# BPUT 7th Semester B.Tech Mechanical Engineering Syllabus

**Mechanical Engineering**

**MECHANICAL VIBRATION**

**MODULE – I** [12]

**1. INTRODUCTION & IMPORTANCE OF MECHANICAL VIBRATION: **Brief history of Mechanical Vibration, Types of Vibration, Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M.), Principle of superposition applied to S.H.M., Beats, Fourier Analysis, Concept of degree of freedom for different vibrating systems.

**2. UNDAMPED FREE VIBRATION OF SINGLE DEGREE FREEDOM SYSTEMS:** Modeling of Vibrating Systems, Evaluation of natural frequency – differential equation, Energy & Rayleigh’s methods, Equivalent systems.

**3. DAMPED FREE VIBRATION OF SINGLE DEGREE FREEDOM SYSTEMS:** Different types of damping, Equivalent viscous damping, structural damping, Evaluation of damping using free and forced Vibration technique, Concept of critical damping and its importance, study of vibration response of viscous damped systems for cases of under damping, critical damping and over damping, Logarithmic decrements.

**MODULE – II** [15]

**4. FORCED VIBRATION OF SINGLE DEGREE FREEDOM SYSTEMS:** Steady state solution with viscous damping due to harmonic force, reciprocating and rotating unbalance mass, vibration isolation and transmissibility due to harmonic force excitation and support motion. Vibration measuring instruments – vibrometer and accelerometer. Whirling of shaft with single disc and with our damping, Concept of critical speed and its effect on the rotating shaft.

**5. UNDAMPED VIBRATION OF TWO DEGREE FREEDOM SYSTEMS:** Free vibration of spring coupled and mass coupled systems, Longitudial, Torsional and transverse vibration of two degree freedom systems, influence coefficient technique, Un-damped vibration Absorber.

**MODULE – III **[13]

**6. INTRODUCTION TO MULTI-DEGREE FREEDOM SYSTEMS:** Normal mode vibration, Co-ordinate coupling-close coupled and far coupled systems, Orthogonality of mode shapes, Methods of matrix iteration, Holzer’s method and Stodola method. Torsinal vibration of two, three and multi-rotor systems. Dunkerley’s lower bound approximate method.

**7. CONTINOUS SYSTEMS:** Vibration of strings, longitudinal vibration of rods, torsional vibration of rods, transverse vibration of Euler-beams.

**TEXT BOOKS:**

1. Theory of vibration with Applications: W.T. Thomson and Marie Dillon Dahleh, Pearson Education 5th ed. 2007.

2. Introductory Course on theory and Practice of Mechanical Vibrations. J.S. Rao & K. Gupta,New Age International Publication, New Delhi, 2007.

**REFERENCE BOOKS:**

1. Mechanical Vibrations: S.S. Rao, Prarson Education Inc, 4th ed. 2003

2. Mechanical Vibrations: S. Graham Kelly, Schaum’s outline series, Tata McGraw Hill, Special Indian ed., 2007

3. Mechanical Vibrations: V.P. Singh, Dhanpat Rai & company Pvt. Ltd. 3rd ed., 2006

4. Elements of vibration Analysis: Leonard Meirovitch, Tata McGraw Hill, Special Indian ed., 2007

**TRIBOLOGY**

**(PROFESSIONAL ELECTIVE)**

**MODULE – I** (12 HOURS)

Introduction: Lubricant and lubrication, Types of bearings, properties and testing of lubricants, Basic equations: Generalized Reynolds equation, Flow and Shear Stress, Energy equation, Equation of state

Hydro dynamic lubrication:

Mechanism of pressure development and load carrying capacity, Plane-slider bearing, Idealized slider bearing with a pivoted shoe, Step bearing, Idealized journal bearing. – infinitely long journal bearing, Petroffs equation for a lightly loaded bearing, narrow bearing,

**MODULE – II** (11 HOURS)

Oil flow and thermal equilibrium – Heat balance of lubricants Hydrostatic Bearing:

Principles, Component of hydrostatic lubrication , Hydrostatic circular thrust bearing , calculation of pressure, load carrying capacity, flow rate , power loss in bearing due to friction.

**MODULE – III** (12 HOURS)

Concept of gas lubricated bearing Concept of Elasto hydrodynamic lubrication, Design and selection of antifiction bearing Friction and wear of metals:

Theories of friction, surface contaminants, Effect of sliding speed on friction, classification and mechanism of wear, Wear resistant materials.

**TEXT BOOKS**

1. Introduction to Tribology of Bearing , B.C .Majumdar , S. Chand & Co

**REFERENCE BOOKS**

1. Fundamentals of Tribiology , Basu S K., Sengupta A N., Ahuja B. B., , PHI 2006

2. Basic Lubrication theory, A. Cameron, John Wiley & sons

3. Lubrication Fundamentals, D.M.Pirro and A.A.Wessol, CRC Press

4. Theory and Practice of Lubrication for Engineers, Fuller, D., New York company 1998

5. Principles and Applications of Tribiology, Moore, Pergamaon press 1998

6. Tribiology in Industries, Srivastava S., S Chand and Company limited, Delhi 2002

7. Lubrication of bearings – Theoretical Principles and Design, Redzimovskay E I., Oxford press company 2000

**FATIGUE CREEP AND FRACTURE**

**(PROFESSIONAL ELECTIVE)**

**MODULE – I** : (12 HOURS)

Design philosophy : (i) Infinite life, (ii) Safe life, (iii) Fail safe and (iv) Damage tolerant design concepts.Fatigue Design : Cyclic stress and stress reversals, Fatigue and progressive fracture, Endurancelimit, Fatigue Tests : Cantilever and Beam type of Fatigue Tests, Axial Fatigue Tests. Influence of

mean stress on fatigue : Gerber, Goodman and soderberg’s criteria. Effect of compressive cyclic stress on fatigue. Fatigue design formula for axial, bending, torsional and combined loading. Fatigue controlling factors: Effect of frequency, Temperature, size, form, stress concentration factors, Notch, sensitivity & surface conditions, residual stresses.

**MODULE – II** : (12 HOURS)

Improvement of fatigue strength’ by chemical/metallurgical processes such as ritriding, flame hardening, case carburizing. Fatigue strength enhancement by mechanical work: cold rolling, peening, shot peening.

Effect of environment: Corrosion Fatigue, Concept of cumulative fatigue damage

Fracture Mechanics: Ductile and brittle fracture Theoretical cohesive strength of metasl, Griffith Theory of brittle Fracture, Oruron’s modification to Griffith Theory.

**MODULE – III** (14 HOURS)

Modes of fracture : Mode I, II and III, fatigue creek growth Behaviour of metals, Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM), Stress Intensity Factor(SIF), Stress field near the crack tip, Critical SIF and Fracture Toughness, Experimental determination of fracture toughness KIC, COD gauges andstandard ASTM Tests.

Strain Energy Release Rates (SERR), Elasto-Plastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM), Plastic zone size and its evaluation, J-Integral Method.Creep Analysis:Definition, Constant stress and constant, strain creep tests. Uniaxial creep tests: Baily’s Power Law,Creep relaxation: strain hardening and time hardening creep relaxation. Introduction to Creep bending and deflection of simple problems.

**Text Books:**

1. George E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, – Mc Graw Hill, NY, 1988

2. Joseph Marin, Mechanical Behaviour of Engg. Materials, – Prentice Hall of India, 1966

3. Stephens, R.I. and Fuchs, H.O., Metal Fatigue in Engg. ,- Wiley, NY 2001

4. Finnie, I. and Heller, W.R., Creep of Engg. Materials, – Mc Graw Hill Book Co., 1959

5. Prasant Kumar, Fracture Mechanics

**Reference Books:**

1. L.S. Srinath, Advanced Mechanics of Materials, – Tata Mc Graw Hill Ltd., ND, 2009.

2. Norman E, Dowling, Mechanical Behaviour of Materials, – Prentice Hall, NJ, 1999.

3. Lessells, J.M., strength and resistance of materials, – John wiley & sons, 1954

4. Peterson, R.E., Stress Concentration Design Factors,- John Wiley & Sons, 1953

5. Meguid, S.A., Fracture Mechanics,- John Wiley & Sons, 1996

6. Kare Hellan, Introduction to Fracture Mechanics, – Mc Graw Hill Book Co., 1985

**ROBOTICS**

**(PROFESSIONAL ELECTIVE)**

**MODULE – I**

1. Fundamentals of Robotics: Evolution of robots and robotics, Definition of industrial robot, Laws of Robotics, Classification, Robot Anatomy, Work volume and work envelope, Human arm characteristics, Design and control issues, Manipulation and control, Resolution; accuracy and repeatability, Robot configuration, Economic and social issues, Present and future application.

2. Mathematical modeling of a robot: Mapping between frames, Description of objects in space, Transformation of vectors.

Direct Kinematic model: Mechanical Structure and notations, Description of links and joints, Kinematic modeling of the manipulator, Denavit-Hartenberg Notation, Kinematic relationship between adjacent links, Manipulator Transformation matrix.

**MODULE – II**

3. Inverse Kinematics: Manipulator workspace, Solvable of inverse kinematic model, Manipulator Jacobian, Jacobian inverse, Jacobian singularity, Static analysis.4. Dynamic modeling: Lagrangian mechanics, 2D- Dynamic model, Lagrange-Euler formulation, Newton-Euler formulation.

5. Robot Sensors: Internal and external sensors, force sensors, Thermocouples, Performance characteristic of a robot.

**MODULE – III**

6. Robot Actuators: Hydraulic and pneumatic actuators, Electrical actuators, Brushless permanent magnet DC motor, Servomotor, Stepper motor, Micro actuator, Micro gripper, Micro motor, Drive selection.

7. Trajectory Planning: Definition and planning tasks, Joint space planning, Cartesian space planning.8. Applications of Robotics: Capabilities of robots, Material handling, Machine loading and unloading, Robot assembly, Inspection, Welding, Obstacle avoidance.

**TEXT BOOKS:**

1. Robotics and Control, R.K. Mittal and I.J. Nagrath, Tata McGraw Hill

2. Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and control, John J Craig, PHI

3. Robotics Technology and Flexible Automation, S.R.Deb and S. Deb, TMH

**REFERENCE BOOKS:**

1. Introduction to Robotics, S. K. Saha, Tata McGraw Hill

2. Robotics: Control, Sensing, Vision and Intelligence, K.S.Fu, R.C.Gonzalez and C.S.G.Lee, McGraw Hill

3. Robotics, Appuu Kuttan K.K., I.K. international

4. Robot Dynamics and Control, M.W.Spong and M. Vidyasagar , Wiley India.

5. Industrial Robotics Technology, programming and application, M.P.Groover, TMH.

6. Introduction to Robotics: Analysis, Systems, Applications, S.B.Niku, PHI

7. Robotics: Fundamental Concepts and Analysis, A. Ghosal, Oxford University Press

8. Fundamentals of Robotics: Analysis and Control, R. J. Schilling, PHI

9. Robotic Engineering: An Integrated Approach, R.D. KLAFTER, T. A. Chmielewski, and M. Negin, PHI

10. Robot Technology: Fundamentals: J. G. Keramas, Cengage Learning

**SIMULATION, MODELING AND CONTROL**

**(PROFESSIONAL ELECTIVE)**

**MODULE I** 14 HOURS

Basic simulation modeling, Discrete event simulation, Simulation of queuing and Monte Carlo simulations.inventory systems, Continuous, Discrete-continuous and Mon

Statistical models in simulation, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson process,

Empirical distribution, Generation of pseudo random numbers, Analysis of simulation data,Parameter estimation, Goodness-of-fit tests, Multivariable timeseries models.

**MODULE II** 12 HOURS

Overview of feedback control systems, Dynamics of mechanical systems, Differential equations and state variable form, Models of electro mechanical, Heat-and fluid flow models, Linearization and scaling, Models from experimental data, Dynamic response using pole-zero locations, Time domain specifications, Classical 3-term controllers and its digital implementation, Stability analysis by Routh Criterion.

**MODULES III** 10 HOURS

Simulation of manufacturing and material handling systems, Goals and performance measures, Modeling downtime and failures, Trace driven models, Case studies.

**TEXT BOOKS :**

1. Discrete-Event system simulation by Jerry Banks, J.S. Carson, B.L. Nelson and D.M. Nicol (Pearson Publications).

2. Feedback control of dynamic systems by G.F. Franklin, J.D. Powell, A-Naeini, Pearson Publications.

3. Simulation modeling and analysis by A.M. Law, W.D. Kelton, Tata McGrawHill Publications.

**MECHATRONICS**

**(PROFESSIONAL ELECTIVE)**

**MODULE 1** (10 HOURS)

Evolution of Mechatronics, components of mechatronic system, types of mechatronic products, Signal theory, signal analysis and processing, Laplace transformation, Z-transformation modulation and de-modulation.

Electrical components and Electronic device –Resister, inductor and capacitor, reactance and impedance. Basic electronics devices junction diodes, Bipolar transistors

**MODULE II** (10 HOURS)

Basic Digital Technology : Digital number system, Binary number system, Hexadecimal number system, Binary addition, Boolean Algebra, Logic function, Universal GATES, FLIP-FLOP, Registers counters.

System modeling : Frequency response, Mechanical system, electrical system, Thermal system, Fluid system.

**MODULE III** (16 HOURS)

Actuators- Electric motors; D.C. Motors, Stepper motor, , Hydraulic actuators, Pneumatic actuators

Transducer and Sensors : Principles, difference between transducer and sensors, transducer types – photo emissive, photo conductive, photovoltaic, thermistors, Thermocouple, Inductive, capacitive, Peizoelectric, Hall effect transducers, Ionization transducer, Encoders- Incremental encoder, Optical encoder, Bimetallic strip, Strain gauge, load cell.

Programmable Logic controller : Basic Structure – Programming : Ladder diagram Timers, Internal Relays and Counters – Shift Registers – Master and Jump Controls, data handling , Analog input / output , PLC Selection &Application.

Microprocessor ad Microcontroller : Microprocessor based Digital control, registers, Program counter, Intel -8085 microprocessor

**TEXT BOOKS**

1. A Text Books of Mechatronics, R.K.Rajput, S.Chand & company

2. Mechatronics, N.G. P.C Mahalik, Tata McGraw Hill

3. Mechatronics, D.G. Alciator, M.B. Histand, Tata McGraw Hill

**REFERENCE BOOKS**

1. Mechatronics, A.Smaili & F Mrad, Oxford University Press

2. Mechatronics, K.P.ramchandran, G,K Vijay Raghavan, M. S Balachandran

3. Mechatronics An Intigrated approach, Clarence W de Sliva, CRC Press

**MICRO-ELECTRO-MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS)**

**(PROFESSIONAL ELECTIVE)**

**MODULE-I** 14 LECTURES

Overview of MEMS and Microsystems. (Chapter 1 of Text Book 1)

Micro machining Techniques: Silicon as material for micro machining, Photo lithography, thin film deposition, doping, wet and dry etching, surface and bulk micro machining, Wafer bonding, packaging. (Chapter 3 and Section 8.2 of Text Book 1, Chapter 2 of Text Book 2)

**Module II** 10 LECTURES

Micro system Modeling and Design: Mechanics of deformable bodies, Energy method, Estimation of stiffness and damping for different micro-structures, Modeling of electromechanical systems, Pull-in voltage. (Section 4.1 to 4.3 and 6.2.2 of Text Book 1, Section 3.4 of Text Book 2)

**MODULE III** 15 LECTURES

MEMS Applications: Mechanical sensors and actuators: Piezoresistive pressure sensors, MEMS capacitive accelerometer, Gyroscopes, Piezoelectric actuators. (Section 8.3 of Text Book 1 and Section 5.3 and 5.11 of Text Book 2)

Optical: Micro-lens, Micro-mirror, Optical switch (Section 7.5 to 7.7 of Text Book 2)Radio frequency MEMS: Inductor, Varactor, Filter, Resonator. (Section 9.3 to 9.7 of Text Book 2)

Micro fluidics: Capillary action, Micro pumping, Electro wetting, Lab-on-a-chip. (Section 10.1 to 10.8 of Text Book 2)

**TEXT BOOKS:**

1. G.K. Ananthsuresh, K.J. Vinoy, S. Gopalakrishnan, K.N. Bhat and V.K. Atre: Micro and Smart Systems, Wiley India, New Delhi, 2010.

2. N.P. Mahalik: MEMS, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2007.

**REFERENCE BOOK:**

1. T. Hsu: MEMS and Microsystems: Design and Manufacture, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2002.

**COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS**

**(HONOURS ELECTIVE)**

**MODULE-I** (10 HRS.)

1. Basics of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- Introduction to One dimensional computation: Finite difference methods (FDM)-Finite element method(FEM)-Finite volume method(FVM). Solution of Discretised Equations:

2. The tri-diagonal matrix algorithm (Thomas Algorithm for one dimensional case) The Finite Volume Method for Diffusion Problems-Introduction -Finite volume method for one-dimensional steady state diffusion -Worked examples: one-dimensional steady state diffusion

**MODULE-II** (12 HRS.)

1. The Finite Volume Method for Convection-Diffusion Problems – Introduction – Steady one-dimensional convection and diffusion –

2. The central differencing scheme – Assessment of the central differencing scheme for convection-diffusion problems – The upwind differencing scheme – Assessment of the upwind differencing scheme – The hybrid differencing scheme – Assessment of the hybrid differencing scheme – The power-law scheme – Higher order differencing schemes for convection-diffusion problems – Quadratic upwind differencing scheme: the QUICK scheme .

**MODULE-III** (08 HRS.)

1. The Finite Volume Method for Unsteady Flows – Introduction – One-dimensional unsteady

heat conduction – Explicit scheme – Crank-Nicolson scheme – The fully implicit scheme – Illustrative examples

**MODULE-IV** (08 HRS)

1. Implicit method for two- and three-dimensional problems – Discretisation of transient convection-diffusion equation – Worked example of transient convection-diffusion using QUICK differencing.

**TEXT BOOK**

1. Versteeg, H. K. , Malalasekera W , An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics-The Finite Volume Method, Longman Scientific & Technical.

2. Patenkar V. Subas, Numerical Heat Transfer & Fluid Flow, Taylor & Francis

3. Muralidhar, K. and Sundararajan, T., Computational Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer, Norosa Publishing House, N. Delhi.

**REFERENCE BOOKS**

1. Ozisik, M. N. , Finite Difference Method, CRC Press.

2. Anderson, D. A. Jr, Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill

**FINITE ELEMENT METHOD**

**(HONOURS ELECTIVE)**

**MODULE – I** (12 HOURS)

Review of 2-D and 3-D stress analyses, vibration, fluid flow and heat conduction problems. FEM fundamental concepts, Variational principles, Rayleigh Ritz and Galerkin Methods. Finite Element Modeling of one dimensional problems.

Finite Element Analysis of 2-D and 3-D framed structures.

**MODULE – II** (12 HOURS)

FEM formulation of 2-D and 3-D stress analysis problems. Axisymmetric solids subjected to axisymmetric loadings. Two-dimensional isoparametric elements and numerical integration.

**MODULE – III** (12 HOURS)

FE modeling of basic vibration problems Finite element modeling of fluid flow and heat conduction problems Computer programs: preprocessing and post processing.Exposure to commercial FE codes such as ANSYS, NASTRAN and IDEAS etc.

**TEXT BOOKS**

1. Finite Elements in Engineering, T.R.Chandraputla and A.D.Belegundu, PHI

2. The Finite Element Method – Its Basis & Fundamentals, Zienkiewicz, Taylor and Zhu, Elsevier, 6th Edn

**REFERENCE BOOKS**

1. Introduction to Finite Element Method, C.Desai and J.F.Abel, CBS publishers

2. Introduction to Finite Element Method, J.N.Reddy, Tata McGraw Hill

3. Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis, K.J.Bathe and E.L.Wilson, PHI

4. Concepts & Applications of Finite Element Analysis,Cook, D.S.Malkus & M.E.Plesha, Wiley

5. The Finite Element Method in Engineering, S.S.Rao, Elsevier

6. A First Course in the Finite Element Method, D.L.Logan, Cengage Learning

7. Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis, David V. Hutton, Tata McGraw Hill

**AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM**

**(HONOURS ELECTIVE)**

**MODULE I** (10 HOURS)

Introduction: Basic concept of control system, Open loop and Close loop control systems. Control System and components.

Laplace Transform: Laplace transformation, Laplace transforms theorems, inverse Laplace transform.Mathematical model of physical systems: modeling of fluid systems and thermal systems Liquid level systems, pneumatic systems, hydraulic systems, thermal systems. Feedback Characteristics of control systems, Types of feedback, effects of different feedbacks on control systems.

**MODULE II** (16 HOURS)

Time response analysis:

Standard input signals, Step, ramp, parabolic and impulse inputs. Time response of fist and second order systems to input signals. Time response specifications, Steady state error and error constants of different types of control systems.

Concept of stability , Necessary condition for stability, Routh’s stability criterion, application of Routh’s criterion for linear feed back system, relative stability.

Root-locus analysis : Root locus concepts, rules for construction of root loci, root contours, systems with transportation lead and lag.

**MODULE III** (16 HOURS)

Frequency response analysis : Bode diagrams, polar plots, Nyquist stability criterion, Stability analysis, relative stability in frequency domain.

Controllers: Proportional, derivative and integral control actions, PD, PI and PID controllers and their applications to feed back control systems.

Mathematical modeling of Dynamic systems in state space, state-space representation of mechanical and electrical systems. State equation and transfer functions, Characteristic equation , Eigenvalue and eigen vector of state matrix. Design of control systems in state space.

**BOOKS**

1. Modern Control Engineering, K, Ogata

2. Automatic Control system, B. C. Kuo

3. Control Systems Engineering, L. J. Nagrath, M. Gopal

**ADVANCE LAB-II**

**NUMERICAL COMPUTATION & SOLIDS MODELING LAB**

(ANY TWO FROM GROUP A, B OR C)

**(A) NUMERICAL COMPUTATION**

(Using MATLAB or other software/language)

1. Basics of MATLAB or similar software/language

2. Finding solution by Numerical Methods (including graphics) for the following: (Minimum 06 problems)

a. Bisection Methodb. Newton-Raphson Methodc. Secant Methodd. Gauss Elimination Methode. Numerical Differentiationf. Numerical Integration (e.g. Newton Cotes Quadrature)g. Curve fitting Methodh. Initial-Value Problems (e.g. Runge-Kutta Method)i. Boundary Value Problem (eg. Shooting Method)

j. Eigen Value Problem

**(B) SOLIDS MODELING**

(Using Solid Modeling software eg. AUTOCAD/ProE/CATIA/SolidWorks etc)

1. Learning the Basics of Solid Modeling Software

2. Describe and Apply the CONE, SPHERE and TORUS command to draw solid primitives

Describe and Apply the EXTRUDE and REVOLVE command to draw solid models that can not be drawn with a composition of primitives

**(C) COMPUTER SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS ON FINITE ELEMENT METHODS OR COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS PROBLEMS**

(four or five problems) using any software/language (MATLAB, ANSYS, NASTRAN etc.)

**BOOKS**

1. Applied Numerical Methods with MATLAB, S.C.Chapra, TMH

2. Numerical Methods for Engineers and Scientists, J.D.Hoffman, CRC Press

3. Numerical Methods, E Balagurusamy, TMH

4. Numerical Methods for Engineers, Chapra and Canale, TMH

5. MATLAB Programming for Engineers, Chapman, Thomson Learning

6. Getting Started with MATLAB, Rudra Pratap, Oxford University Press

7. Mastering MATLAB 7, Hanselman and Littlefield, Pearson Education

**MINOR (CP)**

**MACHINE DYNAMICS AND DESIGN** (4-0-0)

[Only specified design data book as mentioned in the syllabus is permitted during examination]

**Module – I** : (10 Lectures)

1. Kinematic fundamental: Basic Kinematic concepts and definitions, Degrees of freedom, Elementary Mechanism : Link, joint, Kinematic Pair, Classification of kinematic pairs,

Kinematic chain and mechanism, criterion, Inversion of mechanism, Inversions of

Four bar linkage, Single slider crank mechanism and Double slider crank mechanism.

2. Mechanism Trains : Gear Terminology and definitions, fundamental law of gearing, Spur, bevel, helical, worm gears. Analysis of mechanism Trains: Simple Train, Compound train, Reverted train, Epicyclic train and their applications.

**Module – II** : (10 Lectures)

3. Friction Effects: Friction between pivot and collars, single, multi-plate and cone clutches, friction circle, friction axis. Classification of brakes, Analysis of internal expanding shoe brake, Absorption and transmission dynamometers, Rope brake dynamometer, Belt transmission dynamometer, Belt drives, Initial tension, Effect of centrifugal tension on power transmission, Maximum power transmission capacity, Belt creep and slip.

4. Mechanism for Control: Turning moment diagram, Turning moment diagrams for different types of engines, Fluctuation of energy and fluctuation of speed, Dynamic Theory of Flywheel. Governors – Watt, Porter, Proell, Hartnell, Wilson-Hartnell Governor, Performance parameters: Sensitiveness, Stability, Hunting, Isochronism. Introduction to Gyroscopes, Gyroscopic forces and Couple.

**Module – III** : (6 Lectures)

5. Mechanical Engineering Design: Introduction to design procedure, Stages in design, Code and Standardization, Interchangeability, Preferred numbers, Fits and Tolerances, Design requirements – properties of materials, Material selection, Use of Data books.

6. Fundamentals of Machine Design: Types of load, Modes of failure, factor of safety concepts, concept and mitigation of stress concentration, Fatigue failure and curve, endurance limit and factors affecting it, Notch sensitivity.

**Module – IV** : (10 Lectures)

7. Machine Element Design: Design of Joints: Rivets and welds based on different types of loading, Boiler joints, Socket and Spigot cotter joint and knuckle joint.

8. Design of Keys, Shaft and Couplings: Classification of keys, Design of keys, Theories of failure, Design of shafts: based on strength, torsional rigidity and fluctuating load, ASME code for shaft design, Design of couplings: Rigid coupling, Flexible coupling.

**Text Books**

1. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery by R L Norton, Tata MacGraw Hill

2. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by John J. Uicker Jr., Gordon R. Pennock and Joseph E. Shigley, Oxford University Press

3. Theory of Machines by S.S.Rattan, Tata MacGraw Hill

4. Design of Machine Elements, V.B. Bhandari, Tata McGraw Hill

5. Mechanical Engineering Design, J.E.Shigley, C.R.Mischke, R.G.Budynas and K.J.Nisbett, TMH

**Reference Books**

1. Theory of Machines by Thomas Bevan, CBS Publications

2. Mechanism and Machine Theory by J.S.Rao and R.V.Dukipatti, New Age International.

3. Theory of Mechanisms and Machines by A. Ghosh & A. K. Mallick, East West Press. Machine Design, P.C.Sharma and D.K.Agrawal, S.K.Kataria& Sons

4. Machine Design, Robert L. Norton, Pearson Education Asia.

5. Design of Machine Elements by C. S. Sharma and K. Purohit, PHI

**DESIGN DATA HAND BOOKS:**

1. P.S.G. Design Data Hand Book, PSG College of Tech Coimbature

2. Design Data Hand Book, K. Lingaiah, McGraw Hill, 2nd Ed. 2003.

3. Design Hand Book by S.M.Jalaluddin ; Anuradha Agencies Publications

4 .Design Data Hand Book by K.Mahadevan and B.Reddy,CBS Publisher.

**SOFT COMPUTING**

**MODULE-I** (12 Lectures)

Introduction: Soft Computing Constituents and Conventional Artificial Intelligence, Neuro- Fuzzy and Soft Computing Characteristics. Fuzzy Sets: Introduction, Basic Definitions and Terminology, Set Theoretic Operations, MF Formulation and Parameterization. Fuzzy Rules & Fuzzy Reasoning: Extension Principle and Fuzzy Relations, Fuzzy If-Then Rules, Fuzzy Reasoning. Fuzzy Inference Systems: Mamdani Fuzzy Models, Sugeno Fuzzy Models, Tsukamoto Fuzzy Models, Other Considerations. (BOOK-1:- Chap-1: 1.1 to 1.3, Chap-2: 2.1 to 2.4, Chap-3: 3.2 to 3.4 & Chap-4: 4.2 to 4.5)

**MODULE-II** (14 Lectures)

Neural Networks: Neuron Abstraction, Neuron Signal Functions, Mathematical Preliminaries, Neural Networks Defined, Architectures: Feed forward and Feedback, Salient Properties and Application Domains of Neural Networks, Multi-layered Network Architectures, Back- propagation Learning Algorithm, Practical Considerations in Implementing the BP Algorithm, Structure Growing Algorithms, Universal Function Approximation and Neural Networks, Applications of Feed Forward Neural Networks, Reinforcement Learning, Radial Basis Function Networks, Regularization Theory Route to RBFNs, Generalized Radial Basis Function Network, Learning in RBFNs, Associative Learning, Hopfield Network, Content Addressable Memory, Bidirectional Associative Memory, Self Organizing Feature Maps, Applications of the Self Organizing Map.

(BOOK-2:-Chap-3: 3.1 to 3.6, Chap-6: 6.1 to 6.2, 6.5 to 6.6 & 6.8 to 6.10, Chap-8: 8.4 to 8.7, Chap-10: 10.2 & 10.5 to 10.6 & 10.16 and Chap-12: 12.8 to 12.9)

**MODULE-III** (08 Lectures)

Regression & Optimization: System Identification: an Introduction, Least Squares Estimator, Geometric Interpretation of LSE, Recursive Least Squares Estimator.

Derivative-Free Optimization: Genetic Algorithms, Simulated Annealing, random Search, Downhill Simplex Search.

Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS): ANFIS Architecture, Hybrid LearningAlgorithm.(BOOK-1: – Chap-5: 5.1, 5.3 to 5.5, Chap-7: 7.2 to 7.5 and Chap-12: 12.2 to 12.3)

**TEXT BOOK:**

1. “Neuro-Fuzzy and Soft Computing” By J.-S.R.Jang, C.-T.Sun& E. Mizutani, PHI

2. “Neural Networks: A Classroom Approach” By Satish Kumar, TMH Education

**Reference Book:**

1. “Neural Networks Fuzzy Logic & Genetic Algorithms; Synthesis & Applications, S. Rajasekaran & G.A. Vijaya Laxmi Pai, Prentice Hall, India, May’2006- Lakshmi Pai

2. Principle of Soft Computing, S.N. Sivanandan& S.N. Deepa, Wiley India Edition,2010.

**PROFESSIONAL ELECTIVE**

**MECHATRONICS AND MICRO ELCTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS**

**MODULE 1** (10 HOURS)

Evolution of Mechatronics, components of mechatronic system, types of mechatronic products, Signal theory, signal analysis and processing. Basic electronics devices: junction diodes, Bipolar transistors Basic Digital Technology: Digital number system, Binary number system, Hexadecimal number system, Binary addition, Boolean Algebra, Logic function, Universal GATES, FLIP-FLOP, Registers counters.

**MODULE II** (10 HOURS)

System modeling: Frequency response, Mechanical system, electrical system, Thermal system, Fluid system. Actuators- Electric motors; D.C. Motors, Stepper motor, , Hydraulic actuators, Pneumatic actuators Transducer and Sensors : Principles, difference between transducer and sensors, transducer types – photo emissive, photo conductive, photovoltaic, thermistors, Thermocouple, Inductive, capacitive, Peizoelectric,

**MODULE III** (10 HOURS)

Overview of MEMS and Microsystems. Micromachining Techniques: Silicon as material for micromachining, Photolithography, thin film deposition, doping, wet and dry etching, surface and bulk micromachining, Wafer bonding, packaging.

**MODULE IV** (10 HOURS)

Microsystem Modeling and Design: Mechanics of deformable bodies, Energy method, Estimation of stiffness and damping for different micro-structures, Modeling of electromechanical systems, Pull-in voltage. MEMS Applications: Mechanical sensors and actuators: Piezoresistive pressure sensors, MEMS capacitive accelerometer, Gyroscopes, Piezoelectric actuators.

**TEXT BOOKS**

1. A Text Books of Mechatronics, R.K.Rajput, S.Chand& company

2. Mechatronics, N.G. P.C Mahalik, Tata McGraw Hill

3. Micro and Smart Systems, G.K. Ananthsuresh, K.J. Vinoy, S. Gopalakrishnan, K.N. Bhat and V.K. Atre, Wiley India, New Delhi, 2010.

4. N.P. Mahalik: MEMS, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2007.

**REFERENCE BOOKS**:

1. 3. Mechatronics, D.G. Alciator, M.B. Histand, Tata McGraw Hill

2. Mechatronics, A.Smaili& F Mrad, Oxford University Press

3. Mechatronics, K.P.ramchandran, G,K Vijay Raghavan, M. S Balachandran

4. Mechatronics AnIntigrated approach, Clarence W de Sliva, CRC Press

5. T. Hsu: MEMS and Microsystems: Design and Manufacture, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2002.

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