1. (a) Define interference of light.
(b) Describe and explain the phenomenon of interference of light.
(c) Two coherent sources whose intensity ratio is 36:1 produce interference fringes.Deduce the ratio of maximum intensity to minimum intensity.
2. (a) What are ultrasonic waves?
(b) Write an essay on production, properties and applications of ultrasonics.
(c) How Ultrasonics are used in non- destructive testing.
3. (a) Write short notes on flux quantization.
(b) Discuss the important applications of superconductors
(c) Calculate the critical current for a wire of lead having a diameter of 1 mm at 4.2 K. Critical temperature for lead is 7.18 K and critical field at 0 K is 6.5×104 A/m.
4. (a) Define coordination number and atomic radius.
(b) Obtain the expressions coordination number and atomic radius for SC, BCC and FCC lattices
5.(a)The first line of principle series of Sodium D – Line at 5890 A0. This corre-sponds to a transition from the first excited state to the ground state. What is the energy of electron volts of the first excited state?
(b) Discuss the application of laser in Engineering, Medical and Other fields.
(c) Explain the pumping methods.
i. Optical pumping
ii. Electron excitation pumping.
6. (a) Derive an expression for acceptance angle.
(b) Derive briefly the different types of fiber with neat diagram.
(c) Derive the fractional index change.
7. (a) Derive an expression for internal field in dielectrics.
(b) Deduce Clausius – Mossotti equations.
8. (a) What is the principle behind the TEM?
(b) Explain the transmission electron microscopy.
(c) Give the advantages of TEM.