NIT Jalandhar Syllabus for VIIIth Sem Biotechnology
NIT VIII Sem BIOTECHNOLOGY Syllabus
DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
Detailed syllabus 8th Semester:
BT-400 Project (Phase –II) [0 0 8 4]
Every student will be required to submit a project report in a typed form, on a topic selected
by the student, but specifically approved by the faculty member, who will guide the student or
on a topic to be assigned by one or more faculty members.
The project work on the topic will consist of either some investigational work, computer
simulation or design problem or experimental set up of some development work of or
prototype equipment. Every student has to give a presentation in the topic incorporated in the
project and in the project and in the related area of specialization.
The student will be required to submit three copies of his/her project report to the department
office for record. One copies each for the department library, participating faculty and students
BT-422 Food process Biotechnology [3 0 0 3]
Introduction to Food Biotechnology: Biotechnological processes in conventional and nonconventional
food, safety aspects, food industry wastes
Food Biotechnology Products : Dairy products, cereal products, fruit and vegetable products,
meat and fish, food ingredients , High Fructose Corn Syrup , Mycoprotein etc. Flavors and
Pigments, New protein food,- SCP, mushroom; food yeasts, algal proteins
Biotechnology and Food Preservation : Different techniques in food preservation, canning,
drying, freezing encapsulation and controlled release of food components, microwave food
processing , super critical fluid extraction , accepting processing of food. Organisms and their
use of pickling; alcoholic beverages and other products. Mechanism of enzyme functions and
reactions in process techniques starch and sugar conversion processes or baking by amylases; deoxygenation
and desugaring by glucose oxidase; beer mashing and chill-proofing or cheese
making by proteases and various other enzyme catalytic actions in food processing.
Genetically Modified and Transgenic Food: Development, processing, nutrition and safety
Bioreactors in Food Biotechnology: Use of different bioreactors (e.g membrane bioreactors)
for various food productions, Modeling , simulation and optimization of industrial processes,
use of sensor and biosensors ,process control.
1. Angold ,Beech and Taggart “Food Biotechnology” , Cambridge University Press , New
2. Schwartzberg H G and Rao M A “Biotechnology and Food Process Engineering”, Marcel
Dekker, IC (1990)
3. Moo- Young Murray, “Comprehensive Biotechnology Vol. II & IV”, Pergamon Press New
4. Reed G, “Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology” CBS publishers and distributors,
New Delhi (1987).
BT-424 Bioprocess Safety and Bioethics [3 0 0 3]
Public acceptance issues for biotechnology: Case studies/experiences from developing and
Biotechnology and hunger: Challenges for the Biotechnological research and industries. The
Cartagena protocol on biosafety. Bioterrorism (planning and response), Pertinent Federal, State,
and Local regulations, standards, and guidelines.
Biosafety management: Ethical implications of biotechnological products and techniques.
Social and ethical implications of biological weapons.
1. Fleming D O, Hunt D L, “Biological Safety: Principles and Practices”, 3rd edition, ASM
2. Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, January 2000.
3. Dano M R, “Biological Warfare in the 21st century”, Brassies London, 1994.
4. Traynor P L, “Biosafety Management”, Virginia polytechnic Institute Publication, 2000.
BT-426 Nanobiotechnology [3 0 0 3]
Nanotechnology: Materials Analysis using traditional and nontraditional techniques, Interaction
of x-rays, ions, and electrons. Imaging, diffraction, scattering and spectroscopic methods of
characterization, Applications of metrology in nanotechnology, biotechnology, semiconductor
processing, and other Silicon Valley growing technical areas.
Nanobiotechnology: biological problems; Nanocrystals in Biological Detection;
Microfluidic Meets Nano: Potential for Nanobiotechnology; Protein based Nanocrystals;
Microbial nanoparticle production; DNA based nanostructures and Gold nanoparticle conjugates;
Luminescent quantum dots for biological imaging;
Emerging Nanotechnologies: Nano labels, biosensors, Nano medicine, molecular imaging
Application: proteinomics; genomics, cancer therapy, drug delivery.
1. Greco R. S., Prinz F. B., and Smith, R. L. (eds.), “Nanoscale Technology in Biological
Systems”, CRC Pres, ISBN: 0849319404, (2005).
2. Ratner, M. and Ratener, D, “Nanotechnology A Gentle Introduction to the Next Big Idea”,
Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0131014005, (2003).
BT 428 Secondary Metabolites in Plants and Microbes [3 0 0 3]
Introduction to primary & secondary metabolism: structure, biosynthesis and metabolism of
important secondary products; Glycosides, isoprenoids, cardenolides, alkaloids,
phenylpropanoids and antibiotics.
Important groups of secondary metabolic enzymes: Significance of secondary metabolism
and products for the producer organism.
Regulation and expression of secondary metabolism: regulation of enzyme activity;
regulation of enzyme amount; integration with differentiation and development; action of
inducers; coordinated enzyme expression and sequential gene expression.
Metabolic pathway engineering: Enzymes involved in various metabolic pathways, Analysis of
metabolic control and the structure metabolic network.
1. Ramawat KG and Merillon J M (eds.), “Biotechnology secondary metabolite: plants and
microbes”, 2nd edition, Science Publishers, USA (2007).
2. Lehninger A L, “Principles of Biochemistry”, 3rd edition, Butterworth, New York (2000).
3. Harvey L, Berk A, Zipursky S L, Matsuidaira P, Baltimore D, Darnell J E, “Molecular
Cell biology”, 4th edition, W.H.Freeman, New York (2000).
BT-430 Biomaterials [3 0 0 3]
Introduction: Definition and general classification of biomaterials (natural and synthetic) and
the Relationship between biomaterials and medical (and dental) devices.
Market for biomaterials: World-wide market for biomaterials, projections for developments in
the uptake of biomaterials (demographics, medical advances, etc.) and the clinical implications
of Biomaterials development.
Common type: Biopolymers/bioplastics, bioceramics metals and metal alloys, shape memory
alloys, composites woven and non-woven fabrics, hydrogels, bio-adhesives controlled drug
Key Materials issues in Biomaterials: Polymer technology for the fabrication of medical
devices. Chemical, physical and mechanical properties of ceramic materials for hard tissue
implants. Development of medical grade metals and metal alloys: shape memory alloys.
Composite Materials (polymer/polymer, polymer/metal, polymer/ceramic), fibre/particulate
Regulation and standard for safety: FDA, EU – Medical Device Directives, GMP, ISO, CE
Application in biomedical: biomaterial evaluation procedures. Replacement of skeletal hard
tissues. Cardiovascular implants. Artificial vascular grafts. Biomaterials for ophthalmology.
Biomaterials in audiology. Facial implants. Dental implants. Skin repair/replacement materials.
Cosmetic implants, controlled drug delivery systems. Hydrogels and artificial organs.
Clinical aspects for using biomaterial: Biocompatibility and biomimicery, surface interactions:
– tissue and blood interactions. microbial biofilm formation bacterial adhesion toxicology
Surface modification for better functionality: Enhancement of biocompatibility by the use of:-
Corona discharge and plasma processes. Surface coatings Silver/silver oxide silicone hydrogels
UV curable systems PC coatings, Heparin loaded systems
Characterization and Testing of Biomaterials: Bulk analysis methods applied to the study of
Biomaterials (XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDX, DSC, TGA, DEA, etc.) Surface analysis methods applied
to the study of biomaterials (XPS, SIMS, AES, SERS, AFM/STM, etc.) Mechanical test: wear,
friction, flexibility, fatigue, etc.
1. Buddy D R, Allan S H, Frederick J S, Jack E L, editors, “Biomaterials Science – An
Introduction to Materials in Medicine”, Academic Press (1996)
2. Joon B P, Roderic S L, “Biomaterials: An Introduction”, 2nd edition, Plenum Press, 1992.
BT-432 IPR in Biotechnology [3 0 0 3]
Introduction: General Introduction., Patent Claims, the Legal Decision-Making Process,
Ownership of Tangible and Intellectual Property.
Basic Requirements of Patentability: Patentable Subject Matter. Novelty and the Public
Special Issue in Biotechnology Patents: Disclosure Requirements, Collaborative Research,
Competitive Research, Plant Biotechnology, Foreign Patents.
Patent Litigation: Substantive Aspects of Patent Litigation, Procedural Aspects of Patent
Litigation., Recent Developments in Patent System and Patentability of Biotechnological
invention, IPR issues in the Indian Context.
Biotechnology and intellectual properties: Intellectual property rights (IPR) and protection
(IPP), patents, trade secrets, copyrights, trade marks, GATT and TRIPS.
1. The Law & Strategy of Biotechnology Patents, Sibley Kenneth.
BT 434 Stem Cell Biology [3 0 0 3]
Introduction to Stem Cells: Definition, Classification and Sources
Embryonic Stem Cells: Blastocyst and inner cell mass cells; Organogenesis; Mammalian
Nuclear Transfer Technology; Stem cell differentiation; Stem cells Cryopreservation.
Application of Stem Cells: Overview of embryonic and, adult stem cells for therapy
Neurodegenerative diseases; Parkinson’s, Alzheimer, Spinal Code Injuries and other Brain
Syndromes; Tissue systems ‘Failures Diabetes Cardiomyopathy; Kidney failure; Liver failure;
Cancer; Hemophilia etc.
Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Society: Human stem cells research: Ethical
considerations; Stem cell religion consideration; Stem cell based therapies: Pre clinical
regulatory consideration and Patient advocacy
1. Ann A. Kiessling, Human Embryonic Stem Cells: An introduction to the Science and
Therapeutic Potential, Jones and Bartett, 2003.
2. Peter J. Quesenberry, Stem Cell Biology and Gene Therapy, 1st Edition, Willy-Less, 1998.
3. Robert Lanja, Essential of Stem Cell Biology, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, 2006.
4. A.Ho., R.Hoffiman, Stem Cell Transplantation Biology Processes Therapy, Willy-VCH, 2006.
5. C.S.Potten, Stem Cells, Elsevier, 2006.
Ph D courses:
Course Code Course Hours/week
L T P
BT-503 Bioenergetics and Metabolism 3 0 0 3
BT-505 Bioreactor and Bioprocess Design 3 0 0 3
BT-507 Bioseparation Engineering 3 0 0 3
Course Code Course Hours/week
L T P
BT-504 Enzyme Biotechnology 3 0 0 3
BT-506 Modern Methods of Analysis 3 0 0 3
BT 503 : BIOENERGETICS AND METABOLISM [3 0 0 3]
Unit – I
Introduction: First and second law of thermodynamics, standard free energy, reasons for high
standard free energy of hydrolysis of ATP, Electron transport, oxidative
phosphorylation,chemiosmotic model, prenention of oxidative phosphorylation by uncoupling
agents and ionophores. Metabolism – anabolism/ catabolism, differences between catabolic &
Anaerbolic Carbohydrate Metabolism: Individual reactions of glycolysis, entry of galactose &
fructose in glycolysis, utilization of sucrose and lactose, alcoholic fermentation , reduction of
pyruvate to lactate, glycogenlysis, biosynthesis of starch & sucrose, gluconeogenesis, regulation
Cittric acid cycle: Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA,individual reaction of TCA cycle,
energetics of the cycle, anaplerotic reactions, regulation of TCA.
Unit – II
Lipid Metabolism: Individual reaction of beta oxidation pathway, omega oxidation, oxidation of
unsaturated fatty acid and odd chain fatty acids, formation of ketone bodies, biosynthesis of fatty
acids, role of serum lipoproteins (LDL & HDL) in the developlemt of coronary heart diseases.
Nitrogen Metabolism: Transamination , deamination reactions, transport of ammonia from
peripheral tissues to liver by glutamine, excretion of nitrogen (Ammonotelic, Uricotelic), Urea
cycle (preliminary account), Metabolism of purines & pyrimidines (preliminary account),
biosynthesis of non essential amino acids, as precursors of biological amines like dopamine, non
epinephrine, epinephrine, GABA, & Histamine.
Unit – III
Transport across cell membrane: Passive transport (transport of chloride and bicarbonate across
erythrocyte membrane, glucose transport), Active transport (Primary & secondary), Na* and K*
pump, glucose transport in intestinal epithelial cells, symport, antiport, and uniport (examples),
ion channels (voltage gated and ligand gated) brief idea.
1. Albert Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry
2. Lehninger, Nelson, Cox, Principles of Biochemistry
3. Cohn and Stumpf, Outlines of Biochemistry
4. Lubert Stryer, Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko, Biochemistry
5. M. Treven, Immobilized Enzymes
6. R.K. Murray, D.K. Granner at al., Harper’s Biochemistry
7. Voet & Voet, Biochemistry
BT 505 : BIOREACTOR AND BIOPROCESS DESIGN [3 0 0 3]
Unit – I
Design consideration for designing bioreactors: oxygen transfer, heat transfer, rheology, mixing.
Analysis of ideal bioreactors: fed-Batch reactors, Enzyme catalyzed reactions in CSTRs, CSTR
reactors with recycle and Wall growth, Ideal Plug- Flow Tubular Reactor.
Reactors with non-ideal mixing: Mixing time in agitated tanks, Residence time distributions,
Models for non-ideal reactors.
Scale up and scale down concepts,
Unit – II
Mechanical Fittings in a bioreactor: vessel, agitation system materials, welds, finish, valves,
piping and valves for biotechnology, special requirements of utilities and clearing of production
Calculation for designing a bioreactor.
Unit – III
Instrumentation and control of bioprocesses: Physical and chemical sensors for the medium and
gases, online sensors for cell properties, off-line analytical methods; Biosensors.
Coulson, Richardson, Sinnott, An introduction to chemical engineering design, Pergamon Press.
Lydersen, D’ Elia, Nelson, Bioprocess engneering: Systems and equipment.
Bailey and Ollis, Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals.
BT 507: BIOSEPARATION ENGINEERING [3 0 0 3]
Unit – I
Separation of insoluble products: sedimentation, filtration, centrifugation, coagulation and
flocculation. Cell Disruption: Mechanical methods, Non-mechanical methods.
Unit – II
Separation of soluble products: Liquid-liquid extraction, aqueous two-phase extraction,
precipitation, adsorption. Dialysis, electro-dialysis, ultra-filtration and micro-filtration, crossflow
ultra-filtration and micro-filtration.
Unit – III
Chromatography: Adsorption chromatography, Ion- exchange chromatography, gel-filtration
chromatography, affinity chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, hydrophobic
chromatography. Chromatography scale-up. Crystallization and drying.
1. M.R. Ladisch, Bioseparation Engineering
2. Kennedy and Cabral, Recovery processes for biological materials.
3. Heinemann, Product Recovery in Bioprocess Technology, Butterworth Publication.
BT 504: ENZYME BIOTECHNOLOGY [3 0 0 3]
Discovery, classifications and nomenclature of enzymes. Enzyme isolation. Enzyme assay,
Intracellular localization of enzymes. Isozymes, Multienzyme complex, and multifunctional
Enzyme kinetics and kinetics of enzyme inhibition. Competitive, non-competitive and uncompetitive
inhibition of enzymes. Double reciprocal plots. Effect of PH, temperature, substrate
and enzyme and inhibitors concentration on enzyme kinetics. Phenomena of allosterism and
Unit – II
Molecular structure and function of enzymes. Physico-chemical characterization of enzymes.
Folding and active site formation in enzymes. Stability of enzymes: Enzyme stabilization by
genetic engineering, protein engineering, reaction environment rebuilding.
Techniques used in the purification of the enzymes. Criteria of enzyme homogeneity, Techniques
used for determinations of native and sub-unit molecular weight of enzymes.
Unit – III
Bio-separations in enzymology: solid-liquid separation (filtration, centrifugation, membrane,
flocculation), extraction, concentration (reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration), drying, instrumentation
Enzyme immobilization, production and application of free and immobihzed enzymes in food
and feed, detergent, textiles, pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics.
1. Godfrey and West, Industrial enzymology
2. Dordick, Biocatalyst for industry.
3. Bommatius, A.S. et al., Biocatalysis: Fundamentals and Application- Wiley Publication
4. Hans Bisswanger, Enzyme Kinetics- Wiley Publication
5. Methods in Enzymology- A series.
BT 506: MODERN METHODS OF ANALYSIS [3 0 0 3]
Chromatographic Techniques – I: (a) Introduction to chromatography; General principles,
column chromatography – columns, stationary phases. Packing of columns, application of
simple, column development, fraction collection and analysis). Partition and adsorption
chromatography. (b) Affinity Chromatography; Principle, materials – matrix, selection of
attachment of attachment of ligands, practical procedures, specific and non-specific elution,
applications. (c) Ion Exchange Chromatography: Principal, types of Exchangers , materials,
choice of exchangers and buffers and applications. (d) Gel Filtration: Principle, idea of
distribution coefficient, exclusion limit, fractionation range, bed volume, void volume, elution
volume, chemical properties of gel and applications.
Chromatographic Techniques – II: (a) Gas Chromatographic: Principle of GC system, solid
support, capillary column, stationary phase, preparation and application of sample, separation
conditions, detection system and applications. (b) HPLC: Principle, components of HPLC
system, column, column packing, chromatographic solvents, pumping systems, detectors system,
and its applications.
Unit – II
Electrophoresis: (a) General Principle, factors affecting electrophrosis – voltage, current,
resistance, buffer – composition, concentration, pH. (b) Gel electrophoresis;
Types of gel (strarch,agarose, polyacrylamide), Idea of electrophoresis unit, preparation of gel ,
sample application, running the samples, SDS-PAGE – Principle, apparatus and methods,
gradient gels , Two dimensional gels, Isoelectric focusing.
Spectroscopy – I: (a) Spectroscopic Techniques; Introduction, Energy levels and transition of
electrons, Types of spectra, Beers Lamberts law, molar and and extinction coefficient, limitations
of Beers Lamberts law. (b) Visible and UV Spectrophotomerty; Principles, Instrumentation and
application. (c) Spectroflourimetry; Principle, stoke’s shift, quantum efficiency, Instrumentation
Unit – III
Spectroscopy – II (a) Atomic and Flame Spectrophotomerty; Principles, Instrumentation and
application for flame emission/atomic absorption spectrophotomerty and their comparative
study. (b) Mass spectrometry; Principles, Instrumentation and application
Thermal Analysis Differential scanning calorimetry and differential analysis – Instrumentation,
Thermogravimetry, Methodology of Thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and
differential thermal analysis.
1. K. Wilson & K.H. Goulding, A biologist’s guide to Princles and Tehniques of Practical
2. Wilard and Merit, Instrumentation Methods Analysis.
3. Ewing GW Instrumental Methods of Chemical analysis.