Companies Act Case Law Dalco Engineering Private Ltd. Appellant Vs Shree Satish Prabhakar Padhye

Companies Act Case Law

Dalco Engineering Private Ltd. Appellant Vs Shree Satish Prabhakar Padhye

Reportable

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA

CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION

CIVIL APPEAL NO.1886 OF 2007
Dalco Engineering Private Ltd. … Appellant

Vs.

Shree Satish Prabhakar Padhye & Ors. … Respondents

WITH

CIVIL APPEAL NO. 1858 OF 2007

Fancy Rehabilitation Trust & Anr. … Appellants

Vs.

Union of India & Ors. … Respondents

JUDGMENT

R. V. RAVEENDRAN, J.
Facts in CA No.1886/2007 :
The appellant is a private limited company incorporated under the

provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The respondent – S.P. Padhye –

(also referred to as `the employee’) was employed as a Telephone Operator

by the appellant for more than two decades. The respondent’s service was
2
terminated by the appellant with effect from 31.12.2000 on the ground that

he had become deaf (85% reduction in ability to hear). The respondent

complained to the Disability Commissioner, Pune, in regard to such

termination, alleging that he was fit, able and normal when he joined service

of the appellant and as he acquired the hearing impairment during the period

of service, he should have been continued in employment in some suitable

post. The Disability Commissioner made an order dated 12.10.2001

suggesting to the employer to undertake a social responsibility, by re-

employing the respondent to discharge any other work. The suggestion was

not accepted by the employer.

 

2. According to the respondent, the Commissioner, instead of making a

mere suggestion, ought to have issued a direction to the employer, in

exercise of jurisdiction under section 47 of the Persons with Disabilities

(Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995

(`the Act’, for short). He therefore filed a writ petition seeking the following

reliefs (i) quashing of the order dated 12.10.2001; and (ii) a direction to

implement the provisions of the Disabilities Act by directing the employer to

reinstate him in service in a suitable post, with retrospective effect from

1.1.2001, in the same pay-scale and service benefits. The High Court
3
allowed the said writ petition by judgment dated 23.12.2005, and directed

the employer to reinstate the respondent and shift him to a suitable post with

the same pay-scale and service benefits and with full back-wages. The High

Court held that the appellant, though a private limited company, was an

“establishment” as defined under section 2(k) of the Act and consequently

section 47 of the Act enjoined it not to dispense with the services of its

employee who acquired a disability.
Facts in CA No.1858/2007 :
3. The first Appellant is a Public Trust (for short the `Trust’) working for

the benefit of the physically and mentally challenged persons, took up a

house-keeping contract from the third respondent Company on 24.7.2000.

The appellant employed several physically handicapped persons for

executing the said contract. The third respondent terminated the appellant’s

contract on 18.7.2006. Feeling aggrieved, the appellant filed a complaint

dated 22.7.2006 with the Disability Commissioner, Pune followed by a writ

petition in the High Court for quashing the notice terminating the contract.

The appellant also sought a direction for rehabilitation of the persons with

disabilities who were employed by it for executing the said house-keeping

contract, under the provisions of the Act. A Division Bench of the Bombay
4
High Court by judgment dated 19.9.2006 dismissed the writ petition holding

that the third respondent was not an “establishment” within the meaning of

section 2(k) of the Act and, consequently, the provisions of the Act did not

apply and that the Disability Commissioner had no jurisdiction to issue any

direction to the third respondent. It also held that the earlier decision in S.P.

Padhye (which is the subject matter of the first case) was per incuriam as it

ignored two binding decisions of this court – the Constitution Bench decision

in Sukhdev Singh v. Bhagatram Sardar Singh Raghuvanshi [1975 (1) SCC

421] and the decision in S.S. Dhanoa v. Municipal Corporation, Delhi [1981

(3) SCC 431]. Feeling aggrieved, the appellants have filed this appeal.
Questions for decision
4) The employee relies on section 47 which provides that no

establishment shall dispense with, or reduce in rank, an employee who

acquires a disability during his service. Section 47 of the Act is extracted

below :-
“47. Non-discrimination in Government employment.–(1) No
establishment shall dispense with, or reduce in rank, an employee who
acquires a disability during his service:

Provided that, if an employee, after acquiring disability is not suitable for
the post he was holding, could be shifted to some other post with the same
pay scale and service benefits:
5

Provided further that if it is not possible to adjust the employee against
any post, he may be kept on a supernumerary post until a suitable post is
available or he attains the age of superannuation, whichever is earlier.

(2) No promotion shall be denied to a person merely on the ground of
his disability:

Provided that the appropriate Government may, having regard to the type
of work carried on in any establishment, by notification and subject to
such conditions, if any, as may be specified in such notification, exempt
any establishment from the provisions of this section.”
The term “establishment” employed in section 47 is defined in section 2(k)

of the Act as follows :

“2. Definitions.–In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, —

xxxxx

(k) “establishment” means a corporation established by or under a Central,
Provincial or State Act, or an authority or a body owned or controlled
or aided by the Government or a local authority or a Government
company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act 1956 (1 of
1956) and includes Departments of a Government;”
5. The question is, having regard to the definition of the word

`establishment’ of section 2(k) of the Act, whether the requirement relating

to non-discrimination of employees acquiring a disability during the course

of service, embodied in Section 47, is to be complied with only by

authorities falling within the definition of State (as defined in Article 12 of

the Constitution), or even by private employers. This leads us to the

following two questions:-
6
(i) Whether a company incorporated under the Companies Act (other
than a Government company as defined in section 617 of the
Companies Act, 1956) is an “establishment” as defined in section 2(k)
of the Act ?
(ii) Whether the respondent in the first case and the appellant in the
second case are entitled to claim any relief with reference to section
47 of the Act ?

 

Re: Question (i)
6. Let us examine the meaning of the crucial word `establishment’ used

in sub-section (1) of section 47 of the Act. The definition of the word

`establishment’ in section 2(k), when analyzed, shows that it is an

exhaustive definition, and covers the following categories of employers:

(i) a corporation established by or under a Central, Provincial, or State
Act;

(ii) an authority or a body owned or controlled or aided by the
Government;

(iii) a local authority;

(iv) a Government company as defined in Section 617 of the Companies
Act, 1956; and

(v) Departments of a Government.
7
It is not in dispute that the employers in these two cases are companies

incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 which do not fall under

categories (ii) to (v) specified in Section 2(k) of the Act.

 

7. The employee contends that a company incorporated under the

Companies Act is a Corporation falling under the first category enumerated

in section 2(k), that is `Corporation established by or under a Central,

Provincial or State Act’, on the following reasoning : that a corporation

refers to a company; that Companies Act is a Central Act; and that therefore

a company incorporated and registered under the Companies Act is a

Corporation established under a Central Act. He contends that the use of the

words “by or under” is crucial. According to him, `a corporation established

by an Act’ would refer to a corporation brought into existence by an Act;

and a `corporation established under an Act’ would refer to a company

incorporated under the Companies Act. On the other hand, the employer

contends that the term `Corporation established by or under a Central,

Provincial or State Act’ refers to a statutory Corporation which is brought

into existence by a statute, or under a statute and does not include a

company which is registered under the Companies Act. It is submitted that

Companies Act merely facilitates and lays down the procedure for
8
incorporation of a company which, when incorporated, will be governed by

the provisions of the said Act and therefore, a company registered under the

Companies Act, is not a corporation established under an Act.

 

8. The words “a Corporation established by or under a Central,

Provincial or State Act” is a standard term used in several enactments to

denote a statutory corporation established or brought into existence by or

under statute. For example, it is used in sub-clause (b) of Clause Twelfth of

Section 21 of the Indian Penal Code (`IPC’ for short) and Section 2(c)(iii) of

the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 (`PC Act’ for short). Both these

statutes provide that a person in the service of a `Corporation established by

or under a Central, Provincial or State Act’ is a public servant. The

Prevention of Damage to Public Property Act, 1984 defines `public

property’ as meaning any property owned by, or in the possession of, or

under the control of (i) the Central Government (ii) any state government; or

(iii) any local authority; or (iv) any corporation established by, or under, a

Central, Provincial or State Act; or (v) any company as defined in Section

617 of the Companies Act, 1956; or (vi) any institution, concern or

undertaking which the Central Government may, by notification in the

Official Gazette, specify in that behalf provided that the Central Government
9
shall not specify any institution, concern or undertaking under that sub-

clause unless such institution, concern or undertaking is financed wholly or

substantially by funds provided directly or indirectly by the Central

Government or by one or more State Governments, or partly by the Central

Government and partly by one or more State Governments. Thus the term is

always used to denote certain categories of authorities which are `State’ as

contrasted from non-statutory companies which do not fall under the ambit

of `State’.

 

9. The meaning of the term came up for consideration in S. S. Dhanoa

vs. Municipal Corporation, Delhi and Ors. – 1981 (3) SCC 431 with

reference to section 21 of IPC. This Court held:
“Clause Twelfth does not use the words “body corporate”, and the
question is whether the expression “corporation” contained therein, taken
in collocation of the words “established by or under a Central, Provincial
or State Act” would bring within its sweep a cooperative society.
Indubitably, the Cooperative Store Limited is not a corporation established
by a Central or State Act. The crux of the matter is whether the word
‘under’ occurring in Clause Twelfth of Section 21 of the Indian Penal Code
makes a difference. Does the mere act of incorporation of a body or
society under a Central or a State Act make it a corporation within the
meaning of Clause Twelfth of Section 21. In our opinion, the expression
‘corporation’ must, in the context, mean a corporation created by the
Legislature and not a body or society brought into existence by an act of a
group of individuals. A cooperative society is, therefore, not a corporation
established by or under an Act of the Central or State Legislature.

A corporation is an artificial being created by law having a legal entity
entirely separate and distinct from the individuals who compose it with the
1

capacity of continuous existence and succession, notwithstanding changes
in its membership. …….. The term ‘corporation’ is, therefore, wide enough
to include private corporations. But, in the context of Clause Twelfth of
Section 21 of the Indian Penal Code, the expression ‘corporation’ must be
given a narrow legal connotation.

Corporation, in its widest sense, may mean any association of individuals
entitled to act as an individual. But that certainly is not the sense in which
it is used here. Corporation established by or under an Act of Legislature
can only mean a body corporate which owes its existence, and not merely
its corporate status, to the Act. For example, a Municipality, a Zilla
Parishad or a Gram Panchayat owes its existence and status to an Act of
Legislature. On the other hand, an association of persons constituting
themselves into a Company under the Companies Act or a Society under
the Societies Registration Act owes its existence not to the Act of
Legislature but to acts of parties though, it may owe its status as a body
corporate to an Act of Legislature.

There is a distinction between a corporation established by or under an Act
and a body incorporated under an Act. The distinction was brought out by
this Court in Sukhdev Singh and Ors. v. Bhagatram Sardar Singh
Raghuvanshi & Ors – (1975) 1 SCC 421. It was observed :

A company incorporated under the Companies Act is not
created by the Companies Act but comes into existence in
accordance with the provisions of the Act.

There is thus a well-marked distinction between a body created by a
statute and a body which, after coming into existence, is governed in
accordance with the provisions of a statute.”

(emphasis supplied)

 

In Executive Committee of Vaish Degree College v. Lakshmi Narain – 1976

(2) SCC 58, this Court explained the position further:

“In other words the position seems to be that the institution
concerned must owe its very existence to a statute which would be
the fountainhead of its powers. The question in such case to be
asked is, if there is no statute, would the institution have any legal
existence. If the answer is in the negative, then undoubtedly it is a
statutory body, but if the institution has a separate existence of its
own without any reference to the statute concerned but is merely
1

governed by the statutory provisions it cannot be said to be a
statutory body.”

[emphasis supplied]
10. A `company’ is not `established’ under the Companies Act. An

incorporated company does not `owe’ its existence to the Companies Act.

An incorporated company is formed by the act of any seven or more persons

(or two or more persons for a private company) associated for any lawful

purpose subscribing their names to a Memorandum of Association and by

complying with the requirements of the Companies Act in respect of

registration. Therefore, a `company’ is incorporated and registered under the

Companies Act and not established under the Companies Act. Per contra,

the Companies Act itself establishes the National Company Law Tribunal

and National Company Law Appellate Tribunal, and those two statutory

authorities owe their existence to the Companies Act.

 

11. Where the definition of `establishment’ uses the term `a corporation

established by or under an Act’, the emphasis should be on the word

`established’ in addition to the words `by or under’. The word `established’

refers to coming into existence by virtue of an enactment. It does not refer to

a company, which, when it comes into existence, is governed in accordance
1
with the provisions of the Companies Act. But then, what is the difference

between `established by a central Act’ and `established under a central Act’?

The difference is best explained by some illustrations. A corporation is

established by an Act, where the Act itself establishes the corporation. For

example, Section 3 of State Bank of India Act, 1955 provides that a Bank to

be called the State Bank of India shall be constituted to carry on the business

of banking. Section 3 of Life Insurance Corporation Act, 1956 provides that

with effect from such date as the Central Government may by notification in

the Official Gazette appoint, there shall be established a corporation called

the Life Insurance Corporation of India. State Bank of India and Life

Insurance Corporation of India are two examples of corporations

established by “a Central Act”. We may next refer to the State Financial

Corporation Act, 1951 which provides for establishment of various Financial

Corporations under that Act. Section 3 of that Act relates to establishment of

State Financial Corporations and provides that the State Government may,

by notification in the Official Gazette establish a Financial Corporation for

the State under such name as may be specified in the notification and such

Financial Corporation shall be a body corporate by the name notified. Thus,

a State Financial Corporation is established under a central Act. Therefore,

when the words “by and under an Act” are preceded by the words
1
“established”, it is clear that the reference is to a corporation established,

that it is brought into existence, by an Act or under an Act. In short, the

term refers to a statutory corporation as contrasted from a non-statutory

corporation incorporated or registered under the Companies Act.

 

12. There is indication in the definition of `establishment’ itself, which

clearly establishes that all companies incorporated under the Companies Act

are not establishments. The enumeration of establishments in the definition

of `establishment’ specifically includes “a Government Company as defined

in Section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956″. This shows that the legislature,

took pains to include in the definition of `establishment’ only one category

of companies incorporated under the Companies Act, that is the

`Government Companies’ as defined in Section 617 of the Companies Act.

If, as contended by the employee, all Companies incorporated under the

Companies Act are to be considered as `establishments’ for the purposes of

Section 2(k), the definition would have simply and clearly stated that `a

company incorporated or registered under the Companies Act, 1956′ which

would have included a Government company defined under Section 617 of

the Companies Act, 1956. The inclusion of only a specific category of

companies incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 within the
1
definition of `establishment’ necessarily and impliedly excludes all other

types of companies registered under the Companies Act, 1956, from the

definition of `establishment’. It is clear that the legislative intent was to

apply section 47 of the Act only to such establishments as were specifically

defined as `establishment’ under section 2(k) of the Act and not to other

establishments. The legislative intent was to define `establishment’ so as to

be synonymous with the definition of `State’ under Article 12 of the

Constitution of India. Private employers, whether individuals, partnerships,

proprietary concerns or companies (other than Government companies) are

clearly excluded from the `establishments’ to which section 47 of the Act

will apply.

 

13. There is yet another indication in section 47, that private employers

are excluded. The caption/ marginal note of section 47 describes the purport

of the section as non-discrimination in Government employment. The word

`government’ is used in the caption, broadly to refer to `State’ as defined in

Article 12 of the Constitution. If the intention of the legislature was to

prevent discrimination of persons with disabilities in any kind of

employment, the marginal note would have simply described the provision

as `non-discrimination in employment’ and sub-section (1) of section 47
1
would have simply used the word `any employer’ instead of using the word

`establishment’ and then taking care to define the word `establishment’. The

non-use of the words `any employer’, and `any employment’ and specific

use of the words `Government employment’ and `establishment’ (as

defined), demonstrates the clear legislative intent to apply the provisions of

Section 47 only to employment under the State and not to employment under

others. While the marginal note may not control the meaning of the body of

the section, it usually gives a safe indication of the purport of the section to

the extent possible. Be that as it may.

 

14. The learned counsel for the employee submitted that the decision in

Dhanoa was rendered with reference to a penal statute; and that words or

terms in such statutes are used in a restrictive and strict sense. He contended

that definition of words and terms in a penal statute will not provide a safe

guide to interpret the same words employed in socio-economic legislations.

He further contended that the terms used in a socio-economic statute like

Disabilities Act, providing for full participation and equality, for people with

disabilities and to remove any discrimination against them vis-`-vis non-

disabled persons, should be interpreted liberally. He submitted that any

interpretation of the term `a corporation established by or under a central,
1
provincial or state Act’ with reference to the Penal Code should not

therefore be imported for understanding the meaning of that term when used

in the Act. He referred to and relied upon the Statement of Objects and

Reasons of the Act which states that India as a signatory to the Proclamation

on the Full Participation and Equality of the People with Disabilities in the

Asian and Pacific Region, enacted the Statute to provide for the following :
(i) to spell out the responsibility of the State towards the prevention of
disabilities, protection of rights, provision of medical care, education,
training, employment and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities;

(ii) to create barrier free environment for persons with disabilities;

(iii) to remove any discrimination against persons with disabilities in the
sharing of development benefits, vis-`-vis non-disabled persons;

(iv) to counteract any situation of the abuse and the exploitation of persons
with disabilities;

(v) to lay down a strategy for comprehensive development of
programmes and services and equalization of opportunities for
persons with disabilities; and

(vi) to make special provision of the integration of persons with
disabilities into the social mainstream.”
He submitted that keeping the said objects in view, the term `establishment’

should be extended to all corporations incorporated under the Companies

Act 1956, irrespective of whether they are in the public sector or private

sector.
1
14.1) He also relied upon the following principle of contextual

interpretation enunciated by this Court in Reserve Bank of India vs.

Peerless General Finance and Investment Co. Ltd., – 1987 (1) SCC 424:

“Interpretation must depend on the text and the context. They are the
bases of interpretation. One may well say is the text is the texture, context
is what gives the colour. Neither can be ignored. Both are important. The
interpretation is best which makes the textual interpretation match the
contextual. A statute is best interpreted when we know why it was enacted.
With this knowledge, the statute must be read, first as a whole and then
section by section, clause by clause, phrase by phrase and word by word.
If a statute is looked at, in the context of its enactment, with the glasses of
the statute-maker, provided by such context, its scheme, the sections,
clauses, phrases and words may take colour and appear different than
when the statute is looked at without the glasses provided by the context.
With these glasses we must look at the Act as a whole and discover what
each section, each clause, each phrase and each word is meant and
designed to say as to fit into the scheme of the entire Act. No part of a
statute and no word of a statute can be construed in isolation. Statutes have
to be construed so that every word has a place and everything is in its
place.”
14.2) He next relied upon the principle that words in a social welfare

legislation should receive liberal and broad interpretation, stated by this

Court in Workman of American Express International Banking Corporation

v. Management of American Express International Banking Corporation –

1985 (4) SCC 71 :

“The principles of statutory construction are well settled. Words occurring
in statutes of liberal import such as social welfare legislation and human
rights legislation are not to be put in Procrustean beds or shrunk to
Liliputian dimensions. In construing these legislations the imposture of
literal construction must be avoided and the prodigality of its
misapplication must be recognized and reduced. Judges ought to be more
1

concerned with the `colour’, the `content’ and the `context’ of such
statutes (we have borrowed the words from Lord Wilberforce’s opinion in
Prenn v. Simmonds – 1971 (3) All ER 237). In the same opinion Lord
Wilberforce pointed out that law is not to be left behind in some island of
literal interpretation but is to enquire beyond the language, unisolated
from the matrix of facts in which they are set; the law is not to be
interpreted purely on internal linguistic considerations. In one of the cases
cited before us, that is, Surendra Kumar Verma v. Central Government
Industrial Tribunal-cum-Labour Court (1981) 1 SCR 789, we had
occasion to say,

Semantic luxuries are misplaced in the interpretation of
“bread and butter” statutes. Welfare statutes must, of
necessity, receive a broad interpretation. Where legislation is
designed to give relief against certain kinds of mischief, the
Court is not to make inroads by making etymological
excursions.”
14.3) He next relied upon the following observations in Kunal Singh v.

Union of India – 2003 (4) SCC 524, where this Court, referring to the very

section under consideration, observed thus :
“Section 47 contains a clear directive that the employer shall not dispense
with or reduce in rank an employee who acquires a disability during the
service. In construing a provision of a social beneficial enactment that too
dealing with disabled persons intended to give them equal opportunities,
protection of rights and full participation, the view that advances the
object of the Act and serves its purpose must be preferred to the one which
obstructs the object and paralyses the purpose of the Act. Language of
section 47 is plain and certain casting statutory obligation on the employer
to protect an employee acquiring disability during service.”
15. We agree that the socio-economic legislations should be interpreted

liberally. It is also true that Courts should adopt different yardsticks and

measures for interpreting socio-economic statutes, as compared to penal
1
statutes, and taxing statutes. But a caveat. The courts cannot obviously

expand the application of a provision in a socio-economic legislation by

judicial interpretation, to levels unintended by the legislature, or in a manner

which militates against the provisions of the statute itself or against any

constitutional limitations. In this case, there is a clear indication in the

statute, that the benefit is intended to be restricted to a particular class of

employees, that is employees of enumerated establishments (which fall

within the scope of `state’ under Article 12). Express limitations placed by

the socio-economic statute can not be ignored, so as to include in its

application, those who are clearly excluded by such statute itself. We should

not lose sight of the fact that the words “corporation established by or under

a Central, Provincial or State Act” is a term used in several enactments,

intended to convey a standard meaning. It is not a term which has any

special significance or meaning in the context of the Disabilities Act or any

other socio-economic legislations. It is a term used in various enactments, to

refer to statutory corporations as contrasted from non-statutory companies.

Any interpretation of the said term, to include private sector, will not only

amount to overruling the clear enunciation in Dhanoa which has held the

field for nearly three decades, but more importantly lead to the erasure of the

distinction maintained in the Constitution between statutory corporations
2
which are `state’ and non-statutory bodies and corporations, for purposes of

enforcement of fundamental rights. The interpretation put forth by the

employee would make employees of all companies, public servants,

amenable to punishment under the provisions of Indian Penal Code and

Prevention of Corruption Act; and would also result in all non-statutory

companies and private sector companies being included in the definition of

`State’ thereby requiring them to comply with the requirements of non-

discrimination, equality in employment, reservations etc.

 

16. The appellant next contended that the scheme of the Act, does not

confine its applicability to government or statutory corporations. Reference

is invited to some provisions of the Act to contend that obligations/duties/

responsibilities are fixed with reference to persons with disabilities, on

establishments other than those falling under section 2(k) of the Act. It was

submitted that section 39 casts an obligation on all educational institutions,

to reserve not less than three percent of the seats for persons with

disabilities. In fact, it is not so. Though, the marginal note of section 29 uses

the words `all educational institutions’ with reference to reservation of seats

for persons with disabilities, the section makes it clear that only government

educational institutions and educational institutions receiving aid from the
2
government shall reserve not less than three percent seats for persons with

disabilities. It is well recognized that an aided private school would be

included within the definition of `State’ in regard to its acts and functions as

an instrumentality of the State. Therefore, care is taken to apply the

provisions of the Act to only educational institutions belonging to the

government or receiving aid from the government and not to unaided private

educational institutions. Further, section 39 of the Act, does not use the word

`establishment’. Reference is next made to the section 44 which requires

non-discrimination in transport. This section requires establishments in the

transport sector to take special measures (within the limits of their economic

capacity) to permit easy access to persons with disabilities. The employee

contends that this would mean that all establishments whether statutory

corporations falling under the definition of section 2(k) of the Act or non-

statuary corporations, or even individuals operating in the transport sector

should comply with section 44 of the Act. We do not propose to consider

whether Section 44 applies to non-statutory corporations in the transport

sector, as that issue does not arise in this case. Further the use of the words

“within the limits of their economic capacity” makes it virtually directory.

Be that as it may.
2
Re : Question (ii)
17. As the appellant in CA No. 1886/2007 and the third respondent in CA

No. 1858/2007, are not establishments, within the meaning of that

expression in Section 2(k) of the Act, section 47 of the Act will not apply. In

so far the CA No. 1858 of 2007, there is an additional factor. Third

respondent therein was not the employer of any persons with disability.

Therefore, in that case, the entire question is academic. In neither of the

cases, any relief can be granted under section 47 of the Act.
18. Therefore CA No. 1886 of 2007 is allowed and CA No. 1858 of 2007

is dismissed resulting in the dismissal of the respective writ petitions. This

will not come in the way of employee of any private company, who has been

terminated on the ground of disability, seeking or enforcing any right

available under any other statute, in accordance with the law.

 

_____________________J.
(R.V. RAVEENDRAN)
_____________________J.
(R. M. LODHA)
New Delhi. _____________________J.
March 31, 2010. (C. K. PRASAD)

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