# III Rd Sem

NIT Jalandhar – Civil Engineering Syllabus

3rd Semester
CE 201 Surveying [3 0 0 3]
Introduction: Definition, classification of surveys, principle, distorted or shrunk scales, precision in surveying.
Chain Surveying: Instruments for measuring distances, chains, tapes, ranging – direct indirect,
methods of chaining, folding and opening of chain, chaining on sloping ground, errors in chaining,
corrections for linear measurements, Obstacle in chaining, reconnaissance, station selection,
Triangulation, Base line measurement, limiting length of offsets, field notes.
Compass Surveying: Instruments used in traversing, bearings, meridians, declination, dip of
magnetic needle, bearing of lines from included angles, local attraction, closing error and its
removal.
Plane Table Surveying: Introduction to plane table surveying, principle, instruments, working
operations, setting up the plane table, centering, leveling, orientation, methods of plane table
survey, two and three point problems, Lehmann’s Rules, errors.
Levelling: Definitions of terms used in levelling, different types of levels, parallax, adjustments,
bench marks, classification of levelling, booking and reducing the levels, rise and fall method, line of
collimation method, errors in leveling, permanent adjustments, corrections to curvature and
refraction, setting out grades, longitudinal leveling, profile leveling. Automatic Levels.
Contouring: Definition, representation of reliefs, horizontal equivalent, contour interval,
characteristics of contours, methods of contouring, contour gradient, Interpolation of contours, uses
of contour maps.
Theodolite: Types of theodolities, measurement of angles, temporary and permanent adjustments,
closed & open traverse, consecutive and independent co-ordinates, advantages and
disadvantages of traversing, Latitudes and Departures, closing error, Bowditch & Transit Rules,
Gales traverse table, Different cases of omitted measurements.
Books Recommended:
1. Punmia B C “Surveying” Vol.1 & 2 Laxmi Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2002.
2. Kanetkar T P and Kulkarni S V “Surveying and leveling” Vol. I & II PVG Prakashan, Pune,
1994.
3. Basak N N “Surveying and leveling” Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2000.
4. Agor R “Surveying” Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 1998.
5. Venkataramiah C “A Text Book of Surveying” University Press, Hyderabad, 1998.