HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY, November 2008
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
1. (a) Why do liquids and gases show contrast with regard to variation of viscosity with temperature?
(b) Explain the working of a simple U-tube manometer. What are the advantages of this manometer over a piezometer?
2. (a) Derive the continuity equation for one-dimensional flow.
(b) Distinguish between stream line, path line and streak line.
3. A 450 reducing bend is connected in a pipeline, the diameters at the inlet and outlet
of the bend being 40 cm and 20 cm respectively. Find the force exerted by water on the bend if the intensity of pressure at inlet of bend is 21.58N/cm2. The rate of flow of water is 500 litres/s.
4. The difference in water surface levels in two tanks which are connected by three
pipes in series of lengths 300 m, 170 m and 210 m and of diameters 300 mm, 200
mm and 400 mm respectively, is 12 m. Determine the rate of flow of water if values
of friction factor are 0.02, 0.0208 and 0.0192 respectively, considering:
(a) Minor losses also
(b) Neglecting minor losses.
5. (a) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using an orifice meter over a
(b) Water flows at the rate of 0.015m3/s through a 100 mm diameter orifice used in
a 200 mm pipe. What is the difference in pressure head between the upstream
section, and the Vena-contracta section? (Take coefficient of contraction Cc= 0.60 and Cv = 1.0).
6. Derive equations for the force of impact of jet
(a) on a normal flat vane moving in the direction of jet
(b) On a series of normal flat vanes mounted on a wheel. The vane velocity is less
than jet velocity in both cases.
7. (a) What are the different unit quantities? Explain them and give their uses.
(b) Explain the different characteristic curves for a hydraulic turbine.
8. (a) Give the classification of Centrifugal pumps.
(b) Explain the working of a Centrifugal pump with neat sketch