Constrained Optimization Algorithms    (08)

Kuhn-Trucker Conditions, Transformation Methods: Penalty function method, Methods of multipliers, Sensitivity Analysis, Direct Search for Constrained Optimization, Feasible Direction Methods

 

Integer Programming: Penalty Function method, Branch-and-Bound method, Geometric Programming, Mixed integer Programming, Dynamic Programming

Unit VI: Evolutionary Global Optimization Techniques                                                    (08)

Genetic Algorithms: Working Principles, GA Operators, Binary Coded GA, Real Coded GA, Non-dominated Sorting GA, Pareto Optimization.

Simulated Annealing, Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization

Reference Books:

  1. Edgar, T F, Himmelblau, D M, and Lasdon, L S, “Optimization of Chemical Processes.” McGraw Hill, Boston, 2001.
  2. Rao, S. S., “Optimization Theory and Applications: Theory and Practice”, New Age International, 3rd Edition, 1996.
  3. Deb, Kalyanmoy “Optimization for Engineering Design”, Prentice-Hall of India, 1995.
    1. Deb, Kalyanmoy “Multi-Objective Optimization using Evolutionary Algorithms”, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Chichester, West Sussex, England, 2001.

ELECTIVE-II (B)

412405(B) EMERGING FEED STOCKS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR

PETROCHEMICALS (B. E. Petrochemical Engineering. 2008 Course)

Teaching Scheme:                                                                      Examination Scheme:

Lectures: 4 Hr / week                                                                 Paper: 100 marks

Objectives:

1)     To know the resource constraints regarding present feed stock scenario.

2)      To familiarize with emerging feedstock and appropriate technologies for processing them.

SECTION-I Unit I: Existing Feedstock Scenario            (08)

Fossil fuel feedstock, Coal, Natural Gas and Petroleum, Reserves, Present and Future Production Trends, Statics for India and World, Distribution and utilization pattern of existing fossil reserves, Demand supply scenario, Cycle of oil prices, Need for alternative feedstocks

Unit II: Non conventional Fossil Fuels                                                                                  (08)

Coal Bed Methane, Coal Gasification, Shale Oil, Hydrates, Reserves, Potential, and Technologies for exploitation of these resources, Cost factor

Unit III: Coal Gasification                                                                                                   (08)

Chemistry and Technology for coal gasification and Syngas production, Fischer Tropsch Synthesis, Chemistry, Catalyst and Process Technology, Other outlets for Syngas

SECTION-II Unit IV: Biomass  (08)

Biomass potential, India, US and World, Biomass resources, Biomass Technologies, Pyrolysis, Gasification, Fermentation, Gasifier design with natural draft and forced draft. Biorefineries

Unit V: Alco Chemicals                                                                                                       (08)

Pathways and technologies for chemicals from ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, n-butanol, isobutanol, tertiary butyl alcohol like acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, glycol ethers, acetone, butyl acetate, ethyl acrylate, Lube oil additives, Octane boosters, other solvents, etc.

 

Technological options for CO2 sequestration and capture, Uses of CO2in organic synthesis, Fertilizer, Pharmaceutical, Solvent and Synthetic Polymer Industry, Thermodynamic Barriers for CO2 utilization, Methods of Conversion of CO2 to fuels, Carbon credits and economics.

References

  1. Alain Chauvel and Gilles Lefebvre, ‘Petrochemical Processes: Technical and Economic Characteristics’ Vol.2, Gulf Publishing Company, 1989
  2. Christian Ngo and J.B.Natowitz, ‘Our Energy Future: resources, alternatives and environment, John Wiley and Sons, 2009
  3. John Rezaiyan and Nicholas P.Cheremisinoff, ‘Gasification Technologies: A primer for engineers and scientists’, Taylor and Francis, 2005
  4. ‘Robert C.Brown and Christian Stevens, ‘Thermochemical Processing of Biomass: Conversion into Fuels, Chemicals and Power’, John Wiley and Sons, 2011
  5. James H.Clark and Fabien Deswarte, ‘Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass’ Wiley, 2008
  6. Elizabeth J. Wilson and David Gerard, ‘Carbon Capture and Sequestration, Integrating, Technology, Monitoring and Regulation’, Blackwell Publication, 2007
  7. Michele Aresta, ‘Carbon dioxide as Chemical Feedstock’, Wiley VCH, 2010

 

ELECTIVE-II (C) 412405 (C) NATURAL GAS TECHNOLOGY (B. E. Petrochemical Engineering 2008 Course)

 

 

 

Teaching Scheme: Lectures: 4 Hrs / week

Examination Scheme: Paper: 100 Marks

 

 

 

 

Objectives:

1)     To understand markets, capacities, sources and technologies issues involved in natural gas production, processing and transport.

2)     To get acquainted with technologies used in consumption of natural gas.

SECTION – I

Unit I: Natural Gas Resources

Oil and gas reserves, Natural gas and associated gas, Outlook for world gas production, Indian Scenario. Future sources of natural gas – Coal Bed Methane and Hydrates.

Composition of natural gas, Origin of hydrocarbon & non-hydrocarbon components, Formation of natural gas reservoirs, Sweet and sour gas.

Unit II: Natural Gas Properties

Phase diagram of a reservoir fluid, Cricondentherm and cricondenbar, Retrograde condensation, Dry gas, Wet gas, Condensate gas, Associated gas, Chemical components.

Sampling methods for natural gas, Measurements taken during sampling.

Volumetric properties of natural gas, Equations of state, Viscosity, thermal conductivity, surface and interfacial tension, Net and Gross Heating value – VLE calculations for natural gas.

Unit III: Hydrates                                                                                                               (08)

Water-hydrocarbon systems, Hydrate structures, Thermodynamic conditions for hydrate formation, Kinetics of hydrate formation, Hydrate prevention.

 

Different specifications required for transport and use, Separation of condensates, Gas-Liquid separators and their design, Fractionation and purification operations, Dehydration methods, Hydrocarbon liquids recovery, Acid gas removal, Removal of nitrogen, helium and mercury, Integrated natural gas processing.

Unit V: Natural Gas Transport & Storage

Different gas chains – Pipeline transport systems, Steady state flow calculations for a pipeline, Pipeline thickness calculation, Welding problems in large diameter steel pipelines, Corrosion protection, Recompression stations, Types of compressors, Multiphase flow handling. Instrumentation, Monitoring and control, Safety considerations, Expansion systems. Flow measurement.

LNG transport chain, Natural gas liquefaction, LNG carriers.

Natural gas storage-Cryogenic and Underground.

Unit VI: Natural Gas Outlets                                                                                              (08)

Downstream utilization technologies for natural gas in petrochemical, fertilizer and power sectors.

Lower hydrocarbons upgradation technologies, Methane conversion technologies.

Reference Books:

1)       A. Rojey, C. Jaffret, “Natural Gas Production, Processing, Transport”, Second Editions Technip, 1994.

2)        Chi U. Ikoku, “Natural Gas Production Engineering”, John Wiley and Sons, 1984.

3)        A. Kohl and F. Riesenfeld, “Gas Purification”, Gulf Publishing Company, 1985.

4)        Sanjay Kumar, “Gas Production Engineering’, Gulf Publishing Company, 1987.

 

ELECTIVE-II (D)

412405 (D) HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT IN PROCESS INDUSTRY (B. E. Petrochemical Engineering, 2008 Course)

Teaching Scheme:                                                                      Examination Scheme:

Lectures: 4 Hrs / week                                                               Paper: 100 Marks

Objectives:

1)     To familiarize with issues related to occupational health and industrial hygiene

2)     To get acquainted with risk assessment, process safety auditing and management systems

SECTION -I Unit I Introduction           (08)

Types of hazards, analysis of hazards, precautions & preventions, grades of hazards, Safety methods, Safety measures. IS 18001:2000/ 9001:2000 ISO 14001:1996 Comparison, Importance of H.F& S, Industrial scope/Act/Compensation.

Unit II Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Management                                 (08)

Bureau of Indian standards on safety and health 14489 – 1998 and 15001 – 2000 OSHA, Process Safety Management (PSM) as per OSHA, PSM principles, OHSAS – 18001, EPA Standards, Performance measurements to determine effectiveness of PSM, Importance of Industrial safety, role of safety department, Safety committee and Function

Unit III Fire and other Hazards                                                                                        (08)

General cause and classification of fire, Grades of fire hazard, Classification of buildings / structures / materials. / chemicals according to fire load. Fire hazard analysis, Detection of fire, extinguishing methods, fire fighting installations with and without water, Machine guards and its types, automation. High-pressure hazards, safety, emptying, inspecting, repairing, hydraulic and nondestructive testing, hazards and control in refinery.

SECTION -II Unit IV Fire Fighting Systems     (08)

Different types of fire alarms / detectors and extinguishers, fire fighting requirements as per NBC 1983 / Municipality water supply requirements for fire, required fire flow, storage. Wet risers, sprinkler, fire fighting services etc.

 

Unit V Radiation and Industrial Hazards

Types and effects of radiation on human body, Measurement and detection of radiation intensity. Effects of radiation on human body, Measurement – disposal of radioactive waste, Control of radiation, Industrial noise -Sources, and its control, Effects of noise on the auditory System and health, Measurement of noise, Classification of hazardous chemicals / conditions, Classes of Explosive, Different air pollutants in industries, Effect of different gases and particulate matter, acid fumes, smoke, fog on human health, Vibration – effects, measurement and control measures, Industrial Hygiene.

Unit VI Protection and Prevention measures of Accidents and Hazards                              (08)

Protection and prevention measures of accidents and hazards, Transportation and storage of chemicals, leakage and accident prevention. Industrial risk and Disaster management, Survey of two industries for disaster / safety control systems, Electrical Safety Programme, pollution control Practices in petrochemical sector.

Reference books:

  1. R.K. Jain and Sunil S.Rao, Industrial Safety, Health and Environment Management Systems, Khanna publishers, New Delhi, 2006
  2. Goetsch D.L., “Occupational Safety and Health for Technologists”, Engineers and Managers”, Prentice Hall, 1999
  3. Slote. L, Handbook of Occupational Safety and Health, John Willey and Sons, New York
  4. National Safety Council and Associate

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