NIT Jalandhar IVth Sem Biotechnology Syllabus

NIT Jalandhar IV Sem BIOTECHNOLOGY Syllabus



Detailed syllabus 4th Semester:
BT 202 Cell and Molecular Biology [3 0 0 3]

Introduction to the Cell: Evolution of cell: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, unicellular and
multicellular organisms.
Cell Organells: Cell wall, cell membranes, cytosol, mitochondria, chloroplast, nucleus,
nucleolus, ribosome, lysosomes, Golgi body, endoplasmic reticulum, motility organelles,
flagella, pilli, cilia
Structure and function of nucleus: organization of the chromosome; eu-and heterochromatins;
nucleosome; cell cycle regulation – CDC mutants, protein kinase; cyclin; synthetic pattern and
control of cell divisions; biochemistry of meiosis
Chromosome biology: ultra structure of chromosomes, types of chromosome, chromosomal
aberration (Numerical & structural), chromatin, Chromosomal DNA, chromosomal proteins and
its packaging
Molecular Genetics: Cell cycle, Cell division, mechanism of cell division, Cell theory,
mechanism of cell development, formation of tissues, types of tissue (both plant and animals)
Cell Signaling: General principles of cell signaling, signaling via G-Protein linked cell-surface
Receptors, Signaling via Enzyme- linked cell-surface Receptors, target cell adaptation
The biochemical basis of inheritance: DNA as the genetic material; DNA structure and
replication in Prokaryotes and eukaryotes; nucleotide sequence composition: unique, middle and
highly repetitive DNA; Redundant DNA; Genetic Code; transcription and translation machinery
in Prokaryotic and eukaryotic system. Regulation of gene expression in E. coli-operon concept;
hormonal control of gene expression in eukaryotes.
Microscopy: Compound, Phase contrast, Fluorescent, Confocal, EM,
Fractionation: Cell rupture techniques, Fractionation of subcellular organelles by centrifugation,
flow cytometry
Books Recommended
1. De- Robertis, F D P and De Robertis E M F, “Cell and Molecular Biology”, Saunders,
Philadelphia (1991)
2. Lewin B “Gene IX”, Oxford University Press, Oxford (2008)
3. Sambrook J, Fritsch E F and Maniatis T, “Molecular Cloning” ., Cold Spring
Harbor Laboratory Press (1989 )
BT-204 Genetic Engineering [3 1 0 4]
Introduction to Genetic Engineering: Gene its concepts and inheritance, development of
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, DNA–structure, forms and replication, RNA–types
and functions, ribosome and translation, regulation of transcription and translation
Genome Organization: Genome size and complexity, the super coiling of DNA the structure of
prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosome, satellite DNA, centromere and telomere structure.
Bacteria: Transformation, transduction and conjugation.
Eukaryotes: Transcription, RNA splicing, Retroviruses.
Virus: Bacteriophages, genome its organization and its expression, virus of eukaryotes.
Mutation: Spontaneous versus induced mutations, types of mutations, mechanism of DNA
repair, mutations frequency gene transfer and expression in bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses.
Basics of Recombinant DNA: Role of genes within cells, genetic code, genetic elements that
control gene expression, method of creating recombinant DNA research, restriction enzymes and
mapping in eukaryotes, plasmids, bacteriophage lambda and M-13 molecular biology, RNA
tumour viruses- replication and function
Construction of c DNA libraries: Construction of genomic and c DNA libraries, methods of
nucleic acid sequencing, expression of cloned genes
Polymerase Chain Reaction: Thermostable DNA Polymerases, PCR technique, Inverse PCR,
Nested PCR, RACE PCR, Real-Time PCR, Site directed mutagenesis,
Methods In Genetic Engineering: Restriction and modifying enzymes, Restriction mapping,
Southern blot, Northern blot, Western blot.
Application of Recombinant DNA Technology: In agriculture, transgenic plants and animals,
gene therapy, synthesis of important molecules like insulin, growth hormone interferon etc
Books Recommended
1. De- Robertis, F D P and De Robertis E M F, “Cell and Molecular Biology”, Saunders,
Philadelphia (1991)
2. Lewin B “Gene IX”, Oxford University Press, Oxford (2008)
3. Sambrook J, Fritsch E F and Maniatis T, “Molecular Cloning” ., Cold Spring Harbor
Laboratory Press (1989)
4. Lehninger A L, “Principles of Biochemistry”, Butterworth Publishers, New York (1993)
BT 206 Immunology [3 0 0 3]
The immune system: innate and acquired immune system, components of immune system, role
of humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Antibodies, the genetic basis of antibody diversity,
structure-function, immunoglobulin classes. Polyclonal and Monoclonal antibodies, Catalytic
antibodies. Structure and properties of antigens, biological aspects of antibody-antigen
interaction. Identification and measurement of antibodies and antigens, Radial Immuno
Cells and Organs of Immune System: Lymphoid cell, heterogeneity of lymphoid cells, TCells,
primary and secondary lymphoid organs- thymus, bursa of fabricus, spleen,
Lymph nodes, lymphatic system,, mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
Humoral Immunity: B-lymphocytes and their activation, structure and function of
immunoglobulins, immnunologobulin classes and subclasses, genetic control and production,
monoclonal antibodies and diagnosis, major histocompatibility complex, complement fixing
antibodies and complement cascade
Cellular Immunity: Thymus derived lymphocytes (T-cells their classification antigen
presenting cells (APC), Macrophage their origin and function, mechanism of phagocytosis,
Identification of cell types of immune systems, immuno suppression and immune tolerance,
interferrons and their mechanism of action, interleukins and their functions.
Immunity and Infection: Hypersensitivity reactions, types and mechanisms of T Cell
activation, Cytokines and their role in immune response, transplantation and rejection, graft
rejection, Immunosuppressive drugs, mechanism of immunity, tumor antigens.
Immune Disorders and Diseases: Primary immuno deficiency, secondary immuno-deficiency,
Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Auto Immunity: Auto antibodies in humans, Pathogenic mechanisms, experimental models of
auto immune disease, treatment of autoimmune disorders.
Immunological Techniques and Vaccines: Precipitation, agglutination, RIA, ELISA,
Immunoelectrophoresis, Immunodiffusion
Books Recommended
1. Kuby J “Immunology” , W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (2003)
2. Roitt I M “Essentials of Immunology” , Blackwell Scientific Publications Oxford
3. Benjamin E and Leskowity S “Immunology, A Short Course”, Wiley Liss (1991)
4. Pinchuk G, ”Schaum’s Outline of Immunology”,Tata McGraw Hill (2004)
BT- 208 Industrial Biotechnology [3 0 0 3]
Introduction to Industrial Biotechnology: Definition and scope of Industrial Biotechnology,
historical overview of industrial fermentation processes and products.
Bioprocess development on an industrial scale: Microorganisms and various unit operations
involved, process parameter optimization, products and market economics relating to modern
industrial biotechnology.
Raw materials and microorganism for fermentation process: Isolation, preservation and
maintenance and improvement of industrial microorganisms for overproduction of primary and
secondary metabolites, media requirements for fermentation processes, carbon, nitrogen,
minerals, vitamins and other nutrients, simple and complex media, media economics,
Commercially Important Products: Enzymes and recombinant proteins having therapeutic
and diagnostic applications, specialty by products for agricultural, food and pharmaceutical
industries, biopesticides, biofertilizer and plant growth stimulants, biopolymers, single cell
proteins, baker’s yeast, high fructose corn syrup.
Production of Primary Metabolites: Organic acids, alcohols, acetone and butanol etc.,
Production of Secondary Metabolites: Antibiotics – Beta lactam antibiotics, amino glycosides,
tetracyclines, erythromycin, vitamins and steroids.
Biological Waste Treatment: Overview of various aerobic and anaerobic processes.
Books Recommended
1. Crueger W and Crueger A, “Biotechnology: A Text book of Industrial Microbiology”
Sinouer Associate, Inc. Sunderland MA, USA(1990)
2. Casida L E, “Industrial Microbiology” , New Age International Publishers Ltd.(2003)
3. Reed G, “Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology” CBS publishers and distributors,
New Delhi (1987). ,
4. Mansi E M T EL, Bryce C F A, “Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology”. Ane
Books Publishers and Distributors (2003)
5. Kumar H D, “A Text book of Biotechnology”, EWP (1994).
CH 002 Heat and Mass Transfer [3-1-0-4]
Conduction: Fourier’s law, steady state heat conduction through a composite solid, cylinders,
spheres, different insulating materials for process equipment
Convection: Convection, individual and overall heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer between
fluids separated by plane wall and by cylindrical wall (pipes), critical/ optimum insulation
thickness, concepts of heat exchanger.
Heat Transfer with phase change: Boiling phenomena, correlation for nucleate boiling, critical
heat flux, condensation phenomena, film condensation on a vertical surface.
Radiation: Blackbody radiation, Planck’s law, Wein’s displacement law, the Stefan Boltzmann
law, Kirchoff’s law.
Evaporation: Single and multiple effect evaporators, capacity and economy, boiling point
Mass Transfer Coefficient: Local and overall mass transfer coefficient, local two phase mass
transfer coefficients, Local overall Mass Transfer coefficients.
Gas Absorption: Choice of solvent, number of ideal stages, height of column, equipment for gas
Drying: Equilibrium in drying, rate of batch drying, time of drying, drying equipments.
Distillation : Raoult’s Law and Dalton’s law, partial vaporisation condensation, relative
volatility, differential & flash distillation, steam distillation, total reflux , minimum and
optimum reflux ratios, Lewis Sorel and MaCabe –Thiele methods, Ponchon Savarit method
Liquid – Liquid Extraction: Ternary phase diagrams & choice of solvent, single stage and
multistage cross current, co-current and counter current extraction operation
Adsorption: Introduction and the nature of adsorbent, adsorption equilibria, the Langmuir
isotherm, BET isotherm and Gibbs isotherm, adsorption equipments.
Crystallization: Formation and properties of crystals, crystallisers
Books Recommended
1) Smith J C, Mccabe W L and Harriot P H, “Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering”,
McGraw Hill, 7th edition, (2005).
2) Richardson and Coulson “Chemical Engineering Vol II”, 5th ed., Butterworth –
Heinemann (2003).
3) Perry’s, “Handbook of Chemical Engineering”, 7th Ed, McGraw Hill (1997).
4) Geankopolis C J, “Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles”, Prentice
Hall of India, 4th Edition, Eastern Economy Edition (2004)
5) Treybal R E , “Mass Transfer Operations” 3rd ed. , McGraw Hill (1980)
BT- 210 Bioprocess Engineering Laboratory [0 0 4 2]
1. Sterilization of bio reactor.
2. To estimate growth kinetic parameters of Escherichia coli.
3. To determine Volumetric Oxygen Transfer Coefficient (Kla) in fermentation system by
dynamic method.
4. To determine Volumetric Oxygen Transfer Coefficient (Kla) in fermentation system by
sulphite oxidation method.
5. To determine mixing time in a stirred tank reactor (STR).
6. Estimation of cell maintenance coefficient and true growth yield by studying the mass
and energy balance during cell growth.
7. Comparison between aerobic and anaerobic fermentation.
8. To determine Residence Time Distribution (RTD) for a CSTR.
9. Immobilization of the enzymes over the carriers.
10. Immobilization of the cells over the carriers.
11. Studies on the kinetics of immobilized enzyme and immobilized cells.
BT- 212 Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering Laboratory [0 0 4 2]
1. Isolation and purification of genomic DNA from bacteria, plant and animal tissues.
2. Isolation and purification of plasmid DNA.
3. Analysis of DNA by agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
4. Recovery of DNA from gels.
5. Restriction analysis of DNA and restriction mapping.
6. Spectrophotometric estimation of DNA, RNA and proteins.
7. In situ gel assays for peroxidase, SOD, acid phosphatase and LDH.
8. Southern, Northern and dot blotting technique
9. Determination of phosphorous content of nucleic acids
10. Analysis of proteins by gel electrophoresis
11. Analysis of proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis
12. Estimation of RNA by means of orcinol reaction
BT- 214 Immunology Laboratory [0 0 2 1]
1. Immunodiffusion
2. Immunoelectrophoresis
3. Western blotting
4. Production of monoclonal antibodies and testing,
5. Antigen – Antibody reactions (Widal test, Blood grouping, Rh factor)
6. RBC & WBC count by haemocytometer
8. Immunochemical assay techniques

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