NIT VII Sem BIOTECHNOLOGY Syllabus
DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
Detailed syllabus 7th Semester:
BT-401 Biological Waste Water Treatment [3 1 0 4]
Characteristics of waste water: Physical, chemical and biological; BOD, COD
Primary Treatment: Screening, Grit Chamber, removal of oil and grease.
Aerobic processes of secondary treatment: activated sludge, lagoons, stabilization ponds,
suspended growth, nitrification, trickling filters, rotating biological contactors, anoxic suspended
growth and fixed film denitrification.
Anaerobic processes of treatment: biological concepts, suspended growth and fixed film
processes and reactor configuration, Sequential batch reactor for combined processes (aerobic
Tertiary Treatment: Effluent disposal and reuse.
Bioenergy from biological waste: Production of biogas and bio hydrogen from various
biological wastes by fermentative processes.
Solid waste management: Using biomass, production of Bioenergy from the solid waste
Designing: Wastewater treatment plant, anaerobic biogas generation plant
1. Metcalf & Eddy, “Wastewater Engineering”, 4th edition, TATA-McGraw Hill (2003).
2. Hammer M J, “ Water and Wastewater Technology”, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons
3. Davis M L, Corwell D A, “Introduction to Environmental Engineering”, 2nd edition, Mc
Graw Hill (1991)
4. Peavy H S, Rowe D R, “Environmental Engineering”, Mc Graw Hill (1985)
5. Eckenfelder W W, “ Industrial Water Pollution Control”, 2nd edition, Mc Graw Hill
BT-403 Biological Waste Treatment Laboratory [0 0 2 1]
1. Determination of Solids in waste water
2. Determination of Alkalinity of water
3. Determination of specific gravity of sewage sludge
4. Determination of organic nitrogen in sewage sample
5. Determination of sludge volume and Index
6. Bacteriological analysis of water
7. Determination of sulphates and chloride in given sample of waste water
8. Determination of total iron by spectrophotometer method
9. Determination of Dissolved Solid content of waste water
10. Determination of BOD and COD
11. Determination of total hardness of a given waste water sample
BT-421 Analytical Methods in Biotechnology [3 1 0 4]
Absorption and emission spectroscopy: Properties of electromagnetic radiation, interaction
UV and visible spectrophotomerty: Principle, Beers-Lamberts law, application of UV
Nephelometery, turbidance and reflectance: Principles, parameters involved, correlation of
nephelometry with spectroscopy
Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectrophotomerty: Principle, methodologies and
Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry: Flames and flame temperature,
disadvantage of flame Ionization, burners, interferences. Flame spectrometric technique, flame
absorption spectrophotomerty and atomic absorption spectrophotomerty, comparison of flame
emission and atomic absorption techniques.
Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotomerty: Plasma emission sources,
inductively coupled argon plasma, direct current argon plasma
IR Spectrophotomerty: Vibrational spectroscopy, principle, methodologies and application
X-rays techniques: X-ray diffraction, images analysis by Fourier transformation, symmetry
elements, determination of 3 dimensional structures of organic and inorganic molecules
NMR spectroscopy: Principles and methodologies followed, utilities, effectivity of the method
for determining 3 dimensional structure of organic and inorganic molecules
Electro analytical techniques, voltamtery, conductimetry, polargraphy: Current voltage
relationship, diffusion current and factors affecting diffusion current, half-wave potential,
voltametric and polarographic technique, electrolyte conductivity measurement of electrolytic
conductance, conductance cells, conductometric titration, measurement of dielectric constants.
Gas Chromatography: Gas solid and gas liquid chromatography, detectors- TCD and FID,
column efficiency, Van Deemter equation, application of gas chromatography.
Karl Fischer moisture analysis: Principles of methodologies, utilities of the method
HPLC: Mobile phase , elution , normal phase and reverse-phase HPLC, column packing
material, efficiency of column ,types of HPLC – principles of methodologies ; HPLC pumps –
efficiency and suitability, Different injectors and Detectors.
1. Willard, H., Meritt,L.L., Dean J.A. and Settle F.A., Instrumental Methods of analysis, 6th
edition, CBS Publishers, (1986)
2. Vogel’s, “Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis”, 6th Edition, Pearson, (2000).
3. Skoog,D.A. , F.J. Holler and T.A. Nieman., ‘Principles of Instrumental analysis’, 5th Edition,
Harcourt Area PTE (1998)
4. Okotore, R.O., Basic Separation Techniques in Biochemistry, New Age (1998)
5. Braun, R.D., Introduction to Instrumental Analysis, McGraw Hill (1987).
BT-423 Enzyme Engineering and Technology [3 1 0 4]
Basic concepts of enzyme: Mechanism of Enzyme Action and kinetic of reaction: Concept of
active sites, and energetic of enzyme substrate complex formation, Specificity of enzyme action,
Estimation of Michaelis-Menten Parameter
Stability of enzymes: PH, Temperature, Mechanical forces, Heterogeneous system.
Production and purification of enzymes: Extract from plant, animal and microbial sources,
Methods of characterization of enzymes, Development of enzymatic assays.
Enzyme immobilization: Physical and chemical techniques for enzyme immobilization
adsorption, Matrix entrapment, Encapsulation, cross linking, covalent binding, Advantages and
disadvantages of different immobilization techniques.
Applications of enzymes: Classification of enzymes, Commercial application of enzymes in
food, Pharmaceutical and other industries, Enzymes for analytical and diagnostic application.
Mass transfer effects in immobilized enzymes: Analysis of film and pore diffusion effects on
kinetics of immobilized enzyme reaction, Formulation of dimensionless groups, Calculation of
1. Price N C and Stevens L, “Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular
Biology of Catalytic Proteins”, 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press (2003).
2. Bailey and Ollis, “Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals” , McGraw Hill (1996)
3. Lehninger, A L “Principles of Biochemistry”, Butterworth Publishers, New York(1993)
4. Conn E E and Stump P K,“Outlines of Biochemistry” John Wiley and Sons, New York
5. Stanbury P F and Whitaker A, “Principles of Fermentation Technolgy,”Pergamon Press
BT-425 Environmental Biotechnology [3 1 0 4]
Introduction: Environment; Basic concepts; Resources; Eco system: plants, animals, microbes;
Ecosystem management; Renewable resources; Sustainability; Microbiology of degradation and
decay; Role of Biotech in environmental protection; Control and management of biological
Pollution: Environmental pollution; Source of pollution; Air, water as a source of natural
resource; Oil pollution; Surfactants; Pesticides; Measurement of pollution; Water pollution;
Biofilm; Soil pollution; Radioactive pollution; Radiation; Ozone depletion; Green house effect;
Impact of pollutants; Pollution of milk and aquatic animals
Control, remediation and management: Waste water collection; control and management;
Waste water treatment; Sewage treatment through chemical, microbial and biotech techniques;
Anaerobic processes; Anaerobic filters; Anaerobic sludge blanket reactors; Bioremediation of
organic pollutants and odorous compounds; Use of bacteria, fungi, plants, enzymes, and GE
organisms; Plasmid borne metabolic treatment; Bioáugmentation; Bioremediation of
contaminated soils and waste land; Bioremediation of contaminated ground water; Macrophytes
in water treatment; Phytoremediation of soil metals; Treatment for waste water from dairy,
distillery, tannery, sugar and antibiotic industries
Alternate source of energy: Biomass as source of energy; Bioreactors; Rural biotechnology;
Biocomposting; Biofertilizers; Vermiculture; Organic farming; Bio-minearlization; Biofuels;
isoethanol and biohydrogen; Solid waste management.
Environment and health in respect to genetics: Gene and environment; Effect of carbon and
other nanoparticles upon health; Gene mutation; Genetic testing; Genetic sensors; Environmental
pollution and children; Human biomonitoring.
1. Met Calfe and Eddy Inc., Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal and Reuse”,
4th Edition, McGraw Hill Book Co., 2003
2. Mackenzie L. Davis and David A. Cornwell, Introduction to Environmental
Engineering, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill Book Co., 2006.
3. R.M.Maier, I.L.Pepper and C.P.Gerba, Elsevier, Environmental
Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, 2004.
4. B.C. Bhattacharyya and R. Banerjee, Environmental Biotechnology, Oxford University Press.
BT-427 Metabolic Regulation & Engineering [3 1 0 4]
Elements of Metabolic Engineering: Historical perspective and introduction; Importance of
metabolic engineering; Paradigm shift; Information resources; Scope and future of metabolic
engineering; Building blocks of cellular components
Review of cellular metabolism: Transport mechanisms and their models; Regulation of
enzyme activity versus regulation of enzyme concentration; Regulation of metabolic networks;.
Regulation of at the whole cell level; Examples of important pathways; Case studies and
Material and Energy Balances: Stoichiometric models and representation; The chemical
reaction vector and energetic; Material and energy balances revisited; Basis for simplification of
reaction; Elemental balances; Component balances and the link with macroscopic measurements;
Examples of construction of elemental and component balances
Metabolic Flux Analysis and control theory: The theory of flux balances; Derivation of the
fundamental principle; Degree of freedom and solution methods; Moore-Penrose inverse and
Tsai-lee matrix construction; Examples of applications of flux analysis introduction Metabolic
Control Theory; Control coefficients; Elasticity coefficients; Summation and connectivity
theorems; Case Studies and examples.
Metabolic Engineering Practice: The concept of metabolic pathway synthesis; Need for
pathway synthesis, Examples for illustration; Overall perspective of MFA, MCA and MPA and
their applications; Three success case studies
1. Gregory N. Stephanopoulos, Aristos A. Aristidou, Jens Nielsen, Metabolic Engineering
— Principles and Methodologies, 1st Edition, Academic Press, 1998
2. Gerhard Gottschalk, Bacterial Metabolism, 2nd Edition, Springer Verlag, 1986
3. S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vellerling, B. P. Flannery, W. H. Press, Numerical Recipes in C,
Cambridge University Press, 1993.
BT-429 Bio Pharmaceuticals [3 1 0 4]
Introduction to Biopharmaceutical: Biopharmaceutical, Current status and future prospects
Drug development process: Drug discovery, Patenting, Delivery of pharmaceutical, Preclinical
trials, Drug regulatory authorities, Genomics and its impact on medicine.
Drug manufacturing process: Manufacturing practice, Facilities, Analysis of products.
Pharmaceutical products: Interleukins, interferon, Growth factor, Hormones, Therapeutic
enzymes, Antibodies, Vaccines, Nucleic acid therapeutics, Antibiotics.
Molecular medicine: rational drug design, gene testing, gene therapy, pharmacogenomics.
Genetic diseases and DNA based diagnosis of genetic diseases.
Development of genetically engineered pharmaceuticals: Drug Design, novel drug delivery
systems, improved formulation
1. Leon Lachmant et al “Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy”, 3 editions, Lean and
2. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mark Publishing and Co. (2000).
3. Klefenz H “Industrial Pharmaceutical Biotechnology” Wiley – VCH Verlag GmbH
4. Vyas S P and Dixit U K “Pharmaceutical Biotechnology” CBS Publisher New Delhi
BT-431 Transport Phenomena [3 1 0 4]
Momentum Transport: Viscosity and the mechanism of momentum transport, newton’s law of
viscosity, non- newton fluids, pressure and temperature dependence of viscosity, theory of
viscosity of gases at low density, theory of viscosity of liquids.
Velocity Distributions in Laminar Flow: Shell momentum balances: boundary conditions,
flow of a falling film, flow through a circular tube, flow through an annulus, adjacent flow of
two immiscible fluids.
The Equations of Change for Isothermal System : To equation of continuity, the equation of
motion, the equation of mechanical energy.
Interphase Transport in Isothermal System: Definition of friction factors, friction factors for
flow in tubes, friction factors for flow around spheres, friction factors for packed columns.
Thermal Conductivity and the Mechanism of Energy Transport: Fourier’s Law of heat
conduction, temperature and pressure dependence of thermal conductivity in gases and liquids,
theory of thermal conductivity of gases at low density, theory of thermal conductivity of liquids,
thermal conductivity of solids.
Temperature Distributions in solids and in Laminar Flow: Shell energy balances; boundary
conditions, heat conduction with an electrical heat source, heat conduction with a chemical heat
source, heat conduction through composite walls: Addition of Resistance, Forced Convection,
The Equations of change for Nonisothermal systems: The equations of energy, the energy
equation in curvilinear coordinates, the equations of motion for forced and free convection in
nonisothermal flow, summary of the equations of change, use of equation of change to set up
steady – state heat transfer problems.
Diffusivity and the Mechanism of Mass Transport: Definition of concentrations, velocities
and mass fluxes, fick’s law of diffusion, theory of ordinary diffusion in gases at low density,
theory of ordinary diffusion in liquids.
Concentration Distributions in Solid and in Laminar Flow: Shell mass balances: boundary
conditions, diffusion through a stagnant gas film, diffusion with heterogeneous chemical
reaction, diffusion with homogeneous chemical reaction, diffusion into a falling liquid film l
forced – convection mass transfer, diffusion and chemical reaction inside a porous catalyst: the
“effectiveness factor”.Analogies between Heat, mass and momentum and transfers.
1. Bird R B, Stewart W E and Light fort R N, “Transport Phenomena”, John Wiley (2002).
2. Welty J R , Wilson R E and Wicks C E , “Fundamentals of Momentum , Heat and Mass
Transfer”, 4th ed,John Wiley and Sons (2001 ).
3. John C Slattery, “Momentum, Energy and Mass transfer in continua”, McGraw Hill, Co.
4. Bennet C U and Myers J E, “ Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer” Tata McGraw Hill
Publishing Co. (1975)
5. Robert S Brodkey and Harry C Hersing, “ Transport Phenomena a Unified approach”
McGraw Hill Book Co. (1988).
BT-400 Project Phase –I [0 0 4 2]
Every student will be required to submit a project report in a typed form, on a topic selected
by the student, but specifically approved by the faculty member, who will guide the student or
on a topic to be assigned by one or more faculty members.
The project work on the topic will consist of either some investigational work, computer
simulation or design problem or experimental set up of some development work of or
prototype equipment. Every student has to give a presentation in the topic incorporated in the
project and in the project and in the related area of specialization.
The student will be required to submit three copies of his/her project report to the department
office for record. One copies each for the department library, participating faculty and students