Biomedical Instrumentation Syllabus for NIT Jalandhar
Physiological Systems of the Body: Brief description of musculoskeletal, endocrine, gastrointestinal, nervous, circulatory and respiratory systems; the body as a control system; the nature of bioelectricity, action events of nerve; the origin of biopotentials.
Bio potential Electrodes: Signal acquisition; electrodes for biophysical sensing; electrode-electrolyte interface; skin preparation, electrode-skin interface and motion artifact; surface electrodes; microelectrodes; Internal electrodes; electrode arrays; electrodes for electric stimulation of tissues; electrode polarization, electrical interference problems in biopotential measurement; electrical safety.
The Heart System and Its Measurements: The heart; electro conduction system of the heart; the ECG waveform; the standard lead system; the ECG preamplifier; ECG machines; Cardiac monitors; Transient protection; common-mode and other interference-reduction circuits.
Physiological Pressure and other Cardiovascular Measurements and Devices: Physiological pressure; blood pressure measurements; sphygmomanometer; oscillometric and ultrasonic methods; practical problems in pressure monitoring; cardiac output measurement; plethysmography; blood flow measurements; phonocardiography; vectorcardiography; defibrillators; pacemakers; heart lung machines.
The Human Respiratory System and Its Measurement: Respiratory anatomy (lungs, conducting airways, alveoli, pulmonary circulation, respiratory muscles); lung volumes and gas exchange, mechanics of breathing; parameters of respiration; regulation of respiration; unbalanced and diseased states; environmental threats to the respiratory system; respiratory system measurements; respiratory transducers and instruments; spirometry, body plethysmography.
Measurement of Electrical activity in Neuromuscular System and Brain: Neuron potential; muscle potential;electromyography (EMG); electroencephalography (EEG); EEG electrodes and the 10-20 system; EEG amplitude and frequency bands; the EEG system – simplified block diagram; preamplifiers and EEG system specifications; EEG diagnostic uses and sleep patterns; visual and auditory evoked potential recordings; EEG system artifacts.
1. Carr Joseph J. and Brown John M., “Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology”, 4th Ed., New
Delhi: Pearson Education India (2001) (ISBN 81-7808- 327-2)
2. Webster John G (Ed.), “Medical Instrumentation, Application and Design”, 3rd ed., Singapore: John Wiley
& Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd. (2003). (ISBN 9971-51-270-X)
3. Webster J G (ed.), “Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation”, Vols. 1-4, New York: Wiley
4. Bronzino J D (ed.), “The Biomedical Engineering Handbook”. FL: CRC Press (1995).
5. Khandpur R S, “Handbook on Biomedical Instrumentation”, TMH, 13th reprint, New Delhi (2000).