# GITAM University Fluid Mechanics II Syllabus

UNIT–I:
Dimensional Analysis, Similitude and Modelling: Dimensional Analysis – Buckingham ? Theorem –
Rayleigh method – Similarity Laws – Reynolds, Froude, Weber, Mach and Euler Numbers, Principles of Modelling – Scale Models in Hydraulic Engineering – Application to Practical problems.
UNIT-II:
Boundary Layer separation. Drag and Lift: Definitions, Deformation drag, friction drag and form drag; Drag over flat plate, Drag characteristics of two dimensional bodies(cylinder, stream lined strut) and three dimensional bodies (sphere, circular disc): Flow past air foil; separation and wake effects; Von Karman Vortex Street. Lift and propulsion: Circulation and lift, Magnus effect; lift characteristics of cylinder, and air foil, characteristics of propellers.
UNIT-III:
Flow through open channels: Comparison between closed conduit and free surface flow – classification of free surface flows – pressure distribution in open channels – Uniform flow, normal depth, Chezy`s and Manning`s equations, prismatic and non-prismatic channels; Most efficient channel sections for rectangular, trapezoidal cross sections; Specific energy and specific force in open channels; Energy principles in open channels – Specific energy – Critical flow, critical depth – Flow in channel transitions – Flow through channels with varying bed width and depths. Specific Force – Hydraulic jump in channels – loss of energy in jump for rectangular channels. Gradually varied flow in rectangular channels; Equation of GVF; Water surface slopes w.r.t. channel bed; Classification of slopes; GVF profiles-M1, M2 , M3,S1,S2,S3, C1, C3, H2, H3, A2 and A3 Curves.
UNIT-IV:
Impact of free jets, Turbines: Classification of Turbines – Impulse Turbines – Reaction Turbines – Various components and their functions – Draft Tubes – Radial, axial and mixed flow turbines – Impulse Turbines – Speed ratio Working of Impulse Turbines – Design Principles of Impulse and Reaction Turbines – Unit quantities, Specific Speed and Performance characteristics of Turbines.
UNIT –V:
Pumps: centrifugal Pumps – Single and Multistage Pumps – Working Principles – Priming – Head, Power and Efficiency – Cavitation in Turbines and Pumps – Minimum starting speed of Centrifugal Pumps – Characteristic Curves and Specific Speed – Reciprocating pumps – working Principles – Indicator Diagram – Cavitation in Reciprocating Pumps – Power Requirement – Air Vessels – Jet Pumps – Vertical Turbine Pumps – Submersible Pumps.

Reference Books:

1. A.K. Jain, Fluid Mechanics, Khanna Publishers, Delhi-6, eighth edition, 1998.
2. P.N. Modi & S.M. Seth, Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines, Standard Book
House, Delhi, 15th editions, 2002.
3. K. Subramanya, Flow in Open Channels, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 1986.