1. (a) Explain the principle of superposition of waves.
(b) Explain the phenomenon of interference.
(c) With relevant diagram explain Young’s experiment on the basis of wave theory.
2. (a) What is meant by diffraction of light? Explain it on the basis of Huygen’s wave theory.
(b) What are the types of diffraction and give the difference between them.
(c) What is the difference between Interference and Diffraction?
3. (a) Explain how nicol prism acts as an analyser.
(b) With necessary diagram explain elliptically polarized light.
(c) Calculate the thickness of quarter wave plate and half wave plate, given that refractive indices of ordinary ray and extra-ordinary ray are 1.653 and 1.644 respectively. Wave length of light used is 5400 A.U.
4. (a) Explain the terms:
ii. Spontaneous emission.
iii. Stimulated emission.
iv. Pumping mechanism.
v. Population inversion.
vi. Optical cavity.
(b) Mention the medical applications of lasers.
5. (a) Explain in detail
i. Seebeck effect
ii. Peltier effect and
iii. Thomson effect.
(b) For a thermo-couple, the Seebeck coefficients are α= 3.44 μV/◦C and β= 0.008 (μV/0C)2 . Calculate the thermo-e.m.f. when the junctions are at 00C and 200 0C
6. (a) Explain the terms:
i. relative permittivity
ii. loss factor and
iii. dielectric strength of a dielectric medium.
(b) What is dielectric polarization? Briefly, describe the major types of polarization which occur in dielectrics.
7. Write notes on the following:
(a) Soft magnetic materials
(b) Hard magnetic materials
(c) Hysteresis curve.
8. (a) What are the general requirements for spacecraft materials?
(b) What are the different classifications of the spacecraft materials? Explain how they are classified?