JNTU, B.Tech,I-Semester, MICROBIOLOGY, November 2008

JNTU, B.Tech,I-Semester, MICROBIOLOGY, November 2008




1. Discuss the role of Lazarro Spallanzani and Ferdinand Cohn in disproving the

doctrine of spontaneous generation of microorganisms.


2. Define “acterial Speciation”, explain difficulties encountered in classification of bacteria.


3. Define “ Retrovirus”, explain its properties.


4. Discuss the steps in the process of penetration of bacteriophage into the host cell.


5. Discuss various types of culture techniques of viruses.


6. Write short notes on:

(a) Growth factors.

(b) Aerobes.

(c) Anaerobes.

(d) Nutrients.


7. Define water activity and briefly discuss how it can be determined. Why is it

diffcult for microorganisms to grow at low water activity (aw) values.


8. How will you measure the killing rates of microorganisms? Explain some tests for

measurement of killing rates.


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