# BPUT B.Tech 7th Semester Information Technology Syllabus

**Information Technology**

**ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT**

**Module I: ** **10Hrs**

**Understanding Entrepreneurship.**

Concept of Entrepreneurship, Motivation for Economic Development and Entrepreneurial Achievement, Enterprise and Society, Why and how to start Business – Entrepreneurial traits and skills, Mind Vrs Money in Commencing New Ventures, Entrepreneurial success and failures, Environmental dynamics and change.

**Entrepreneurial Process**

Step by step approach to entrepreneurial start up Decision for Entrepreneurial start up.

**Module II: ** **10Hrs**

**Setting up of a small Business Enterprise.**

Identifying the Business opportunity – Business opportunities in various sectors, formalities for setting up small enterprises in manufacturing and services, Environmental pollution and allied regulatory and non-regulatory clearances for new venture promotion in SME sector. Writing a Business plan, components of a B-Plan, determining Bankability of the project.

**Module III: 10Hrs**

**Institutional Support for SME.**

Central / State level Institution promoting SME. Financial Management in small business. Marketing Management, problems & strategies Problems of HRM – Relevant Labour – laws.

**Sickness in Small Enterprises.**

Causes and symptoms of sickness – cures of sickness. Govt. policies on revival of sickness and remedial measures.

**Reference Books:**

- Entrepreneurship Development, Small Business Enterprises, Chavantimath, Pearson.
- Entrepreneurial Development, S.S. Khanka, S Chand
- Entrepreneurship, Barringer BR, Ireland R.D., Pearson
- Entrepreneurship, David H Holt, PHI
- Entrepreneurship, Kurilko, D.F. and Attodgets RM, Cengage
- The Dynamics of Entrepreneurial Development & Management, Vasant Desai, HPH.
- Entrepreneurship, Roy, Oxford
- Entrepreneurship, Hisrich, Peters, Shepherd, TMH

**PRINCIPLES OF SOFT COMPUTING ****(3-0-0)**

**Module – I (12 Hrs.)**

Introduction to Soft Computing**,** Artificial Neural Network(ANN) **:**

Fundamentals of ANN, Basic Models of an artificial Neuron, Neural Network Architecture, Learning methods, Terminologies of ANN, Hebb network, Supervised Learning Networks: Perceptron, MLP, Architecture of a Back propagation Network : back propagation, Learning Effect of Tunning parameters of the Back propagation, Adaline, Madaline, RBF Network, Associative memory: Auto, hetero and linear associative memory, network, Adaptive Resonance Theory ART1, ART2, Applications

**Module –II (12 Hrs)**

FUZZY LOGIC:

Fuzzy set theory: crisp sets, fuzzy sets, crisp relations, fuzzy relations, Fuzzy Systems: Crisp logic predicate logic, fuzzy logic, fuzzy Rule based system, Defuzzification Methods, Fuzzy rule based reasoning

GENETIC ALGORITHMS:

Fundamentals of genetic algorithms: Encoding, Fitness functions, Reproduction.

Genetic Modeling :

Cross cover, Inversion and deletion, Mutation operator, Bit-wise operators, Bitwise operators used in GA. Convergence of Genetic algorithm. Applications , Real life Problems.

**Module – III (6 Hrs.)**

Hybrid Soft Computing Techniques Hybrid system, neural Networks, fuzzy logic and Genetic algorithms hybrids. Genetic Algorithm based Back propagation Networks: GA based weight determination applications: Fuzzy logic controlled genetic Algorithms soft computing tools, Applications.

**Text Book :**

Principles of Soft Computing- S.N.Sivanandan and S.N.Deepa, Wiley India, 2^{nd} Edition,2011

**Reference Book :**

- Neuro Fuzzy and Soft Computing, J. S. R. JANG,C.T. Sun, E. Mitzutani, PHI
- Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic, and Genetic Algorithm (synthesis and Application) S.Rajasekaran, G.A. Vijayalakshmi Pai, PHI

**SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT**

**Module I: Project Evaluation and Planning** **(12Hrs)**

Activities in Software Project Management, Overview Of Project Planning, Stepwise planning, contract management, Software processes and process models. Cost Benefit Analysis, Cash Flow Forecasting, Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques, Risk Evaluation. Project costing, COCOMO 2, Staffing pattern, Effect of schedule compression, Putnam’s equation, Capers Jones estimating rules of thumb, Project Sequencing and Scheduling Activities, Scheduling resources, Critical path analysis, Network Planning, Risk Management, Nature and Types of Risks, Managing Risks, Hazard Identification, Hazard Analysis, Risk Planning and Control, PERT and Monte Carlo Simulation techniques.

**Module 2: Monitoring And Control** **(8Hrs)**

Collecting Data, Visualizing Progress, Cost Monitoring, review techniques, project termination review, Earned Value analysis, Change Control, Software Configuration

Management (SCM), Managing Contracts, Types Of Contracts, Stages In Contract Placement, Typical Terms of A Contract, Contract Management and Acceptance.

**Module 3: (10Hrs)**

**Quality Management and People Management **

Introduction, Understanding Behavior, Organizational Behaviour, Selecting The Right Person For The Job, Motivation, The Oldman – Hackman Job Characteristics Model ,

Working in Groups, Organization and team structures, Decision Making, Leadership, Organizational Structures, Stress, Health And Safety. ISO and CMMI models, Testing, and Software reliability, test automation, Overview of project management tools.

**Text Book**

- Bob Hughes, Mike Cotterell, “Software Project Management”, Fifth Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2011.

**References:**

- Royce, “Software Project Management”, Pearson Education, 1999.
- Robert K. Wysocki, Effective Software Project Management, Wiley, 2009.

**ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE**

**Module 1** **12Hrs**

What is Artificial Intelligence? AI Technique, Level of the Model,Problem Spaces, and Search: Defining the Problem as a State Space Search, Production Systems, Problem Characteristics, Production System Characteristics, Issues in the Design of Search Programs.Heuristic Search Techniques: Generate-and-Test, Hill Climbing, Best-first Search, Problem Reduction, Constraint Satisfaction, Means-ends Analysis,

**Knowledge** **Representation: **Representations and Mappings, Approaches to Knowledge Representation,

**Using Predicate Logic**: Representing Simple Facts in Logic, Representing Instance and ISA Relationships, Computable Functions and Predicates, Resolution, Natural Deduction.

**Using Rules**: Procedural Versus Declarative Knowledge, Logic Programming, Forward Versus Backward Reasoning, Matching, Control Knowledge.

**Symbolic Reasoning Under Uncertainty**: Introduction to Nonmonotonic Reasoning, Logics for Nonmonotonic Reasoning, Implementation Issues, Augmenting a Problem-solver, Depth-first Search, Breadth-first Search.

**Weak** **and Strong Slot-and-Filler Structures**: Semantic Nets, Frames, Conceptual DependencyScripts, CYC.

**Module 2** **10Hrs**

**Game Playing**: The Minimax Search Procedure, Adding Alpha-beta Cutoffs, Iterative Deepening.

**Planning**: The Blocks World, Components of a Planning System, Goal Stack Planning, Nonlinear Planning Using Constraint Posting, Hierarchical PlanningOther Planning Techniques.

**Understanding**: What is Understanding, What Makes Understanding Hard?, Understanding as Constraint Satisfaction.

**Natural** **Language Processing**: Introduction, Syntactic Processing, Semantic Analysis, Discourse and Pragmatic Processing, Statistical Natural Language Processing, Spell Checking.

**Module 3** **8Hrs**

**Learning**: Rote Learning, Learning by Taking Advice, Learning in Problem-solving,

Learning from Examples: Induction, Explanation-based Learning, Discovery, Analogy, Formal Learning Theory, Neural Net Learning and Genetic Learning.

**Expert Systems**: Representing and Using Domain Knowledge, Expert System Shells, Explanation, Knowledge Acquisition.

**Text Book:**

- Elaine Rich, Kevin Knight, & Shivashankar B Nair, Artificial Intelligence, McGraw Hill, 3rd ed.,2009

**References:**

- Introduction to Artificial Intelligence & Expert Systems, Dan W Patterson, PHI.,2010
- S Kaushik, Artificial Intelligence, Cengage Learning, 1st ed.2011

**REAL-TIME SYSTEMS**

**MODULE-1** **10Hrs**

Introduction: What is real time, Applications of Real-Time systems, A basic model of Real-time system, Characteristics of Real-time system, Safety and Reliability, Types of Real-time tasks, timing constraints, Modelling timing constraints

Real-Time Task Scheduling: Some important concepts, Types of Real-time tasks and their characteristics, Task scheduling, Clock-Driven scheduling, Hybrid schedulers, Event-Driven scheduling, Earliest Deadline First (EDF) scheduling, Rate monotonic algorithm (RMA). Some issues Associated with RMA. Issues in using RMA practical situations.

**MODULE-2** **10Hrs**

Handling Resource Sharing and dependencies among Real-time Tasks: Resource sharing among real-time tasks. Priority inversion. Priority Inheritance Protocol (PIP), Highest Locker Protocol (HLP). Priority Ceiling Protocol (PCP). Different types of priority inversions under PCP.Important features of PCP. Some issues in using a resource sharing protocol. Handling task dependencies.

Scheduling Real-time tasks in multiprocessor and distributed systems: Multiprocessor task allocation, Dynamic allocation of tasks. Fault tolerant scheduling of tasks. Clock in distributed Real-time systems, Centralized clock synchronization.

**MODULE-3** **10Hrs**

Commercial Real-time operating systems: Time services, Features of a Real-time operating system, Unix as a Real-time operating system, Unix-based Real-time operating systems, Windows as a Real-time operating system,POSIX-RT, A survey of contemporary Real-time operating systems. Bench marking real-time systems.

Real-time Databases: Example applications of Real-time databases. Review of basic database concepts, Real-time databases, Characteristics of temporal data. Concurrency control in real-time databases. Commercial real-time databases. Real-time Communication: Basic concepts, Examples of applications, Real-time communication in a LAN and Real-time communication over packet switched networks.

**Text Book:**

- Real-time Systems Theory and Practice by Rajib Mall, Pearson Publication, 2008.

**References:**

- Jane W. S. Liu, Real-Time Systems, Pearson Education, 2000.
- M. Krishna and K.G. Shin, Real-Time Systems, TMH.

**SOFTWARE TESTING**

**Module 1. Basics of Software Testing**

The Testing process, Testing and Debugging; Test Metrics; Software and Hardware Testing; Testing and Verification; Defect Management; Execution History; Test case generation Strategies, Static and dynamic analysis., Model-Based Testing; Control-flow Graph, state-model, and data-flow-based testing.

**Module 2. Test Generation and Regression Testing**

Introduction; The Test-Selection Problem; Equivalence Partitioning; Boundary Value. Analysis; Category-Partition Method. Cause-Effect Graphing, Test Generation from Predicates. Combinatorial Designs; A Combinatorial Test-Design Process; Fault Model. Basics of Regression Testing (RTS), Selecting Regression Tests; Test Selection Using Execution Trace; Test Selection Using program slicing; Test Minimization; Test Prioritization; Tools for Regression Testing.

**Module 3. Test Adequacy**

Test Adequacy: Basics; Adequacy Criteria Based on Control Flow. Data-Flow Concepts; Adequacy Criteria Based on Data-Flow; Control Flow versus Data- Flow; The Subsumes Relation; Structural and Functional Testing; Scalability of Coverage Measurement.

**Text Books:**

- Srinivasan Desikan, Gopalaswamy Ramesh: Software testing Principles and Practices, 2
^{nd}Edition, Pearson, 2007.

**Reference Books:**

- Aditya P Mathur: Foundations of Software Testing, Pearson Education, 2008.
- Ron Patton: Software Testing, 2nd edition, Pearson, 2004.
- Mauro Pezze and Michal Young. Software Testing and Analysis, Wiley, 2008.

**CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY**

**Module 1** **10Hrs**

**Introduction to Information Security**: Security Goals, Attacks, Security Services and

Mechanisms, **Mathematical Background**: Integer and Modular Arithmetic, Matrices, Linear Congruence. Groups, Rings, and Fields, GF(p), Euclidean and Extended Euclidean Algorithms, Polynomial Arithmetic, GF(2n). Random Number Generation, Prime Numbers, Fermat’s and Euler’s Theorems, Primality Testing Methods, Factorization, Chinese Remainder Theorem, Quadratic Congruence, Discrete Logarithms.

**Module 2** **10Hrs**

**Traditional Encryption Methods**: Symmetric Cipher Model, Substitution Ciphers,

Transposition Ciphers, Block and Stream Ciphers, Rotor Cipher, Steganography.

**Symmetric Key Ciphers**: Data Encryption Standard, Advanced Encryption Standard.

**Asymmetric Key Ciphers**: RSA Cryptosystem, ElGamal Cryptosystem, Elliptic Curve

Cryptosystem.**Message Integrity, Authentication**: Message Integrity, Random Oracle

Model, Message Authentication, MAC Algorithms. Cryptographic Hash Functions: MD Hash Family, Whirlpool, Secure Hash Algorithm. Digital Signature and Authentication: Digital Signature Schemes, Variations and Applications, Entity Authentication.Key Management: Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange.

**Module 3** **10Hrs**

**Network and System Security**:Security at the Application Layer: e-mail security, PGP and S/MIME. Security at the Transport Layer: Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS). Security at the Network Layer: IP Security.

**System** **Security**: Malicious Software, Malicious Programs, Viruses, Worms, Malware, Intrusion Detection System, Firewalls.

**Text Books:**

- A. Forouzan & D Mukhopadhyay ,Cryptography and Network Security., McGraw Hill, 2nd ed.2010

**References:**

- Menezes ,Network Security and Cryptography., Cengage Learning, 1st ed.2010
- Stallings ,Cryptography and Network Security., PHI, 4th ed.2010

**COMPUTER GRAPHICS**

**Module – I **(10 hours)

Overview of Graphics System: Video Display Units, Raster-Scan and Random Scan Systems, Graphics Input and Output Devices.

Output Primitives: Line drawing Algorithms: DDA and Bresenham’s Line Algorithm, Circle drawing Algorithms: Midpoint Circle Algorithm and Bresenham’s Circle drawing Algorithm.

Two Dimensional Geometric Transformation: Basic Transformation (Translation, rotation, Scaling) Matrix Representation, Composite Transformations, Reflection, Shear, Transformation between coordinate systems.

Two Dimensional Viewing: Window-to- View port Coordinate Transformation.

**Module –II **(12 hours)

Line Clipping (Cohen-Sutherland Algorithm) and Polygon Clipping (Sutherland-Hodgeman Algorithm).

Aliasing and Antialiasing, Half toning, Thresholding and Dithering, Scan conversion of Character.

Polygon Filling: Seed Fill Algorithm, Scan line Algorithm.

Two Dimensional Object Representation: Spline Representation, Bezier Curves and B-Spline Curves.

Fractal Geometry: Fractal Classification and Fractal Dimension.

Three Dimensional Geometric and Modeling Transformations: Translation Rotation, Scaling, Reflections, shear, Composite Transformation. Projections: Parallel Projection and Perspective Projection.

**Module –III **(8 hours)

Visible Surface Detection Methods: Back-face Detection, Depth Buffer, A- Buffer, Scan-line Algorithm and Painters Algorithm.

Illumination Models: Basic Models, Displaying Light Intensities.

Surface Rendering Methods: Polygon Rendering Methods: Gouraud Shading and Phong Shading.

Computer Animation: Types of Animation, Key frame Vs. Procedural Animation, methods of controlling Animation, Morphing.

Virtual Reality: Types of Virtual reality systems, Input and Output Virtual Reality devices.

**Textbook**

- Computer Graphics with Virtual Reality System, Rajesh K.Maurya, Wiley-Dreamtech.
- Computer Graphics, D. Hearn and M.P. Baker (C Version), Pearson Education

**Reference Books**

- Computer Graphics Principle and Practice , J.D. Foley, A.Dam, S.K. Feiner, Addison, Wesley
- Procedural Elements of Computer Graphics- David Rogers (TMH)
- Computer Graphics: Algorithms and Implementations – D.P Mukherjee & Debasish Jana (PHI)
- Introduction to Computer Graphics & Multimedia – Anirban Mukhopadhyay & Arup Chattopadhyay (Vikas)

**ADVANCED COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE**

**Module 1: Processor Architecture** **10Hrs**

Evolution of Microprocessors, Instruction set processor design, Principles of processor performance, Instruction-level Parallelism, RISC and CISC architectures, Pipelining fundamentals, Arithmetic and instruction pipelining, Pipeline hazards, Minimizing pipeline stalls, Branch Prediction, superscalar and superpipelined architectures.

**Module 2: Memory and I/O Architecture** **10Hrs**

Hierarchical memory technology; Multi-level caches, Data and Instruction caches, Cache optimizations, Memory Management hardware, I/O systems: Peripheral and Processor-Memory buses, Split transaction buses , USB.

**Module 3: Multiprocessor Architecture** **10Hrs**

Basic multiprocessor architecture, Cache coherence, multi threaded processors, VLIW processor architectures. Array and vector processors. Case studies :MIPS architecture, Intel Series of processors, Pentium’s Internally RISC and externally CISC, Hyper threading, SPARC and ARM processors.

**Text Book**

- David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, Elsevier, Fourth Edition
- John Paul Shen and Mikko Lipasti, Modern Processor Design, Tata McGraw Hill.

**References:**

- Dezso
*Sima*, Terence Fountain, and Peter Kacsuk,*Advanced Computer**Architecture*: A Design Space Approach, by Addison Wesley - John L. Hennessy & David A. Patterson, Computer Architecture, A Quantitative Approach 4th Edition, Morgan Kaufmann.
- Hwang & Jotwani, Advance Computer Architecture, TMH

**INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING ****(3-0-0)**

**Module – I** **(10 hours)**

**Discrete Time Signals and System**

Discrete Time Signals (Elementary examples, classification : periodic and a periodic Signals energy and Power signals, Even and Odd Signals) .

**Discrete Time System :**

Block diagram representation of discrete time systems, classification of discrete time systems – static and dynamic, time variant and time – invariant, linear and non-linear, casual and anti-casual, stable and unstable.

Analysis and response (convolution sum ) of discrete – time linear LTI system, Recursive and Non-recursive discrete time system. Constant coefficient differences equations and their solutions, impulse response of LTI system , structures of LTI systems Recursive and Non-recursive realization of FIR system. Correlation of dispute time Signal.

Selected portions from Chapter 2 (2.1, 2.2,2.3,2.4,2.5, 2.6.1) of Textbook – I Chapter 1 of Textbook- 2.

**Module – II (10 hours)**

**The Z transform**

The Z-transform and one-sided Z-transform, properties of Z-transform , inverse of the Z-transform , Solution of difference equations.

Selected portions from Chapters 3 (3.1, 3.2,3.5) of Textbook – I Selected portion of chapter 4 of Textbook – 2

**The Discrete Fourier Transform**

The DFT and IDFT, relationship , DFT with Z- transform , the DFT as a linear transformation Relationship of DFT with Z-transform , properties of DFT: periodicity, linearity, summery and time reversal of a sequence. Circular convolution, circular correlation, circular correction by convolution, method linear convolution by overlap save methods and by overlap add method, Circular convolution and correlation by DFT method, Overlap add and save filtering by DFT method.

Selected portion from Chapter – 5 (5.1.2,5.1.3,5.1.4,5.2,5.2.1,5.2.2, 5.2.3, 5.3.2) of textbook –1.

Selected portion of chapter 6 of textbook – 2.

**Module- III (10 hours)**

**Fast Fourier Transform :**

Operation counts by direct copulation of DFT, Radix – 2 FFT algorithm- Decimation –in- time (DIT) and Decimation – in frequency (DIF) algorithm, Efficient computation DFT of Two real sequences , Efficient Computation of DFT of a 2 N-pt real sequences.

Selected portions from chapter 6 (6.1.1,6.1.3, 6.2.1, 6.2.2) of Text book –I Selected portions from chapter 7 and 8 of Text book – 2.

**Design and Digital Filters:**

Casually and its implication, Design of linear phase FIR filters using different windows. Design of IIR filters – Impulse Invariance Method and Bilinear transformation method. Selected portions from chapter 8 (8.1.1, 8.2.1, 8.2.2., 8.3.2,8.3.3.) of Text book – I

**Text Books**

- Digital Signal Processing – Principles, Algorithms and Applications by J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, 4th Edition, Pearson.

**VLSI DESIGN**

**Module – I 08 Hours**

**Introduction: **Historical Perspective, VLSI Design Methodologies, VLSI Design Flow, Design Hierarchy, Concept of Regularity, Modularity and Locality, VLSI Design Styles, Computer-Aided Design Technology.

**Fabrication of MOSFETs: **Introduction, Fabrication Processes Flow – Basic Concepts, The CMOS n-Well Process, Layout Design Rules, Stick Diagrams, Full-Customs Mask Layout Design.

**MOS Transistor: **The Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Structure, The MOS System under External Bias, Structure and Operation of MOS Transistor (MOSFET), MOSFET Current-Voltage Characteristics, MOSFET Scaling and Small -Geometry Effects, MOSFET Capacitance. (Chapter 1 to 3 of Text Book 1 and for Stick Diagram Text Book 2)

__Module – II__**14 Hours**

**MOS Inverters – Static Characteristics: **Introduction, Resistive-Load Inverters, Inverters with n-Type MOSFET Load, CMOS Inverter.

**MOS Inverters – Switching Characteristics and Interconnect Effects: **Introduction, Delay-Time Definitions, Calculation of Delay-Times, Inverter Design with Delay Constraints, Estimation of Interconnect Parasitics, Calculation of Interconnect Delay, Switching Power Dissipation of CMOS Inverters.

**Combinational MOS Logic Circuits: **Introduction, MOS Logic Circuits with Depletion nMOS Loads, CMOS Logic Circuits, Complex Logic Circuits, CMOS Transmission Gates (Pass Gates).

(Chapter 5 to 7 of Text Book 1)

__Module – III__**18 Hours**

**Sequential MOS Logic Circuits: **Introduction, Behaviour of Bistable Elements, SR Latch Circuits, Clocked Latch and Flip-Flop Circuits, CMOS D-Latch and Edge-Triggered Flip- Flop. **Dynamic Logic Circuits: **Introduction, Basic Principles of Pass Transistor Circuits, Voltage Bootstrapping, Synchronous Dynamic Circuit Techniques, Dynamic CMOS Circuit Techniques, High Performance Dynamic CMOS Circuits.

**Semiconductor Memories: **Introduction, Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM), Static Random Access Memory (SRAM), Non-volatile Memory, Flash Memory.

**Design for Testability: **Introduction, Fault Types and Models, Ad Hoc Testable Design Techniques, Scan-Based Techniques, Built-In Self-Test (BIST) Techniques, Current Monitoring I_{DDQ} Test.

__Text Books:__

- Sung-Mo Kang and Yusuf Leblebici,
*CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits: Analysis and**Design*, 3^{rd}, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 2003. - Eshraghian and N.H.E. Weste,
*Principles of CMOS VLSI Design – a Systems**Perspective*, 2nd Edn., Addison Wesley, 1993.

__Reference Books:__

- Jan M. Rabaey, Anantha Chandrakasan, Borivoje Nikolic,
*Digital Integrated Circuits – A**Design Perspective***,**2nd Edn., PHI. - Wayne Wolf,
*Modern VLSI Design System – on – Chip Design*, 3rd Edn., PHI - Debaprasad Das,
*VLSI Design*, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2010. - John P. Uyemura,
*CMOS Logic Circuit Design*, Springer (Kluwer Academic Publishers), 2001. - Ken Martin,
*Digital Integrated Circuit Design*, Oxford University Press, 2000.

**DIGITAL SWITCHING AND ****TELECOMMUNICATION ****NETWORKS**

**MODULE – I** **(16 hours)**

**Introduction:** Fundamentals of switching system, telecommunication networks.

**Electronic space division switching: **Stored program control, centralized and distributed SPC, application software architecture, enhanced services, two and three

stage & n stage networks. Time Division Switching: Basic time division space switching, time division time switching, time multiplexed space and time switching, combination switching, three-stage & n stage combination switching. (Chapter 1, 4 and 6)

**MODULE – II** **(12 hours)**

**Traffic Engineering: **Network traffic load and parameters, Grade of services & blocking probability, modeling of switching systems, incoming traffic & service time characterization, blocking models and loss estimates, Delay systems (Chapter 8) **Telephone Networks: **Subscriber loop systems, switching hierarchy and routing,

transmission plan, transmission systems, Signaling techniques : in channel & common channel signaling (Chapter 9)

**MODULE – III** **(12 hours)**

**Data Networks: **Data transmission in PSTN, switching techniques, Data communication architecture, link-to-link layers, end-to-end layers, satellite based data networks, an overview of data network standards. (Chapter 10)

**Integrated Service Digital Network**: Motivation, new services, transmission channels, signalling, service characterization, ISDN standards, broad band ISDN, voice data integration (Chapter 11)

__Text Books :__

- Thiagarajan Viswanathan, Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks by, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

__References:__

- Communication Networks, A Leon-Garcia and Indra Widiaja, TMH, New Delhi
- Data and Computer Communications by W Stallings, Pearson Education

**BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION **(3-0-0)

**Module – I** **(10 Hours)**

**Fundamentals of Biomedical Instrumentation: **Sources of Biomedical Signals, Basic Medical Instrumentation System, Intelligent Medical Instrumentation Systems, PC Based Medical Instrumentation Systems, General Constraints & Regulations of Medical Devices

**Biomedical Signals & Electrodes: **Origin of Bioelectric Signals-Repolarization, Depolarization, Resting Potential Recording Electrodes – Ag-AgCl Electrodes, Electrodes for ECG, EEG, EMG, Microelectrodes, Skin Contact Impedance, Motion Artifacts

**Module – II** **(13 Hours)**

**Physiological Transducers: **Introduction to Physiological Transducers, Classification of Transducers, Pressure Transducers, Transducers for Body Temperature Measurement, Biosensors, Smart Sensors

**Biomedical Recording Systems: **Basic Recording Systems, General Considerations for Signal Conditioners, Biomedical Signal Analysis Techniques, Signal Processing Techniques, Writing Systems: Direct Writing Recorders, Inkjet Recorder, Potentiometric Recorders, Digital Recorders

**Biomedical Recorders: **Electrocardiograph (ECG), Phonocardiograph, Electroencephalograph (EEG), Electromayograph (EMG)

**Module – III** **(14 Hours)**

**Patient Monitoring Systems: **System Concepts, Measurement of Heart Rate, Blood Pressure Measurement, Measurement of Respiration Rate

**Blood Flow meters: **Electromagnetic Blood Flow meter, Ultrasonic Blood Flow meter, NMR Blood Flow meter, Laser-Doppler Blood Flow meter

**Patient Safety: **Electric Shock Hazards, Leakage Currents, Safety Codes for Biomedical Equipment

__Text Books:__

- Hand Book of Biomedical Instrumentation-2
^{nd}Edition by R.S.Khandpur, Tata McGraw Hill 2003 (Chapters 1-6,11,18) - Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements-2
^{nd}Edition by Leslie Cromwell, Fred J. Weibell, Erich A. Pfeiffer, PHI learning Pvt Ltd 2^{nd}Edition

__Reference Books:__

- Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology-4
^{th}Edition by Joseph J. Carr, John M. Brown, Pearson Education 2007

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