UNIT I INTRODUCTION
Irrigation – Need and mode of irrigation – Merits and demerits of irrigation – Crop and crop seasons – consumptive use of water – Duty – Factors affecting duty – Irrigation efficiencies – Planning and Development of irrigation projects.
UNIT II IRRIGATION METHODS
Canal irrigation – Lift irrigation – Tank irrigation – Flooding methods – Merits and demerits – Sprinkler irrigation – Drip irrigation
UNIT III DIVERSION AND IMPOUNDING STRUCTURES
Weirs – elementary profile of a weir – weirs on pervious foundations – Types of impounding structures – Percolation ponds – Tanks, Sluices and Weirs – Gravity dams – Earth dams – Arch dams – Spillways – Factors affecting location and type of dams – Forces on a dam – Hydraulic design of dams.
UNIT IV CANAL IRRIGATION
Alignment of canals – Classification of canals – Canal drops – Hydraulic design of drops – Cross drainage works – Hydraulic design of cross drainage works – Canal Head works – Canal regulators – River Training works.
UNIT V IRRIGATION WATER MANAGEMENT
Need for optimization of water use – Minimising irrigation water losses – On farm development works – Participatory irrigation management – Water users associations – Changing paradigms in water management – Performance evaluation.
1. Asawa, G.L., “Irrigation Engineering”, New Age International Publishers, 2000
2. Punima B.C. & Pande B.B .Lal Irrigation and Water Power Engineering, Laxmi Publishing, New Delhi 2007
3. Michael, A.M, Irrigation Theory and Practical, Vikas Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2006
4. Gupta, B.L, & Amir Gupta, “Irrigation Engineering”, Satya Praheshan, New Delhi
1. Dilip Kumar Majumdar, “Irrigation Water Management (Principles & Practices)”, Prentice Hall of India (P), Ltd
2. Basak, N.N, “Irrigation Engineering”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. New Delhi, 1999
3. Sharma R.K.. “Irrigation Engineering”, S.Chand & Co. 2007.
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS I
UNIT I DEFLECTION OF DETERMINATE STRUCTURES
Principles of virtual work for deflections – Deflections of pin-jointed plane frames and rigid plane frames – Willot diagram – Mohr’s correction
UNIT II MOVING LOADS AND INFLUENCE LINES
Influence lines for reactions in statically determinate structures – influence lines for members forces in pin-jointed frames – Influence lines for shear force and bending moment in beam sections – Calculation of critical stress resultants due to concentrated and distributed moving loads. Muller Breslau’s principle – Influence lines for continuous beams and single storey rigid frames – Indirect model analysis for influence lines of indeterminate structures – Beggs deformeter
UNIT III ARCHES
Arches as structural forms – Examples of arch structures – Types of arches – Analysis of three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches, parabolic and circular arches – Settlement and temperature effects.
UNIT IV SLOPE DEFLECTION METHOD
Continuous beams and rigid frames (with and without sway) – Symmetry and antisymmetry – Simplification for hinged end – Support displacements
UNIT V MOMENT DISTRIBUTION METHOD
Distribution and carryover of moments – Stiffness and carry over factors – Analysis of continuous beams – Plane rigid frames with and without sway – Naylor’s simplification.
1. Vaidyanadhan, R and Perumal, P, “Comprehensive Structural Analysis – Vol. 1 & Vol. 2”, Laxmi Publications
2. L.S. Negi & R.S. Jangid, “Structural Analysis”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publications, New Delhi
3. Punmia B.C., Theory of Structures (SMTS ) Vol II Laxmi Publishing Pvt ltd, New Delhi, 2004.
4. BhavaiKatti, S.S, Structural Analysis – Vol. 1 & Vol. 2, Vikas Publishing Pvt Ltd., New Delhi,
1. Analysis of Indeterminate Structures – C.K. Wang, Tata McGraw-Hill, 1992.
RAILWAYS, AIRPORTS AND HARBOUR ENGINEERING
UNIT I RAILWAY PLANNING AND DESIGN
Role of Indian Railways in National Development – Railways for Urban Transportation – LRT & MRTS – Engineering Surveys for Track Alignment – Obligatory points – Conventional and Modern methods (Remote Sensing, GIS & GPS, EDM and other equipments) – Permanent Way, its Components and their Functions: Rails – Types of Rails, Rail Fastenings, Concept of Gauges, Coning of Wheels, Creeps and kinks -Sleepers – Functions, Materials, Density – Functions, Materials, Ballastless Tracks – Geometric Design of Railway Tracks – Gradients and Grade Compensation, Super-Elevation, Widening of Gauges in Curves, Transition Curves, Horizontal and Vertical Curves.
UNIT II RAILWAY TRACK CONSTRUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION
Points and Crossings – Design of Turnouts, Working Principle – Signalling, Interlocking and Track Circuiting – Construction & Maintenance – Conventional, Modern methods and Materials, Track Drainage – Track Modernisation– Automated maintenance and upgrading, Re-laying of Track, Lay outs of Railway Stations and Yards, Rolling Stock, Tractive Power, Track Resistance, Level Crossings.
UNIT III AIRPORT PLANNING AND DESIGN
Role of Air Transport, Components of Airports – Airport Planning – Air traffic potential, Site Selection, Design of Components, Cost Estimates, Evaluation and Institutional arrangements Runway Design- Orientation, Cross wind Component, Wind rose Diagram (Problems), Geometric Design and Corrections for Gradients (Problems), Drainage – Taxiway Design – Geometric Design Elements, Minimum Separation Distances, Design Speed, Airport Drainage – Airport Zoning – Clear Zone, Approach Zone, Buffer Zone, Turning Zone, Clearance over Highways and Railways
UNIT IV AIRPORT LAYOUTS, VISUAL AIDS, AND AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
Airport Layouts – Apron, Terminal Building, Hangars, Motor Vehicle Parking Area and Circulation Pattern, Case studies of Airport Layouts – Airport Buildings – Primary functions, Planning Concept, Principles of Passenger Flow, Passenger Facilities – Visual Aids – Runway and Taxiway Markings, Wind Direction Indicators, Runway and Taxiway Lightings – Air Traffic Control – Basic Actions, Air Traffic Control Network – Helipads, Hangars, Service Equipments.
UNIT V HARBOUR ENGINEERING
Definition of Terms – Harbours, Ports, Docks, Tides and Waves, Littoral Drift, Sounding, Area, Depth, Satellite Ports – Requirements and Classification of Harbours – Site Selection & Selection Investigation – Speed of water, Dredging, Range of Tides, Waves and Tidal Currents, Littoral Transport with Erosion and Deposition, Soundings, Anchoring Grounds, Geological Characteristics, Winds & Storms, Position and Size of Shoals – Shore Considerations- Proximity to Towns/Cities, Utilities, Construction Materials, Coast Lines – Dry and Wet Docks, Planning and Layouts – Entrance, Position of Light Houses, Navigating – Terminal Facilities – Port Buildings, Warehouse, Transit Sheds, Inter-modal Transfer Facilities, Mooring Accessories, Navigational Aids – Coastal Structures- Piers, Breakwaters, Wharves, Jetties, Quays, Spring Fenders – Coastal Shipping, Inland Water Transport and Container Transportation.
1. Saxena Subhash C and Satyapal Arora, A Course in Railway Engineering, Dhanpat Rai and Sons, Delhi, 1998.
2. Khanna S K, Arora M G and Jain S S, Airport Planning and Design, Nemchand and Brothers, Roorkee, 1994.
3. S P Bindra, A Course in Docks and Harbour Engineering, Dhanpat Rai and Sons, New Delhi, 1993.
1. Rangwala, Railway Engineering, Charotar Publishing House, 1995.
2. Rangwala, Airport Engineering, Charotar Publishing House, 1996.
3. Oza.H.P. and Oza.G.H., “A course in Docks & Harbour Engineering”. Charotar Publishing Co.1976.
4. J.S. Mundrey, “A course in Railway Track Engineering”. Tata McGraw Hill, 2000.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING I
UNIT I PLANNING FOR WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
Public water supply system -Planning -Objectives -Design period -Population forecasting -Water demand -Sources of water and their characteristics -Surface and Groundwater- Impounding Reservoir Well hydraulics -Development and selection of source – Water quality – Characterization -Water quality standards.
UNIT II CONVEYANCE SYSTEM
Water supply -intake structures -Functions and drawings -Pipes and conduits for water- Pipe materials -Hydraulics of flow in pipes -Transmission main design -Laying, jointing and testing of pipes -Drawings appurtenances – Types and capacity of pumps -Selection of pumps and pipe materials.
UNIT III WATER TREATMENT
Objectives -Unit operations and processes -Principles, functions design and drawing of Flash mixers, circulators, sedimentation tanks and sand filters -Disinfection- Residue Management.
UNIT IV ADVANCED WATER TREATMENT
Aerator- Iron and manganese removal, Defluoridation and demineralization -Water softening – Desalination -Membrane Systems -Construction and Operation & Maintenance aspects of Water Treatment Plants -Recent advances -Membrane Processes
UNIT V WATER DISTRIBUTION AND SUPPLY TO BUILDINGS
Requirements of water distribution -Components -Service reservoirs -Functions and drawings – Network design -Economics -Computer applications -Analysis of distribution networks – Appurtenances -operation and maintenance -Leak detection, Methods. Principles of design of water supply in buildings -House service connection -Fixtures and fittings -Systems of plumbing and drawings of types of plumbing.
1. Garg, S.K., Environmental Engineering, Vol.1 Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 2005.
2. Modi, P.N. Water Supply Engineering, Vol. I Standard Book House, New Delhi, 2005.
3. Punmia, B.C., Ashok K Jain and Arun K Jain, Water Supply Engineering, Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd., New Delhi
1. Manual on Water Supply and Treatment, CPHEEO, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India
2. Syed R.Qasim and Edward M.Motley Guang Zhu, Water Works Engineering Planning,
Design and Operation, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi – 2006.
UNIT I SITE INVESTIGATION AND SELECTION OF FOUNDATION
Scope and objectives – Methods of exploration-auguring and boring – Water boring and rotatory drilling – Depth of boring – Spacing of bore hole – Sampling – Representative and undisturbed sampling – sampling techniques – Split spoon sampler, Thin tube sampler, Stationary piston sampler – Bore log report – Penetration tests (SPT and SCPT) – Data interpretation (Strength parameters and Liquefaction potential) – Selection of foundation based on soil condition.
UNIT II SHALLOW FOUNDATION
Introduction – Location and depth of foundation – codal provisions – bearing capacity of shallow foundation on homogeneous deposits – Terzaghi’s formula and BIS formula – factors affecting bearing capacity – problems – Bearing Capacity from insitu tests (SPT, SCPT and plate load) – Allowable bearing pressure, Settlement – Components of settlement – Determination of settlement of foundations on granular and clay deposits – Allowable settlements – Codal provision – Methods of minimising settlement, differential settlement.
UNIT III FOOTINGS AND RAFTS
Types of foundation – Contact pressure distribution below footings and raft – Isolated and combined footings – Types and proportioning – Mat foundation– Types, applications uses and proportioning– floating foundation.
UNIT IV PILES
Types of piles and their function – Factors influencing the selection of pile – Carrying capacity of single pile in granular and cohesive soil – Static formula – dynamic formulae (Engineering news and Hiley’s) – Capacity from insitu tests (SPT and SCPT) – Negative skin friction – uplift capacity – Group capacity by different methods (Feld’s rule, Converse Labarra formula and block failure criterion) – Settlement of pile groups – Interpretation of pile load test – Forces on pile caps – under reamed piles – Capacity under compression and uplift.
UNIT V RETAINING WALLS
Plastic equilibrium in soils – active and passive states – Rankine’s theory – cohesionless and cohesive soil – Coloumb’s wedge theory – condition for critical failure plane – Earth pressure on retaining walls of simple configurations – Graphical methods (Rebhann and Culmann) – pressure on the wall due to line load – Stability of retaining walls.
1. Murthy, V.N.S, “Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering”, UBS Publishers Distribution Ltd, New Delhi, 1999.
2. Gopal Ranjan and Rao, A.S.R. ”Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics”, Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi (India), 2003.
1. Das, B.M. “Principles of Foundation Engineering (Fifth edition), Thomson Books / COLE, 2003
2. Bowles J.E, “Foundation analysis and design”, McGraw-Hill, 1994
3. Punmia, B.C., “Soil Mechanics and Foundations”, Laxmi publications pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1995.
4. Venkatramaiah, C.”Geotechnical Engineering”, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, 1995
DESIGN OF RC ELEMENTS
UNIT I METHODS OF DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Concept of Elastic method, ultimate load method and limit state method – Advantages of Limit State Method over other methods – Design codes and specification – Limit State philosophy as detailed in IS code – Design of flexural members and slabs by working stress method – Principles of Design of Liquid retaining structures – Properties of un-cracked section – Calculation of thickness and reinforcement for Liquid retaining structure
UNIT II LIMIT STATE DESIGN FOR FLEXURE
Analysis and design of one way and two way rectangular slab subjected to uniformly distributed load for various boundary conditions and corner effects – Analysis and design of singly and doubly reinforced rectangular and flanged beams
UNIT III LIMIT STATE DESIGN FOR BOND, ANCHORAGE SHEAR & TORSION
Behaviour of RC members in bond and Anchorage – Design requirements as per current code – Behaviour of RC beams in shear and torsion – Design of RC members for combined bending shear and torsion.
UNIT IV LIMIT STATE DESIGN OF COLUMNS
Types of columns – Braced and unbraced columns – Design of short column for axial, uniaxial and biaxial bending – Design of long columns.
UNIT V LIMIT STATE DESIGN OF FOOTING AND DETAILING
Design of wall footing – Design of axially and eccentrically loaded rectangular footing – Design of combined rectangular footing for two columns only – Standard method of detailing RC beams, slabs and columns – Special requirements of detailing with reference to erection process.
1. Varghese, P.C., “Limit State Design of Reinforced Concrete”, Prentice Hall of India, Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 2002.
2. Krishna Raju, N., “Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures”, CBS Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi,2003.
1. Jain, A.K., “Limit State Design of RC Structures”, Nemchand Publications, Rourkee
2. Sinha, S.N., “Reinforced Concrete Design”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd.,New Delhi.
3. Unnikrishna Pillai, S., Devdas Menon, “Reinforced Concrete Design”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd
COMMUNICATION SKILLS LABORATORY
I. TESTS ON FRESH CONCRETE
1. Slump cone test
2. Flow table
3. Compaction factor
4. Vee bee test.
II. TESTS ON HARDENED CONCRETE
1. Compressive strength – Cube & Cylinder
2. Flexure test
3. Modulus Of Elastics
III. TESTS ON BITUMEN
2. Softening Point
5. Elastic Recovery
6. Storage Stability
IV. TESTS ON AGGREGATES
3. Proportioning of Aggregates
4. Water Absorption
V. TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES
1. Determination of Binder Content
2. Marshall Stability and Flow values
3. Specific G
SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS :
1. Grain size distribution – Sieve analysis
2. Grain size distribution – Hydrometer analysis
3. Specific gravity of soil grains
4. Relative density of sands
5. Atterberg limits test
6. Determination of moisture – Density relationship using standard Proctor test.
7. Permeability determination (constant head and falling head methods)
8. Determination of shear strength parameters.
9. Direct shear test on cohesionless soil
10. Unconfined compression test on cohesive soil
11. Triaxial compression test (demonstration only)
12. One dimensional consolidation test (Demonstration only)
13. Field density test (Core cutter and sand replacement methods)