# NIT-RAIPUR

## III SEM BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING SYLLABUS

Subject:- BIOCHEMISTRY

MODULE I – Chemistry of Biomolecules

Chemistry of carbohydrates, Amino acids, Proteins and Lipids, and Nucleotides

MODULE II – Prostaglandins, Immunoglobulins, Enzymes & Nucleotides

Chemistry and functions; chemistry and functions; Chemistry of Enzymes, Enzymes and Iso-enzymes of clinical importance; Chemistry of Nucleotides.

MODULE III – Metabolism of Biomolecules

Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, Proteins and Lipids; Metabolism of carbohydrates; Proteins and Lipids

MODULE IV – Molecular Biochemistry

Chemistry of Nucleic acids, Metabolism of Purines and pyrimidines, Hormones chemistry, mechanism of action and metabolic roles

MODULE V – Clinical Biochemistry

Vitamins and Minerals, Biotransformation of xenobiotics, Biochemistry of cancer, radioactive isotopes in biochemistry, Diet and Nutrition.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Textbook of Biochemistry Lenhinger

2. Biochemistry Stryer

REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Harper Biochemistry

2. Textbook of Medical Biochemistry – Chatterjee & Shinde

3. Bio Chemistry – Dvore, J.G. voet

4. Physical biochemistry – Dferfilder

SUBJECT: MATHEMATICS-III

MODULE I – Fourier Series and Fourier Transform

Expansion of function as Fourier series, Change of interval, Even and odd functions, Half-range Fourier series, Practical harmonic analysis, Fourier Sine and Cosine transforms, Properties of Fourier transform, Inverse Fourier transform, Fourier transform of derivatives.

MODULE II – Laplace Transform

Laplace transform of elementary functions, properties of Laplace transform, Laplace transform of derivatives and integrals, multiplication by tn and division by t, Laplace transform of periodic functions, Inverse Laplace transform, Convolution theorem, Laplace transform of unit step function and Dirac delta function, Application of Laplace transform to solutions of ordinary differential equations.

MODULE III – Group Theory

Definition and examples, Permutation group, cyclic group, subgroup, cosets, Langranges theorem, some theorems on subgroup, Homomorphism and Isomorphism of groups, Normal subgroup, Quotient group, Fundamental theorems of homomorphism on groups.

MODULE IV – Partial Diffrential equation

Formation of partial differential equations, Lagrange’s solution of first order linear partial differentiation equation, Homogeneous and Non-homogeneous linear partial differential: Non-linear partial differential of first order, Charpit’s method and Jacobi’s method, Solution of partial differential equations by the method of separation of variables.

MODULE V – Z Transform

Sequence, Basic Operations on sequences, Definition, Properties, Initial value and Final Value theorems, Inverse Z transform, Convolution theorem, Inverse Z theorem by partial fraction, power series and residue methods. Applications to solution of difference equations.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Higher engineering mathematics by Dr. B.S.Grewal- Khanna Publishers

2. Advanced Engg. Mathematics by Erwin Kreyszig- John Wiley and Hill Publishing

3. Higher Engg Mathematics by B V Ramana- Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing

4. Elements of partial differential equations by I N Sneddan-Mc- Graw Hill International Editions

SUBJECT:- BIOMEDIAL TRANSDUCER & MEASUREMENT

MODULE I – Static & Dynamic characteristics of Instrumentation System

General properties of input transducer, Accuracy, Precision, Resolution, Reproducibility, Sensitivity, Drift, Hysteresis, Linearity, Loading effect, Input Impedance and Output Impedance. First and second order Characteristic, Time delay, Error free instrument, Transfer function , design criteria, generalized instrument specifications.

MODULE 2: Displacement Pressure and Temperature Measurement

Potentiometers, strain Gauges, Bridge circuits ,variable inductance and LVDT; Capacitive type; Piezoelectric transducers; Types of diaphragms, Bellows, bourdon tubes. Thermistors, Thermocouple, Resistive Temperature detector, Radiation Thermometry, Fiber Optic temperature sensor, Optical Measurement.

MODULE III – Bipotential Electrodes

Electrode electrolyte interface, polarization, polarizable and non-polarizable electrodes, Electrode Behavior and, Circuit Models, Electrode-skin Interface and Motion Artifact, Body-Surface Recording Electrodes, Internal Electrodes: Needle & wire electrodes, Electrode Arrays, Microelectrodes: Metal, supported metal , micropipette (metal filled glass and glass micropipette electrodes), microelectronic, properties of microelectrodes. Electrodes for Electric Stimulation of Tissue (i.e. for ECG, EMG & EEG)

MODULE IV – Measurement of Flow & Volume of Blood

Indicator-dilution Method, Electromagnetic flowmeter, Ultrasonic flowmeter, Thermal-convection Velocity sensors, Chamber Plethysmography, Photoplethysmography.

MODULE V- Chemical Biosensors

Blood gas and Acid-Base Physiology, Electrochemical sensors, reference electrode, pH, pO

2, pCO2 electrodes, Ion-Selective Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET), Noninvasive Blood-Gas Monitoring, Blood-Glucose Sensors. Transcuteneous arterial oxygen tension & carbon dioxide tension monitoring enzyme electrode.

TEXT BOOKS:

1. Medical instrumentation, application and design by John G. Webster. ( Marcel Dekkar Pub)

2. Biomedical Transducers and Instruments by Tatsuo Togawa & Toshiyo Tamura. (CRC-Press)

3. Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation by RS Khandpur. (TMH)

4. Biomedical Sensors – fundamentals and application –By Harry N. Norton (Plennum Press)

5. Biomedical Instrumentation and measurements – By Leslie Cromwell, Fred J. Weibell.

SUBJETC:- ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

MODULE I – Introduction to Cell & Blood

Sub cellular structure and morphology, Transport across cell membranes and membrane potentials.Characteristics of blood, composition and function of blood, plasma proteins, Red blood cells, White Blood cells, Physiology of Blood Clotting.

Elementary Knowledge of human skeletal system

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MODULE II – Heart (Circulatory System)

Structure of Heart and circulation, Properties of Cardiac muscles, Cardiac Cycle, Cardiac output, Impulse generation and Transmission, Electrocardiogram, Heart sound, Regulation of Heart rate, its measurement, Regulation and Maintenance of Blood Pressure.

MODULE III – Respiratory System & Muscle Tissue

Anatomy of respiratory system, Pulmonary Circulation, Physiology of respiration in the alveolar and tissues Capillaries, Mechanism of Respiration, Regulation of Respiration

Structure & Function of muscles, Types of muscles, Physiology of muscles contraction. Generation of action potential.

MODULE IV – Excretory System & Digestive System

Anatomy of urinary system and kidney, structure of kidney and urinary tracts, Nephron, Physiology of urine formation

Anatomy of digestive system, digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, Proteins and fats, gastrointestinal tract, Role of pancreas and liver.

MODULE V – Central Nervous System

Anatomy and function of different parts of brain, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system , Neuron, sense organ for sight and hearing

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TEXT BOOKS

1. K. Sembulingam, J.P Brothers, Essentials of Medical Physiology.

2. A.C. Guyton, Text Book of Medical Physiology, Elsevier Saunders.

3. William F. Ganong: Review of Medical Physioliogy, Prentice Hall International Inc.

4. Gerard J. Tortora and Nicholas, P. Anangnostakos: Principle of Anatomy and Physiology, Harper and Row, NewYork

5. Keele and neil: Samson Wright Applied Physiology.

6.

A.J. Vander, J.H Sherman and D.C. Lucian: Human Physiology.

SUBJECT:- BIOMECHANICS

MODULE I – Biofluid Mechanics

Newton’s law, stress, strain, elasticity, Hooke’s law, viscosity, Newtonian fluid, Non- Newtonian fluid, viscoelastic fluids, Vascular tree. Relationship between diameters, Velocity and pressure of blood flow, Resistance against flow

MODULE II – Cardiac Mechanics

Cardiovascular system, Mechanical properties of blood vessels: arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins. Prosthetic heart valves and replacements.

MODULE III – Respiratory Mechanics

Alveoli mechanics, Interaction of blood and lung, P-V curve of lung.

Breathing mechanism, Airway resistance, Physics of lung diseases.

MODULE IV – Soft tissue Mechanics

Pseudoelasticity, non-linear stress-strain relationship, viscoelasticity.

Structure function and mechanical properties of skin, ligaments and tendons.

MODULE V – Orthopedic Mechanics

Mechanical properties of cartilage. Diffusion properties of articular cartilage.

Mechanical properties of bone. Kinetics and Kinematics of joints. Lubrication of joints.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Biomechanics: Y C Fung

2. Basic Biomechanics: Susan B. Hall, Tata McGraw Hill.

3. Fundamentals of Biomechanics: Duane Knudson, Springer.

4. Biomechanics: Principles & Applications, Donald R. Peterson & Joseph D. Bronzino, CRC Press.

5. Physics of Coronary Blood Flow: M. Zamir, Springer.

SUBJECT:- NETWORK ANALYSIS

MODULE I – Network Topology & Review of loop and mode

Graph of a network. Concept of tree and links. Incidence matrix, Tie set & cut set schedules, solution of network, and principles of duality & network transformation. Linearly independent KVL & KCL equation. Method of analysis of DC and AC networks. Network reduction using Y-A transformations. Coupled circuits. Locus Diagram.

MODULE II- Networks theorems & Resonant circuits

Reciprocity, Thevenin’s, Norton’s Maximum power transformation, Tellegen’s and Miller’s theorem. Series and parallel resonance, Frequency – response of series and parallel circuits, Q-factor, Bandwidth.

MODULE III – Transient Behavior and initial conditions in networks

Behavior of circuit element under switching condition and their representation. Evaluation of initial and final conditions in RL, RC & RLC circuits for AC & DC excitation

MODULE IV – Transient Behavior and initial conditions in networks

L.T. for fourier transformation Definition & Properties of Laplace Transformation. Inverse Laplace transform. Partial fraction expansion, initial & final value theorem. Shifting theorem.Convolution Integral. Step, Ramp and Impulse functions. Delayed functions. Laplace transform of Periodic and non-periodic signals.

MODULE V – One & two port network parameters

Driving point admittance & transfer function. Pole- zero concepts of the network function. Open circuit impedance parameters, Short circuit impedance parameters, Transmission parameters, H-parameters. Calculation of these parameters for two port networks.

TEXT BOOKS:

1. Network Analysis, M.E. Van Valkenburg Pill.

2. Network Analysis and synthesis – Fraklin F.Kuo.

3. Electric circuits: Joseph Edminister Schaum’s series. Mc Graw Hill.

4. R.P. Punagin : Electrical circuit theory and Analysis.

SUBJECT: BIOCHEMISTRY

Experiment No. 1: Fehling’s Test for Carbohydrates

Experiment No. 2: Benedict’s Test for Carbohydrates

Experiment No. 3: Barfoed’s Test for Carbohydrates

Experiment No. 4: Osazone Test for Carbohydrates

Experiment No. 5: Iodine Test for Carbohydrates

Experiment No. 6: Molisch’s Test for Carbohydrates

Experiment No. 7: Bial’s Test for Carbohydrates

Experiment No. 8: Anthrone’sTest for Carbohydrates

Experiment No. 9: Methylamine test for Carbohydrates

Experiment No. 10: Biuret Test for Proteins

Experiment No. 11: Xanthoproteic Test for Proteins

Experiment No. 12: Millon’s Test for Proteins

Experiment No. 13: Ninhydrin Reaction for Proteins

Experiment No. 14: Lead Acetate Test for Proteins

Experiment No. 15: Estimation of protein by Folin Lowry Method

Experiment No. 16: Estimation of glucose by DNSA method

Experiment No. 17: Estimation of RNA by orcinol method.

Experiment No. 18: Test to determine Saponification of Oil.

Recommended Books:

1. Biochemical Methods by Sadasivam and Manickam

2. Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry by Jayaraman

3. A Textbook of Practical Biochemistry by Rashmi A Joshi &Manju Saraswat

Refer Books mentioned in theory syllabus

SUBJECT:-ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

EXPERIMENT 1. Determination of Bleeding time

EXPERIMENT 2. Determination of Clotting time

EXPERIMENT 3. Measurement of Blood Pressure

EXPERIMENT 4. R.B.C. Counting

EXPERIMENT 5. Total W.B.C. Counting

EXPERIMENT 6. Detection of Blood group

EXPERIMENT 7. Preparation of blood film & staining

EXPERIMENT 8. Detection of Hemoglobin

EXPERIMENT 9. Study of Bones