JNTU B.Tech II Semester Examinations,
, Apr/May 2008
( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering, Bio-Medical
Engineering and Electronics & Telematics)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
1. Describe the two commonly used methods for obtaining integrated capacitor. 
2. (a) Explain various regions of CMOS inverter transfer characteristics.
(b) For a CMOS inverter, calculate the shift in the transfer characteristic curve when ?n/?p ratio is varied from 1/1 to 10/1. [8+8]
3. (a) what is a stick diagram? Draw the stick diagram and layout for a CMOS
(b) What are the effects of scaling on Vt?
(c) What are design rules? Why is metal- metal spacing larger than poly –poly spacing. [8+4+4]
4. Calculate the rise time and fall time of the CMOS inverter (W/L)n= 6 and (W/L)p=8,
n =150? A/V 2, Vtn =0.7V,K?
p= 62 ? A/V 2, Vtp=-0.85V , VDD =3.3V. Total out-put capacitance =150 fF. 
5. (a) Explain the CMOS system design based on the data path operators with a
(b) Draw and explain the basic Memory- chip architecture. [8+8]
6. (a) Draw the typical standard-cell structure showing low-power cell and explain it.
(b) Sketch a diagram for two input XOR using PLA and explain its operation with the help of truth table. [8+8]
7. (a) Write a VHDL Program for a divide-by-3 counter with suitable state diagram.
(b) Compare all available design verification tools. [8+8]
8. (a) Explain how an improved layout can be reduced faults in CMOS circuits.
(b) Explain how a pseudo random sequence generator may be used to test a 16-bit
data path. How would the outputs be collected and checked. [6+10]