Mumbai University Syllabus for Civil Engineering Final Year

MUMBAI UNIVERSITY SYLLABUS

Civil Engineering Final Year

 

MUMBAI UNIVERSITY SYLLABUS 

Scheme of Instructions and Examination

Final Year (Semester VII & VIII)

of the B.E. Degree Course

Civil Engineering

(With effect from academic year 2010-2011)


UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI SCHEME OF INSTRUCTIONS AND EXAMINATION (RR-2007)

FOURTH YEAR ENGINEERING: (Civil Engineering)

Semester VII

 

Subjects

No. of periods per week (60 minutes each)

Duration of theory paper (hours)

Marks

Lecture

Practical

Tutorial

Theory

Paper

Term

Work

Practical

Oral

Total
1. Limit State Method for Reinforced Concrete Structures*

4

2

3

100

25

125
2. Quantity Survey, Estimation and Valuation*

4

2

4

100

25

25

150
3.

Irrigation

Engineering*

4

2

3

100

25

25

150
4.

Environmental

Engineering-II

4

2

3

100

25

25

150
5.

Elective-I

4

2

3

100

25

25

150
6.

Project-A*

4

50

25@

75

Total

20

2

12

500

175

125

800

 

* Common to Construction Engineering @ Seminar on project (Internal)

 

 

Semester – VIII

 

Subjects

No. of periods per week (60 minutes each)

Duration of theory paper (hours)

Marks

Lecture

Practical

Tutorial

Theory

Paper

Term

Work

Practical

Oral Total
1. Design and Drawing of Reinforced Concrete Structures*

4

2

4

100

25

25 150
2.

Construction

Engineering

4

2

3

100

25

25 150
3.

Construction

Management

4

2

3

100

25

25 150
4.

Elective-II

4

2

3

100

25

25 150
5.

Project-B*

4

50

50# 100

Total

16

12

400

150

150 700

*  Common to Construction Engineering

#  Presentation on project & Oral

 

 

UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI (RR-2007)

FORTH YEAR ENGINEERING: (Civil Engineering) List of Electives

Semester VII Elective-I (Lecture-4, Practical / Tutorial-2)

1 Advanced Surveying *
2 Advanced Engineering Geology*
3 Applied Hydrology and Flood Control
4 Solid Waste Management
5 Systems Approach in Civil Engineering*
6 Risk and Value Management *
7 Advanced Structural Analysis
8 Structural Dynamics
9 Advanced Structural Mechanics
10 Advanced Foundation Engineering
11 Ground Water Hydrology
12 Pavement Subgrade & Materials
13 Air Pollution
14 Prestressed Concrete
15 Traffic Engineering and Control
16 Reinforced Concrete Repairs and Maintenance*
17 Advanced Computational Techniques

* Common to Construction Engineering

 

 

Semester VIII Elective-II (Lecture-4, Practical / Tutorial-2)

1 Advanced Construction Engineering*
2 Rock Mechanics
3 Geographical Information System
4 Water Resources Engineering & Management*
5 Bridge Design & Engineering
6 Environmental Impact Assessment and Audit*
7 Appraisal & Implementation of Infrastructure Projects*
8 Disaster Management*
9 Pavement Design and Construction
10 Advanced Design of Steel Structures
11 Earthquake Engineering
12 Soil Dynamics
13 Building Services*
14 Design of Hydraulic Structures
15 Industrial Waste Treatment
16 Transportation planning and Economics
17 Advanced Repairs and Rehabilitation of Structures*

* Common to Construction Engineering

 

 

Class:-B E (Civil/Construction) Semester VII
Subject:- Limit State Method for Reinforced Concrete Structures
Periods/week – each Period of 60 minutes duration Lecture

04

Practical

Tutorial

02

 

Hours

Marks

Evaluation System Theory Examination

03

100

Practical

Oral

Term Work

25

Total  

125

 

Detailed Syllabus

Module

Topics No. of Lectures

1

Ultimate Load Method:

Brief introduction to fundamentals of ultimate strength theory: curved stress distribution, compressive stress block, simplified rectangular stress block as per Whitney’s approach, ultimate moment of resistance of singly reinforced section and doubly reinforced sections.

05

2

Limit State Method:

Introduction to limit state method of design as per IS 456 (latest edition): concepts of probability and reliability, characteristic loads, characteristic strength, partial safety factors for loads and materials, introduction to various limit states.

04

3

Limit State of Collapse – Flexure:

Limit state of collapse in flexure, shear and Limit state of serviceability in deflection and cracking , design of singly and doubly reinforced rectangular and T sections for flexure, design of members in shear and bond, design of beam subjected to bending and torsion. Requirements governing reinforcement detailing.

16

4

Design of Slabs:

Design of one way and two way slabs.

05

5

Limit State of Collapse – Compression:

Limit state of collapse – compression for short and slender column. Members subjected to combined axial and uni-axial as well as biaxial bending. Development of interactive curves and their use in column design.

08

6

Design of Foundations:

Isolated square and rectangular footings subjected to axial load and moments. Design of combined rectangular pad footings, slab beam type footing and strap footing

10
Theory Examination:-

  1. Question paper will consist of total seven questions carrying 20 marks each.
  2. Only five questions need to be attempted.
  3. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum part of the syllabus.
  4. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature.
  5. In question paper, weightage of each module may be proportional to the number of respective lecture hours as mentioned in the syllabus.

 

Term work:-

Each student has to appear for at least one written test during the term. Assignments consisting of minimum twenty problems covering entire syllabus and the graded answer paper of term test shall be submitted as term work.

The distribution of term work marks will be as follows:

Assignments                         : 15marks

Written test (at least one)         : 10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of tutorial work and at least passing in the term-work.

Recommended Books:-

  1. Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures: Dayaratnam P, Oxford & IBH.
  2. Limit State design – Reinforced Concrete: Jain A K, New Chand.
  3. Limit State Design – Reinforced Concrete: Shah & Karve, Structure Publication, Pune.
    1. Ultimate Strength Design for Structural Concrete: Arthur P D & Ramkrishnan V, Wheeler & Co. Pvt Ltd.
    2. Limit State Theory for Reinforced Concrete Design: Huges B P, Pitman.
    3. Reinforced Concrete: Warner R F, Rangan B C & Hall A S, Pitman.
    4. Reinforced Concrete: H.J. Shah, Charotar Publisher.
    5. Fundamentals of Reinforced Concrete: Sinha & Roy, S. Chand & Co. Ltd
      1. Illustrated Reinforced Concrete Design: Dr. V.L. Shah & Dr. S.R. Karve, Structure Publication, Pune.
    6. Reinforced Concrete Design: Wang, C. K., Salmon, C.G., and Pincheira, J.A ,

7th Edition, John Wiley, 2007.

  1. Reinforced Concrete Fundamentals: Ferguson, P.M., Breen J.E., and Jirsa J.O., 5th ____________________________________________ Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1988.___________________________________________________

 

Class:-B E (Civil/Construction) Semester VII
Subject:- Quantity Survey, Estimation & Valuation
Periods/week – each Period of 60 minutes duration Lecture

04

Practical

Tutorial

02

 

Hours

Marks

Evaluation System Theory Examination

04

100

Practical

Oral

25

Term Work

25

Total  

150

 

Detailed Syllabus

Module

Topics No. of Lectures

1

Estimates: Various types, their relative importance, factors to be considered, complete set of Estimate. Approximate estimates: importance, purpose, different methods. Use of CBRI Equations for the same.

Methods of preparation of estimates for projects such as

i)  Building R.C.C., Load bearing

ii)  Road

iii)   Cross drainage work

iv)   Factory shed including steel truss

14

2

Measurements for various items: Use of relevant Indian Standard Specifications for the same, taking out quantities from the given requirements of the work, comparison of different alternatives, Bar bending schedules, Mass haul Diagrams 06

3

Material survey: Approximate estimates of requirement of various materials for building works, percentage breakup of the cost, cost sensitive index, market survey of basic materials 05

4

Specifications: types, requirements and importance, detailing of specifications for various items 03

5

Rate analysis: purpose, importance and necessity of the same, factors affecting, task work. 06

6

Tender: preparation of tender documents, importance of inviting tenders, contract types, relative merits,. prequalification. general and special conditions, termination of contracts, extra work and items, penalty and liquidated charges, Settlement of disputes, R.A. Bill & Final Bill, Payment of advance , insurance, claims, price variation, etc. 06

7

Valuation : different terms used, the role of a valuer, purpose and necessity of the same. Capitalised Value, Years purchase ,sinking fund, depreciation, types of values, Purpose of valuation Different methods of valuation for

  1. open plots.
  2. open plots with existing residential & commercial structures
  3. lease hold properties

Use of valuation tables and formulae

08

 

Theory Examination:-

  1. Question paper will consist of total seven questions carrying 20 marks each.
  2. Only five questions need to be attempted.
  3. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum part of the syllabus.
  4. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature.
  5. In question paper, weightage of each module may be proportional to the number of respective lecture hours as mentioned in the syllabus.

Oral Examination:-

Oral examination will be based on entire syllabus.

Term work:-

The term work shall consist of the following:

  1. To find out the approximate estimate of a multistoried building by approximate method.
  2. Detailed estimate of any FOUR of the following with the required material survey for the

same.

  1. a ground plus three storied building (RCC)
  2. a bridge with minimum 2 spans
  3. a factory building
  4. a road work
  5. a cross drainage work
  6. a load bearing structure
  7. Preparation of valuation report in standard Government form.
  8. Assignments on rate analysis, market survey, specifications and simple estimates.
  9. Detailed estimate of minor structure
  10. Bar bending schedule

Use of quantity survey software and use of worksheets / databases for some of the above assignments is desirable.

Each student has to appear for at least one written test during the term. The termwork detailed above and the graded answer paper of term test shall be submitted as term work.

The distribution of term work marks will be as follows:

Assignments                      :       15 marks

Written test (at least one)         : 10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of tutorial work and at least minimum passing in the term-work.

Recommended Books:-

  1. Estimating, Costing Specifications & Valuation: M Chakraborty, M. Chakraborty, Kolkata.
  2. Building & Engineering Contracts: B.S. Patil, University Press, Hyderabad.
  3. Estimating & costing: B N Datta, UBS Publications
  4. Relevant Indian Standard Specifications, BIS Publications
  5. World Bank approved contract documents_______________________________
Class:-B E (Civil/Construction) Semester VII
Subject:- Irrigation Engineering
Periods/week – each Period of 60 minutes duration Lecture

04

Practical

Tutorial

02

 

Hours

Marks

Evaluation System Theory Examination

03

100

Practical

Oral

25

Term Work

25

Total  

150

 

Detailed Syllabus

Module

Topics No. of Lectures

1

Introduction:

Irrigation, water resources in India, need of irrigation in India, development of irrigation in India, impact of irrigation on human environment, irrigation systems: minor and major, command area development.

2

2

Water requirement of crops:

Crops and crop seasons in India, cropping pattern, duty and delta.

Quality of irrigation water.

Soil water relationship: soil characteristics significant from irrigation considerations, root zone soil water, infiltration, consumptive use, irrigation requirement, frequency of irrigation.

Methods of applying water to the fields: surface, sub-surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation.

6

3

Hydrology:

Hydrologic cycle, rainfall and its measurement, streamflow measurement runoff process, factors affecting runoff, runoff hydrograph, runoff computations, flood discharge calculations, unit hydrograph, S -hydrograph.

8

4

Ground water and well hydraulics:

Ground water resources, occurrence of ground water, methods of ground water exploration, well irrigation.

Well hydraulics: steady state flow in wells, equilibrium equations for confined and unconfined aquifer, aquifer tests, design of water wells.

6

5

Reservoir planning:

Investigations, selection of site, zones of storage, storage capacity and yield, reservoir sedimentation.

4

6

Dams:

Introduction, classification.

Gravity dams: forces acting on gravity dam, modes of failure, stability analysis, design, galleries, joints, keys, water seals.

Earth and rockfill dams: types, causes of failure, seepage analysis, stability analysis, design, rockfill dams.

Arch and buttress dams: types.

Spillways and other energy dissipating devices: types.

14

 

Distribution systems:

Canal systems, alignment of canals, canal losses, estimation of design discharge.

Bandhara irrigation

Canal outlets: non-modular, semi-modular and modular outlets Waterlogging: causes, effects and remedial measures.

Lining of canals: economics of lining.

Drainage of irrigated land: necessity, methods.

Canal regulation works.

Cross drainage works._________________________________

Theory Examination:-

  1. Question paper will consist of total seven questions carrying 20 marks each.
  2. Only five questions need to be attempted.
  3. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum part of the syllabus.
  4. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature.
  5. In question paper, weightage of each module may be proportional to the number of respective lecture hours as mentioned in the syllabus.

Oral Examination:-

Oral examination will be based on entire syllabus.

Term work:-

Each student has to appear for at least one written test during the term. At least seven assignments covering the entire syllabus and the graded answer paper of term test shall be submitted as term work.

The distribution of term work marks will be as follows:

Assignments                         : 15 marks

Written test (at least one)         : 10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of tutorial work and at least passing in the term-work.

Recommended Books:-

  1. Irrigation and Water Power Engineering: Dr. B.C. Punmia and Dr. Pande B.B.Lal, Laxmi Publications Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
  2. Irrigation Water Resources and Water Power Engineering: Dr. P.N. Modi, Standard Book House. Delhi.
  3. Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulics Structures: S. K. Garg, Khanna Publishers. Delhi.
    1. Design of Irrigation Structures: S. K. Sharma, S. Chand and Co.
    2. Theory and Design of Irrigation Structures: R. S. Varshney and R. C. Gupta, Nem Chand.
      1. Irrigation and Water Resources Engineering: G.L.Asawa, New Age International Publishers.

 

Class:-B E (Civil) Semester VII
Subject:- Environmental Engineering – II
Periods/week – each Period of 60 minutes duration Lecture

04

Practical

02

Tutorial

 

Hours

Marks

Evaluation System Theory Examination

03

100

Practical

Oral

25

Term Work

25

Total  

150

 

Detailed Syllabus

Module

Topics No. of Lectures

1

Air Pollution:

Definition of air pollution, major episodes, classification of air pollutants, units of quantification, sources of air pollution, natural & man made effects of air pollution on human health, animals. plants, properties. Global atmospheric change, green house effect, ozone depletion, carbon cycle. Effects of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, green house gases, effects of temperature increase, emission control.

Noise Pollution:

Basic concepts, measurement, standards, effects on human health, and various control methods.

08

2

Sewage:

Conveyance of Sewage: Sewers- shapes and materials of sewers, sanitary, storm and combined sewers, capacities and designs, appurtenances, maintenance of sewers.

Sewage pumping: Consideration of the selection of pump and location of pumping stations.

04

3

Sewage

Characteristics of sewage: Composition, chemistry of sanitary sewage, B.O.D., C.O.D., aerobic and anaerobic decomposition.

Sewage Disposal: discharge of raw and treated sewage on land and water, standards for disposal, raw and treated sewage on land and water, limits of dilution.

Self purification of streams: oxygen economy, sewage farming.

Sewage treatment: aims, methods of treatments and various flow-sheets for preliminary, primary, secondary and, tertiary treatment, screens, grit chambers, primary and secondary clarifiers, disposal of screenings and grit. Biological treatment methods, principles, trickling filter operation, recirculation, activated sludge process and its modifications, hydraulic design of trickling filter and activated sludge process, sludge volume index, operational problems in activated sludge process and trickling filters, stabilization ponds

Sludge digestion: Principles of anaerobic digestion, quantity and characterization of sludge, design of sludge digestion tanks, disposal of digested sludge, drying beds

Low cost sanitation: Septic tanks and Imhoff tanks – principles, operation

28

 

 

and suitability, design values, disposal of treated effluent.

Plumbing:

Building water supply: Introduction, per capita supply, service connections from main, storage of water supply systems in a building, sizing of pipes, water meters

Sanitary Fixtures and fittings: Introduction, classification of fixtures, soil fixtures, bathroom accessories, special accessories, fittings.

Building Drainage System: Introduction, general principles governing building drainage, nature of drainage phenomena, systems of plumbing, design of pipes, primary & secondary branches, antsyphonic and vent piping, installation of pipes ,testing of drains and pipes.

Rain/Storm Water Drainage: Introduction, collection of run-off, piping system, storm water drainage, design considerations, hydraulic design, disposal of rainwater.__________________________________

 

 

 

Theory Examination:-

  1. Question paper will consist of total seven questions carrying 20 marks each.
  2. Only five questions need to be attempted.
  3. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum part of the syllabus.
  4. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature.
  5. In question paper, weightage of each module may be proportional to the number of respective lecture hours as mentioned in the syllabus.

Oral Examination:-

Oral examination will be based on entire syllabus.

List of Practicals

List of experiments on sewage samples:

1       Measurement of Noise Level

2       Measurements of air pollutants.

3       Plumbing Demonstration of accessories, fittings and fixtures

4       Determination of pH of sewage

5       Determination of Chlorides

6       Solids: Suspended solids, dissolved solids, total solids, volatile solids

7       Determination of Dissolved oxygen

8       Determination of Chemical oxygen demand(COD) of sewage sample

9       Determination of Biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) of sewage sample

10    To find Sludge volume index (SVI) of sewage sample

11    Measurement of Air Quality standard by High Volume Sampler.

Term work:-

Each student has to appear for at least one written test during the term. Reports on experiments performed as detailed above and the graded answer paper of term test shall be submitted as term work. A brief report on the visit to sewage treatment plant should also be included in the journal work. Demonstration of available software for design of water and sewage treatment plant and sewer network is to be done.

The distribution of term work marks will be as follows:

Reports on experiments performed    : 15 marks

Written test (at least one)         : 10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of laboratory work and at least passing in the term-work.

Recommended Books:-

  1. Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering: S.K.Hussain, Oxford & IBH Publication, New Delhi.
  2. Manual on Water Supply and Treatment,(latest Ed.): Ministry of & Housing. New Delhi
    1. Plumbing Engineering Theory and Practice: S.M. Patil, Seema Publication, Mumbai
    2. Water Supply & Sewage: E.W.Steel, McGraw Hill, New York.
    3. Water Supply & Sewage: T.J.McGhee, McGraw Hill, New York
    4. Relevant Indian Standard Specifications, BIS Publications
    5. CPHEEO Manual on Water Supply & Treatment
    6. CPHEEO Manual on Sewage & Treatment
    7. Sewage Treatment & Disposal & waste water engineering- Dr. P.N.Modi
    8. Sewage Disposal & Air Pollution: Garg S. K., Khanna Publication
    9. Air Pollution: M.N.Rao, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi._______________________

 

Class-:BE(Civil/Construction) Semester-VII
Subject:- Elective-I: Advanced Surveying
Periods/week – each Period of 60 minutes duration Lecture

04

Practical

02

Tutorial

 

Hours

Marks

Evaluation System Theory Examination

03

100

Practical

Oral

25

Term Work

25

Total  

150

 

Detailed Syllabus

Module

Topics No. of Lectures

1

Modern Surveying Equipment: Data and equipment needed for engineering projects. Changing scene in surveying and mapping, map substitutes, use and advantage of modern surveying equipment in project. Modern surveying electronic equipment, their principles, constructions working and use – Electronic Theodolite, E.D.M. Instruments- Distomat, Total station. Application of lasers in distance and angular measurements. Introduction of electronic navigation and position fixing. Different systems and their characteristics.

05

2

Global Positioning System : Introduction to navigation and positioning, Geodesy; geospatial reference systems, overview of GPS; GPS segments, 2D and 3D positioning, GPS error sources and handling, GPS applications.

05

3

Geographic information system: Geographic Information System (GIS) – Definition of GIS, Geographical concepts and terminology, Components of GIS, Data acquisition, Raster and vector formats, scanners and digitizers. Advantages of GPS and GIS in the storage thematic information extracted from remotely sensed images.

05

4

Photogrammetry: Definition of photogrammetric terms, geometry of aerial and terrestrial photographs, aerial camera and phototheodolite, scales of photographs, tilt and height displacements , stereoscopic version and stereoscopes, height determination from parallax measurements, flight planning , maps and map substitutes and their uses.

06

5

Remote sensing: Introduction and definition of remote sensing terms, remote sensing system, principles of remote sensing, Interaction of EMR, Fundamentals of aerial photography, platforms and orbits, sensors, data products, principles of visual interpretation, principles and uses; thermal remote sensing, microwave remote sensing.

08

6

Image interpretation: Principles of interpretation of aerial and satellite images, equipments and aids required for interpretation, ground truth- collection and verification, advantages of multidate and multiband images, digital image processing; introduction, image enhancement techniques, digital image classification.

06

7

Field astronomy: Terms, coordinate systems, hour angle, right ascension, declination, altitude, azimuth: study of astronomical charts, determination of latitude and bearing by observation on the sun and polestar, time, standard time, local time, universal time, equation of time.

08

 

Hydrographic surveying: Uses ,Method of hydrographic surveys, mean sea- level, tide gauges, sounding equipments, location of soundings, the capacity of reservoir, stream gauging.__

Theory Examination:-

  1. Question paper will consist of total seven questions carrying 20 marks each.
  2. Only five questions need to be attempted.
  3. Question number 1 will be compulsory and based on maximum part of the syllabus.
  4. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature.
  5. In question paper, weightage of each module may be proportional to the number of respective lecture hours as mentioned in the syllabus.

Oral Examination:-

Oral examination will be based on entire syllabus.

List of Practicals:-

At least THREE practicals shall be performed from the list given below.

  1. Traversing using Total Station
  2. Establishing Waypoints / Network using GPS receivers
  3. Demonstration of GIS software
  4. Measurement of Relief Displacement using Mirror Stereoscope Term work:-

Each student has to appear for at least one written test during the term. Report on the practicals conducted, at least five Assignments covering entire syllabus and the graded answer paper of term test shall be submitted as term work.

The distribution of term work marks will be as follows:

A report of practicals performed and assignments     : 15 marks

Written test (at least one)         : 10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term work ensures the satisfactory performance of

laboratory work and at least passing in the term-work.

Recommended Books:-

  1. Higher surveying: A.M. Chandra New Age International publishers.
  2. Higher surveying: B.C. Punamia, Ashok jain, Arun k. jain Laxmi publications (P), Ltd,
    1. Geographic Information Systems and Science, Second Edition: Longley, Paul A., Michael F. Goodchild, David J. Maguire, David W. Rhind. 2005.. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
    2. Modeling Our World: The ESRI Guide to Geodatabase Design: Zeiler, M. 1999,. ESRI Press, Redlands, California
    3. GIS, Spatial Analysis, and Modeling: Maguire, D., M. Batty, and M. Goodchild. 2005. ESRI Press (G70.212 .G584 2005)
    4. 6 Global Positioning System: Signals, Measurements, and Performance, Second Edition (2006): Pratap Misra and Per Enge
    5. Remote Sensing Principles and Interpretation: Floyd, F. Sabins, Jr:, Freeman and Co., San Franscisco, 1978.
    6. Remote Sensing and Image interpretation: Lillesand and Kiefere:, John Wiley, 1987.
    7. A remote sensing perspective: Introductory Digital Image Processing:, John R. Jensen,Prentice Hall.
    8. Imaging Radar for Resource Survey: Remote Sensing Applications: W Travelt, Chapman

& Hall.

 

Class:-B E (Civil/Construction) Semester VII
Subject:-Elective-I : Advanced Engineering Geology
Periods/week – each Period of 60 minutes duration Lecture

04

Practical

02

Tutorial

 

Hours

Marks

Evaluation System Theory Examination

03

100

Practical

Oral

25

Term Work

25

Total  

150

 

Detailed Syllabus

Module

Topics No. of Lectures

1

Introduction

Importance of geological studies in engineering investigations, precautions to avoid misleading conclusions likely to be drawn while interpreting drilling data with particular reference to RQD, case studies illustrating economics made possible by proper geological studies.

04

2

Engineering Geology of Deccan trap basalts.

Factors affecting strength and water tightness, stability of cuts and ability to stand without support, significance of features like gas cavities, jointing, weathering, hydrothermal alteration, volcanic breccias, tachylytes, dykes, fractures, field structures of flows, stratigraphic sequence of flows etc. and their significance in civil engineering projects.

05

3

Dams

Strength and water tightness of deccan trap rocks from foundation point of view, physical properties such as compressive strength, water absorption etc. of basalts, effect of weathering and hydrothermal alteration on engineering properties of rocks, deterioration of rock masses on exposure to atmosphere and suitable treatment for such rocks.

Investigations for determining the foundation treatment for adverse geological features, determination of foundation levels/cutoff levels for dams, groutability of rocks, correction of adverse feature by grouting, purpose of consolidated and curtain grouting, determining depth and zones of grouting, relation

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