# Antenna and Wave Propagation EC Syllabus for NIT Jalandhar

Departmental Electives (8th Semester)

EC-452 Antenna and Wave Propagation

Unit-I

Radiation: Review of electromagnetic fields, Displacement current, Maxwell’s equations in free space, plane wave & uniform plane wave in free space. Electromagnetic radiations, Physical concept of radiation, Retarted potential, Radiation from a Hertizian dipole, monopole and a half wave dipole, Fields in the vicinity of an antenna and far field approximation.

Antenna Parameters: Introduction, Isotropic radiators, Radiation pattern, Gain, Directive gain, Directivity, Reciprocity theorem & its applications, effective aperture, radiation resistance, terminal impedence, noice temperature, elementary ideas about self & mutual impedence, front-to-back ratio, antenna beam width, antenna bandwidth, antenna beam efficiency, antenna beam area or beam solid angle, polarization, antenna temperature.

Unit-II

Antenna Arrays: Introduction, various forms of antenna arrays, arrays of point sources, non-isotropic but similar point sources, multiplication of patterns, arrays of n-isotropic sources of equal amplitude and spacing (Broad-side & End-fire array cases), array factor, directivity and beam width, array of n-isotropic sources of equal amplitude and spacing end-fire array with increased directivity, scanning arrays, Dolph-Tchebysceff arrays, tapering of arrays, binomial arrays, continuous arrays, rectangular arrays, superdirective arrays.

Practical Antennas: Aperture Antennas, loop antennas, slot radiators, scanning antennas, signal processing antennas, travelling wave antennas, Smart Antennas. long wire antenna, V-antenna, Rhombic antenna, Folded dipole antenna, Yagi-Uda antenna, and helical antenna, slot antenna, microstrip or patch antennas, and turnstile antenna, frequency independent antennas, and microwave antennas, antenna measurement.

Unit-III

Wave Propagation: Introduction, structure of atmosphere, basic idea of ground wave, surface wave, and space wave propagation, tropospheric propagation and duct propagation.

Books Recommended

1. Krauss J D, “Antennas”, 4th edition, McGraw – Hill Inc., New York (1991).
2. Balanis A Constantine, “Antenna Theory, analysis and design”, 2nd edition, Wiley, New York
(1997).
3. Prasad K D, “Antenna and Wave Propagation”, 3rd edition, Satya Prakashan, New Delhi (1996).
4. Stutzman W L, Thieele G A, “Antenna Theory and Design”, 2nd Ed., Wiley (1997)
5. Gosling William, “Radio Antennas and Propagation”, Newens