JNTU, B.Tech,I-Semester, MICROBIOLOGY, November 2008

JNTU, B.Tech,I-Semester, MICROBIOLOGY, November 2008




1. Why are microorganisms so useful to biologists as experimental models?


2. Write notes:

(a) Phenetic classification

(b) ED values

(c) FAME

(d) Signature sequences.


3. Define “Virology”. Discuss the contributions made by different scientists for its



4. Discuss general steps in viral replication.


5. Define viruses and explain the viral morphology.


6. How do you measure microbial growth. Explain about measurement of cell numbers

and measurement of cell mass.


7. Define water activity and briefly discuss how it can be determined. Why is it

difficult for microorganisms to grow at low water activity (aw) values.


8. Explain the use of physical methods in control of microorganisms growth.


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